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Exeter, United Kingdom

The University of Exeter is a public research university located in South West England, United Kingdom. The university was founded and received its Royal Charter in 1955, although its predecessor institutions, the Royal Albert Memorial College and the University College of the South West of England, were established in 1900 and 1922 respectively. In post-nominals, the University of Exeter is abbreviated as Exon. , and is the suffix given to honorary and academic degrees from the university.The university has three campuses: Streatham; St Luke's ; and Tremough in Cornwall. The university is centred in the city of Exeter, Devon, where it is the principal higher education institution. Streatham is the largest campus containing many of the university's administrative buildings, and is regarded as one of the most beautiful in the country. The Tremough campus is maintained in conjunction with Falmouth University under the Combined Universities in Cornwall initiative.The University of Exeter was named The Sunday Times University of the Year in 2013 and was the Times Higher Education University of the Year in 2007. Exeter has maintained a top ten position in the National Student Survey since the survey was launched in 2005. In 2011, it was considered as being one of the top 12 elite universities in the United Kingdom, and has been consistently ranked as one of the top 10 UK universities in recent years.According to the Sunday Times University Guide 2015, Exeter ranks at #7, making it the best university in the South West of England.Exeter University is a member of the Russell Group of leading research-intensive UK universities. The university is also a member of Universities UK, the European University Association, and the Association of Commonwealth Universities and is an accredited institution of the Association of MBAs . Wikipedia.

Jones A.M.,University of Exeter
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Dietary nitrate is growing in popularity as a sports nutrition supplement. This article reviews the evidence base for the potential of inorganic nitrate to enhance sports and exercise performance. Inorganic nitrate is present in numerous foodstuffs and is abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot. Following ingestion, nitrate is converted in the body to nitrite and stored and circulated in the blood. In conditions of low oxygen availability, nitrite can be converted into nitric oxide, which is known to play a number of important roles in vascular and metabolic control. Dietary nitrate supplementation increases plasma nitrite concentration and reduces resting blood pressure. Intriguingly, nitrate supplementation also reduces the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise and can, in some circumstances, enhance exercise tolerance and performance. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these effects are reviewed and practical guidelines for safe and efficacious dietary nitrate supplementation are provided. © The Author(s) 2014.

Devine-Wright P.,University of Exeter
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2013

Two decades ago, an article was published in Global Environmental Change proposing the importance of place attachments, at local and global scales, for understanding human responses to climate change (Feitelson, 1991). Despite concluding that '. studies of individual's attachment to place may provide important inputs for strategies to enhance the prospects for sharing the globe' (p. 406, 1991), the article remains overlooked. This article takes up and extends Feitelson's argument for more systematic research on place attachments and climate change. First, the paper critically reviews interdisciplinary literature on place attachment and the related concept of place identity, drawing on scholarship in human geography, environmental and social psychology. The review identifies a lack of cross-disciplinary dialogue, as well as several limitations to the ways that scalar aspects have been researched. Second, climate change research, encompassing adaptation, mitigation and communication that has incorporated place related attachments and identities is critically reviewed; in particular, emerging research on the role of 'psychological distance' is critiqued. The article concludes with five recommendations for future research: to capture place attachments and identities at global as well as local scales; to integrate qualitative and quantitative methods that capture constructions of place as well as intensity of attachments and identifications; to investigate links between attachments, identities and collective actions, particular 'NIMBY' resistance to adaptation and mitigation strategies; to apply greater precision when investigating spatial frames of risk communication; and to investigate links between global attachments and identities, environmental worldviews and climate change engagement. Finally, the implications of such research for evaluating area-based climate interventions are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ffrench-Constant R.H.,University of Exeter
Genetics | Year: 2013

The past 60 years have seen a revolution in our understanding of the molecular genetics of insecticide resistance. While at first the field was split by arguments about the relative importance of mono- vs. polygenic resistance and field- vs. laboratory-based selection, the application of molecular cloning to insecticide targets and to the metabolic enzymes that degrade insecticides before they reach those targets has brought out an exponential growth in our understanding of the mutations involved. Molecular analysis has confirmed the relative importance of single major genes in target-site resistance and has also revealed some interesting surprises about the multi-gene families, such as cytochrome P450s, involved in metabolic resistance. Identification of the mutations involved in resistance has also led to parallel advances in our understanding of the enzymes and receptors involved, often with implications for the role of these receptors in humans. This Review seeks to provide an historical perspective on the impact of molecular biology on our understanding of resistance and to begin to look forward to the likely impact of rapid advances in both sequencing and genome-wide association analysis. © 2013 by the Genetics Society of America.

Koskella B.,University of Exeter
Current Biology | Year: 2013

It is increasingly apparent that the dynamic microbial communities of long-lived hosts affect their phenotype, including resistance to disease [1-3]. The host microbiota will change over time due to immigration of new species [4, 5], interaction with the host immune system [6, 7], and selection by bacteriophage viruses (phages) [8], but the relative roles of each process are unclear. Previous metagenomic approaches confirm the presence of phages infecting host microbiota [8, 9], and experimental coevolution of bacteria and phage populations in the laboratory has demonstrated rapid reciprocal change over time [10, 11]. The key challenge is to determine whether phages influence host-associated bacterial communities in nature, in the face of other selection pressures. I use a tree-bacteria-phage system to measure reciprocal changes in phage infectivity and bacterial resistance within microbial communities of tree hosts over one season. An experimental time shift shows that bacterial isolates are most resistant to lytic phages from the prior month and least resistant to those from the future month, providing clear evidence for both phage-mediated selection on bacterial communities and bacterial-mediated selection on phage communities in nature. These reciprocal changes suggest that phages indeed play a key role in shaping the microbiota of their eukaryotic hosts. © 2013 The Authors.

Collett M.,University of Exeter
Current Biology | Year: 2012

Animals use information from multiple sources in order to navigate between goals [1]. Ants such as Cataglyphis fortis use an odometer and a sun-based compass to provide input for path integration (PI) [2]. They also use configurations of visual features to learn both goal locations [3-5] and habitual routes to the goals [6-10]. Information is not combined into a unified representation [11-14] but appears to be exploited by separate expert guidance systems [10, 15, 16]. Visual and PI goal memories are acquired rapidly and provide the consistency for route memories to be formed [17, 18]. Do established route memories then suppress the guidance from PI? A series of manipulations putting PI and route memories into varying levels of conflict found that ants follow compromise trajectories. The guidance systems are therefore active together and share the control of behavior. Route memories do not suppress the other guidance systems. A simple model shows that observed patterns of control could arise from a superposition of the output commands from the guidance systems, potentially approximating Bayesian inference [19]. These results help show how an insect's relatively simple decision-making can produce navigation that is reliable and efficient and that also adapts to changing demands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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