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Leen E.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Sorbring E.,University West | Mawer M.,Coventry University | Holdsworth E.,Coventry University | And 2 more authors.
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2013

Adolescent dating violence is a pressing international issue: yet, there have been few attempts to collate the international evidence regarding this phenomenon. This article reviews contemporary evidence from Europe and North America on prevalence, dynamic risk factors, and the efficacy of intervention programs for adolescent dating violence. Prevalence findings suggest that victimization rates are comparable across Europe and North America. Although individual studies report differing prevalences, the overall hierarchy of violence types - in which psychological/emotional violence is most and sexual violence least prevalent - is consistent across almost all investigations. Four dynamic risk factors for perpetration are identified: peer influence, substance use, psychological adjustment and competencies, and attitudes towards violence. Peer influences and attitudes towards violence appear to be the most extensively evidenced factors in the literature. Nine existing intervention programs are identified, all located within North America. Intervention results are mixed, with some evaluations reporting significant long-term benefits while others report positive intervention effects dissipate throughout follow-up. Tentative analysis suggests that programs focused on behavioral change may elicit sustainable effects more readily. However, this is difficult to ascertain with no data on program repetitions and variations across intervention pedagogy and sample. Concerns with existing research and interventions and possible future directions are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Shan B.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | Gerez J.,University of Buenos Aires | Haedo M.,University of Buenos Aires | Fuertes M.,University of Buenos Aires | And 5 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2012

The recently cloned small RWD-domain containing protein RSUME was shown to increase protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). The latter is the oxygen-regulated subunit of HIF-1, the most important transcription factor of the cellular adaptive processes to hypoxic conditions. It is also a major regulator of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), which is critically involved in the complex process of tumour neovascularisation. In this study, the expression and role of RSUME in pituitary tumours was studied. We found that RSUME mRNA was up-regulated in pituitary adenomas and significantly correlated with HIF-1α mRNA levels. Hypoxia (1% O 2) or treatment with hypoxia-mimicking CoCl 2 enhanced RSUME and HIF-1α expression, induced translocation of HIF-1α to the nuclei and stimulated VEGF-A production both in pituitary tumour cell lines and primary human pituitary adenoma cell cultures. When RSUME expression was specifically down-regulated by siRNA, the CoCl 2-induced increase VEGF-A secretion was strongly reduced which was shown to be a consequence of the RSUME knockdown-associated reduction of HIF-1α synthesis. Thus, RSUME plays an important role in initiating pituitary tumour neovascularisation through regulating HIF-1α levels and subsequent VEGF-A production and may therefore be critically involved in pituitary adenoma progression. © 2012 Society for Endocrinology Printed in Great Britain.


Essig M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Anzalone N.,Scientific Institute Hs Raffaele | Combs S.E.,University of Heidelberg | Dorfler A.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Neuroradiology | Year: 2012

MR imaging is the preferred technique for the diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring of patients with neoplastic CNS lesions. Conventional MR imaging, with gadolinium-based contrast enhancement, is increasingly combined with advanced, functional MR imaging techniques to offer morphologic, metabolic, and physiologic information. This article provides updated recommendations to neuroradiologists, neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, and radiation oncologists on the practical applications of MR imaging of neoplastic CNS lesions in adults, with particular focus on gliomas, based on a review of the clinical trial evidence and personal experiences shared at a recent international meeting of experts in neuroradiology, neuro-oncology, neurosurgery, and radio-oncology.


Su Z.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Wang L.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Grigorescu S.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Lee K.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

We grow vertically aligned single crystalline Ta2O5 nanorod arrays that can be converted to Ta3N5 nanorod arrays by nitridation. Combined with cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi) as a co-catalyst, such Ta3N5 nanorod photoanodes can yield photocurrent densities of ∼3.6 mA cm-2 at 1.23 VRHE and ∼8.2 mA cm-2 at 1.59 VRHE under AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2) irradiation. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Wang L.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Lee C.-Y.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Mazare A.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Lee K.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | And 4 more authors.
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2014

The effect of flame annealing on the water-splitting properties of Sn decorated hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoflakes has been investigated. It is shown that flame annealing can yield a considerable enhancement in the maximum photocurrent under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm-2) conditions compared to classic furnace annealing treatments. Optimizing the annealing time (10 s at 1000°C) leads to a photocurrent of 1.1 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V (vs. RHE) with a maximum value 1.6 mA cm-2 at 1.6 V (vs. RHE) in 1 M KOH. The improvement in photocurrent can be attributed to the fast direct heating that maintains the nanoscale morphology, leads to optimized Sn decoration, and minimizes detrimental substrate effects. Going up in flames: The effect of flame annealing on the water-splitting properties of Sn decorated hematite nanoflakes was investigated (see figure). Flame annealing can yield a considerable enhancement in the maximum photocurrent under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm-2) conditions compared to classic furnace annealing. This is attributed to the fast direct heating that maintains the nanoscale morphology, leads to optimized Sn decoration, and minimizes detrimental substrate effects (AM=air mass). Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wang L.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Dionigi F.,TU Berlin | Nguyen N.T.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Kirchgeorg R.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | And 5 more authors.
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2015

