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Boraska V.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Boraska V.,University of Split | Day-Williams A.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Franklin C.S.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | And 79 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC. © 2012 Boraska et al. Source

Schuett W.,University of Exete | Dall S.R.X.,University of Exete | Royle N.J.,University of Exete
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2011

Although behavioural plasticity should be an advantage in a varying world, there is increasing evidence for widespread stable individual differences in the behaviour of animals: that is, 'personality'. Here we provide evidence suggesting that sexual selection is an important factor in the evolution of personality in species with biparental care. We carried out a cross-fostering breeding experiment on zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, and found that parental personality traits and the combination of personalities within breeding pairs had positive effects on correlates of (foster) offspring fitness (body mass and condition). Furthermore, these nongenetic parental effects were pervasive and carried over into the next generation. Our results suggest that similarity in behavioural traits of biparental species can have important, long-lasting effects on reproductive success, probably because of reduced sexual conflict over the provision of parental investment. © 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Source

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