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Goecke T.W.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Voigt F.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Faschingbauer F.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Spangler G.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2012

Purpose: This prospective study investigated associations between prenatal attachment of adult first-time mothers to the unborn child, perinatal factors and levels of depression before and up to 18 months after delivery. Method: Primiparas (N = 161) without specific risk factors answered the following questionnaires during the last term of pregnancy (t1): Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS), questionnaire on the schema of the unborn child, and a questionnaire about the pregnancy. Perinatal data were taken from the patients' files. The EPDS was answered 3 weeks (t2, N = 157), 6 months (t3, N = 159), and 18 months (t4, N = 132) postpartum. Results: During pregnancy, 16.9 % of the women indicated mild depressive symptoms, and 7.5 %, medium to severe symptoms of depression. Mild symptoms of depression were found in 25.5 % at t2, 10.1 % at t3, and 12.2 % at t4; medium to severe symptoms were reported by 7.6, 1.9 and 5.6 %, respectively. Women with low control during delivery (emergency Caesarean) showed a tendency for higher levels (p = 0.067) of depression at t3 than women with elective Caesarean did. The quality of prenatal attachment to the unborn child correlated negatively with depressive symptoms at t1-t4. Conclusions: The closer the prenatal attachment of a mother to her unborn child, the less symptoms of depression she reports during the last term of pregnancy and postpartum. Therefore, promoting good mother-child attachment during pregnancy might influence the level of postpartum depression. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Ceron-Nicolat B.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg | Fey T.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg | Greil P.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg
Advanced Engineering Materials | Year: 2010

Silicon carbide-based cellular ceramics characterized by a hierarchical pore structure were processed. An open-cellular PU foam template with a mean cell density of 10 pores per inch (ppi), equivalent to a cell diameter of 4mm and a strut thickness of 250μm, was coated with a primary SiC slurry. Cross-linking of a polysiloxane binder at 190h resulted in a SiC filled reticulated thermoset foam (first generation). Subsequently, this matrix foam was infiltrated with a second slurry of slightly different polysiloxane composition which upon heating to 290°C caused bubble nucleation and formation of a second generation foam filling the cell space in the matrix foam skeleton. After pyrolysis at 1000°C a SiC/Si-O-C reaction bonded composite foam with a hierarchical cell structure and a fractional density of 0.31 was obtained. SEM and X-ray μ-CT analyses confirm both generations of matrix as well as infiltrated foam to be open cellular but with a pronounced difference in cell size (matrix foam cell size 2.5mm versus infiltrated foam cell size 0.29mm). While the matrix foam skeleton provides control of macroscopic shape as well as density distribution in the component, single- or multistep foam infiltration may offer a high potential for improving the mechanical properties of hierarchical cellular materials. Thus, hierarchical structure formation offers a high potential to fabricate low density cellular ceramics which might be of interest for lightweight design of novel engineering materials. Silicon carbide-based cellular ceramics characterized by a hierarchical pore structure were processed. An open-cellular PU foam template with a mean cell density of 10 pores per inch (ppi), equivalent to a cell diameter of 4mm and a strut thickness of 250 μm, was coated with a primary SiC slurry. Cross-linking of a polysiloxane binder at 190h resulted in a SiC filled reticulated thermoset foam (first generation). © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Struffert T.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg | Deuerling-Zheng Y.,Siemens AG | Engelhorn T.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg | Kloska S.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Neuroradiology | Year: 2013

Background: Temporary balloon test occlusion (BTO) might be performed prior to procedures in which occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) might be necessary. We tested the hypothesis that parametric color coding (PCC) of angiographic series (digital subtraction angiography (DSA)) along with the assessment of cerebral blood volume (CBV) in the angiography suite would simplify and enhance the identification of candidates who are most likely to tolerate occlusion. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients underwent angiographic series (DSA) and perfusion imaging before and during BTO. Pre- and postocclusion DSA acquisitions were evaluated for venous delay by conventional methods ("eye balling") and by PCC measurements. Comparison of CBV values between the left and right hemisphere in 6 defined regions was performed. Results: Values of venous delay by eye balling and PCC showed a high correlation (r = 0.87, p < 0.01). Bland-Altman plot indicated slightly lower values (- 0.05 s) by the PCC method. One of the 15 patients developed an asymmetrical CBV map with an increase in CBV of more than one standard deviation in 3 of the 6 regions of interest (ROIs). Acquisition of angiographic series and perfusion imaging did not prolong the test occlusion time. Conclusion: PCC and CBV mapping are feasible during BTO. The use of PCC seems to simplify the ability to measure changes in venous filling delay. Perfusion imaging may show an increase in CBV in patients reaching the limits of cerebral autoregulation. These patients may be at risk for delayed infarction, even though they seem to tolerate temporary occlusion, and could be unsuitable candidates for permanent ICA occlusion. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Bhattacharya A.,Jadavpur University | Banerjee D.K.,Jadavpur University | Mamaikin D.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg | Datta A.,Jadavpur University | Wensing M.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2015

The effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the laminar burning velocity of a commercial gasoline fuel-air mixture have been studied both numerically as well as experimentally at atmospheric pressure. The experiments have been performed using the heat flux burner method. For numerical simulation, a binary mixture of 95% iso-octane and 5% n-heptane (PRF95) is assumed to be the surrogate for the real world gasoline fuel. The numerical simulations have been carried out using a skeletal mechanism comprising of 171 species and 861 reactions for primary reference fuels. A correlation of laminar burning velocity of the commercial fuel is suggested based on experimental data for different EGR dilutions. The results show that the reduction in the laminar burning velocity caused by the EGR dilution can be recovered by the increase in the unburnt gas temperature. However, the rise in the unburnt gas temperature results in a trivial rise in the adiabatic flame temperature. The increase in the laminar burning velocity due to elevated unburnt gas temperature is principally attributed to the increase in thermal diffusivity of the fuel-air mixture, while the reaction rate has only a minor influence. The presence of CO2 in the EGR influences the chemistry of the flame along with diluting it. Under stoichiometric conditions, the chemical and dilution effects toward the reduction in laminar burning velocity are almost equal. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Weih M.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg | Degirmenci U.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg | Kreil S.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg | Lewczuk P.,University of Erlangen Nuermberg | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2010

SPECT allows registration of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) which is altered in a characteristic temporoparietal pattern in Alzheimer's Dementia. Numerous studies have shown the diagnostic value of reduced cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes using perfusion SPECT and FDG-PEPT in AD diagnosis as well as in differential diagnosis against frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies and vascular disease. Recently more pathophysiology-based biomarkers in CSF and Amyloid-PET tracers have been developed that probably have a higher diagnostic accuracy than the more indirect rCBF changes seen in perfusion SPECT. In the paper review, we describe recent advances in AD biomarkers as well as improvements in the SPECT technique. Copyright © 2010 Markus Weih et al.

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