Ta3N5 nanostructures are widely explored as anodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Although the material shows excellent semiconductive properties for this purpose, the key challenge is its severe photocorrosion when used in typical aqueous environments. In the present work we introduce a NiFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) cocatalyst that dramatically reduces photocorrosion effects. To fabricate the Ta3N5 electrode, we use through-template anodization of Ta and obtain oxide nanorod arrays that then are converted to Ta3N5 by high temperature nitridation. After modification with our cocatalyst system, we obtained solar photocurrents of 6.3 mA cm-2 at 1.23 VRHE in 1 M KOH, and an electrode maintains about 80% of the initial activity for extended irradiation times. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Schnabel R.,Robert Bosch GmbH | Steinbuch D.,Robert Bosch GmbH | Weigel R.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg
European Microwave Week 2013, EuMW 2013 - Conference Proceedings; EuRAD 2013: 10th European Radar Conference | Year: 2013

More and more applications and a steadily increasing market penetration are showing the success of radar based driver assistance systems. While in recent years most of those systems were focussing on the advance of the drivers' comfort, today many safety applications are offered. As those systems can directly influence the vehicle dynamics, functional safety in terms of new normative requirements, such as the ISO 26262 is gaining more interest. Therefore, in this paper a built-in self-test is presented which is able to monitor multiple receiver paths by measuring the amplitude and phase imbalance among all channels. Four different types of coupling elements to feed a test signal into receiver paths are investigated and evaluated in terms of their precision. Furthermore, a method for a baseband evaluation is proposed. © 2013 EMA.


Wang L.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Wang L.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Nguyen N.T.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Schmuki P.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Schmuki P.,King Abdulaziz University
ChemSusChem | Year: 2016

The surface modification of semiconductor photoelectrodes with passivation overlayers has attracted great attention as an effective strategy to improve the charge separation and charge transfer processes across the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. In this work, a thin Fe2TiO5 layer was decorated on nanostructured hematite nanoflake and nanocoral photoanodes (by thermal oxidation of iron foils) by a facile water-based solution method. Photoelectrochemical measurements show that the Fe2O3/Fe2TiO5 heterostructure exhibits an obvious enhancement in photoelectrochemical water oxidation performance compared to the pristine hematite. For example, at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (VRHE) in 1 m KOH under AM 1.5 G (100 mW cm−2) illumination, a 4–8× increase in the water oxidation photocurrent is achieved for Fe2O3/Fe2TiO5, and a considerable cathodic shift of the onset potential up to 0.53–0.62 VRHE is obtained. Moreover, the performance of the Fe2O3/Fe2TiO5 heterostructure can be further improved by decoration with a SnOx layer. The enhancement in photocurrent can be attributed to the synergistic effect of Fe2TiO5/SnOx overlayers passivating surface states, and thus reducing surface electron–hole recombination. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


Wang L.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Mazare A.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Hwang I.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Schmuki P.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg | Schmuki P.,King Abdulaziz University
Electrochemistry Communications | Year: 2016

In this work we introduce the use of TiN/Ti2N layers as a back contact for Ta3N5 membranes of lifted-off anodic Ta3N5 nanotubular layers. In photoelectrochemical H2 generation experiments under simulated AM 1.5G light, a shift in the onset potential of anodic photocurrents to lower potentials is observed, as well as a higher magnitude of the photocurrents compared to a conventional Ta3N5 nanotubular layer (Ta3N5/Ta, ~ 0.5 VRHE). We ascribe this beneficial effect to the improved conductive properties of the TiNx-based back contact layer that enables a facilitated electron transport from the tantalum nitride based materials to the conductive substrate. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of Erlangen Nuremburg
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) | Year: 2016

Subnitrides strongly enhance the efficiency of Ta3 N5 -nanotube photoanodes in photochemical water splitting. The fabrication of Ta3 N5 nanotube layers with a controlled subnitride layer at the interface to the back contact is demonstrated. The insertion of this subnitride layer has a strong influence on the electron transfer to the back contact, and as a result leads to a drastic shift in photocurrent onset potential and a considerable enhancement of photocurrent conversion efficiency.

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