Kanseri B.,Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light |
Iskhakov T.,Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light |
Rytikov G.,Moscow State University of Printing Arts |
Chekhova M.,Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light |
And 3 more authors.
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
Photon-number correlation measurements are performed on bright squeezed vacuum states using a standard Bell-test setup, and quantum correlations are observed for conjugate polarization-frequency modes. We further test the entanglement witnesses for these states and demonstrate the violation of the separability criteria, which infers that all of the macroscopic Bell states, containing typically 106 photons per pulse, are polarization entangled. The study also reveals the symmetry of macroscopic Bell states with respect to local polarization transformations. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source
Jha H.,Hokkaido University |
Jha H.,University of Erlangen Nurenberg |
Kikuchi T.,Hokkaido University |
Sakairi M.,Hokkaido University |
Takahashi H.,Hokkaido University
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
The paper demonstrates simple methods for the fabrication of aluminum microstructures on the anodic oxide film of aluminum. The aluminum sheets were first engraved (patterned) either by laser beam or by embossing to form deep grooves on the surface. One side of the sheet was then anodized, blocking the other side by using polymer mask to form the anodic alumina. Because of the lower thickness at the bottom part of the grooves, the part was completely anodized before the complete oxidation of the other parts. Such selectively complete anodizing resulted in the patterns of metallic aluminum on anodic alumina. Using the technique, we fabricated microstructures such as line patterns and a simple wiring circuit-board-like structure on the anodic alumina. The aluminum microstructures fabricated by the techniques were embedded in anodic alumina/aluminum sheet, and this technique is promising for applications in electronic packaging and devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source
Bakiri L.,Development and Disease Group |
Reschke M.O.,Development and Disease Group |
Reschke M.O.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center |
Gefroh H.A.,Development and Disease Group |
And 9 more authors.
Mice lacking c-fos develop osteopetrosis due to a block in osteoclast differentiation. Carboxy-terminal phosphorylation of Fos on serine 374 by ERK1/2 and serine 362 by RSK1/2 regulates Fos stability and transactivation potential in vitro. To assess the physiological relevance of Fos phosphorylation in vivo, serine 362 and/or serine 374 was replaced by alanine (Fos362A, Fos374A and FosAA) or by phospho-mimetic aspartic acid (FosDD). Homozygous mutants were healthy and skeletogenesis was largely unaffected. Fos C-terminal phosphorylation, predominantly on serine 374, was found important for osteoclast differentiation in vitro and affected lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine response in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, skin papilloma development was delayed in FosAA, Fos362A and Rsk2-deficient mice, accelerated in FosDD mice and unaffected in Fos374A mutants. Furthermore, the related Fos protein and putative RSK2 target Fra1 failed to substitute for Fos in papilloma development. This indicates that phosphorylation of serines 362 and 374 exerts context-dependent roles in modulating Fos activity in vivo. Inhibition of Fos C-terminal phosphorylation on serine 362 by targeting RSK2 might be of therapeutic relevance for skin tumours. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source
Treuter S.,Research Unit |
Schuh A.,Research Unit |
Schuh A.,Teaching Hospital of the University of Erlangen Nurenberg |
Honle W.,Musculoskeletal Center Neumarkt |
And 3 more authors.
Purpose: There is relatively little information available about the long-term results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following high tibial osteotomy. The aim of our study was to share our experiences and long-term results of TKA after a previous closing wedge high tibial osteotomy according to Wagner. Methods: In a retrospective study we identified 48 consecutive patients who had undergone TKA after a previous closing wedge high tibial osteotomy according to Wagner with a follow-up of over ten years. The average duration of follow-up after the TKA was 13.3 years (min 10.0, max 15.5). X-rays were taken in two planes before TKA, one week after TKA and at the latest follow-up. Tibio-femoral alignment was measured on weightbearing long-leg anteroposterior radiographs. Radiolucent lines at the latest follow-up were documented. Functional evaluations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively (at the time of latest follow-up). Results: The mean Knee Society function score increased from 63.1 points preoperatively to 90.0 points postoperatively. The mean overall Knee Society score increased from 93.2 points preoperatively to 160.8 points postoperatively. The mean average femoro-tibial angle was corrected from varus 0.8° (varus 14°-valgus 8.0°) preoperatively to valgus 7.6° (valgus 2-9°) at the last follow-up. Conclusions: The closing wedge high tibial osteotomy according to Wagner does not compromise subsequent total knee replacement and leads to good clinical and radiological results. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source
Sierra S.,University of Cologne |
Lubke N.,University of Cologne |
Walter H.,University of Erlangen Nurenberg |
Schulter E.,University of Cologne |
And 6 more authors.
Medical Microbiology and Immunology
The SnoB study analysed the variability of the integrase (IN) gene of non-B viruses from treatment-naïve patients to determine whether non-B subtypes carry natural resistance mutations to raltegravir (RAL). Plasma viral RNA from 427 patients was gained, and IN sequences were subtyped and screened for subtype-speciWc highly-variable residues. Seven viruses of diVerent subtypes were phenotypically tested for RAL susceptibility; 359/427 samples could be sequenced. One hundred and seventy samples (47%) were classiWed as non-B subtypes. No primary RAL resistance-associated mutations (RRAMs) were detected. Certain secondary mutations were found, mostly related to speciWc non-B subtypes. L74 M was signiWcantly more prevalent in subtype 02°AG, T97A in A and 06°cpx, V151I in 06°cpx, and G163R in 12°BF. Various additional mutations were also detected and could be associated with the subtype too. While K156 N and S230 N were correlated with B subtype, V72I, L74I, T112I, T125A, V201I and T206S were more frequent in certain non-B subtypes. The resistance factors (RF) of 7 viral strains of diVerent subtypes ranged from 1.0 to 1.9. No primary or secondary but subtype-associated additional RRAMs were present. No correlation between RF and additional RRAMs was found. The prevalence of RRAMs was higher in non-B samples. However, the RFs for the analysed non-B subtypes showed lower values to those reported relevant to clinical failure. As the role of baseline secondary and additional mutations on RAL therapy failure is actually not known, baseline IN screening is necessary. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source