Mullick A.K.,University of Engineering and Technology
Indian Concrete Journal | Year: 2012
Conservation of natural resources, reduction of greenhouse gases and environmental pollution, and utilization of waste materials are among the basic tenets of sustainable development. In case of concrete construction, these objectives are fulfilled by appropriate choice of binder systems and aggregate, which are elaborated in the paper. Particular attention is drawn to the use of ternary cement blends containing industrial wastes, bottom ash as fine aggregate and recycled aggregate in structural grade concrete. Examples of current construction practice in India and research initiatives are highlighted.
Edwards R.M.,Loughborough University |
Khattak M.I.,University of Engineering and Technology
2010 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference, LAPC 2010 | Year: 2010
As of September 2010 trends suggested that disruptive technologies were likely to include wireless communications devices integrated into clothing. A new set of antennas is required for Body-centric applications. Such antennas will form a key component in Body area networks (BANs) in which transmitters and receivers are co-located on the body, implanted under the skin, directly attached to the skin or integrated into clothing. Notable drivers are multimedia, medical and military applications. These drivers combined with the geo-sensitive facilitators of global positioning system (GPS), Galileo global navigation satellite system (GNSS), cellular, unlicensed 802.11x and short range technologies such as Bluetooth and UWB have made Body-centric antennas fundamental in achieving the desired low power signal budgets required. ©2010 IEEE.
Noor F.,University of Engineering and Technology |
Wen D.,University of Leeds
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids | Year: 2015
Aluminium-based alloys have wide applications but little is known about the thermal-chemical kinetics of nanoalloys. This work investigated the thermal oxidation of Zn and Al nanoalloys (nAlZn) with a BET equivalent diameter of 141 nm through the simultaneous TGA/DSC method. The thermal analysis was combined with elemental, morphology and crystalline structure analysis to elucidate the reaction mechanisms. It was found that the complete oxidation of nAlZn in air can be characterised by a three-stage process, including two endothermic and three exothermic reactions. With the help of ex-situ XRD, different reaction pathways were proposed for different stages, forming the end products of ZnO and ZnAl2O4. The reactivity comparison between Al and nAlZn suggested that different criteria should be used for different applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.All rights reserved.
Al-Gamal S.A.,University of Engineering and Technology
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2011
A comprehensive understanding of the groundwater dynamics of a transboundary aquifer system is highly needed for any successful transboundary cooperation policy. Moreover, an analysis of the NWSAS can be of particular interest for policy makers and researchers. This paper aims to reveals and to assess the renewability of North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) as one of the major transboundary multi-layered aquifer system, in North Africa, shared by Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya and is often referred to as the Système Aquifère du Sahara Septentrional (SASS). The paper is primarily intended for exploring whether it receives a considerable fraction of modern water as recharge or it is at risk of being depleted and excessively pumped, where the main challenge for NWSAS, is that it should be abstracted rationally for equitable use. Environmental isotopes data of δ18O, δ2H, 3H, 14C as well as characteristics of d-excess are used to illustrate whether NSWAS is renewable or non-renewable resource. Geochemical, hydrological and statistical evidences supporting the renewability of NWSAS are provided through pairs of cross-plots. The study has clearly indicated that NWSAS is receiving a considerable fraction of modern water as recharge to the aquifer because of the following reasons: Firstly, the moderately depleted delta values of δ18O and δ2H of water from Sahara Atlas in Algeria and the Dahar and the Dj. Nefoussa in Tunisia and Libya with δ18O content (-6.0‰ to -5.0‰) compared with that of palaeowater (-7.0‰ to -9.0‰) indicate an appreciable fraction of modern water recharging NWSAS. This appreciable fraction of modern water should be attributed to originate from the present-day precipitation (-6.5‰). Secondly, the presence of significant amount of 14C>2% and 3H>5 TU, frequently found in data should be attributed to a mixing with shallow and modern water, where old water practically contains no 14C. The foregoing facts are in good agreement with the results of conventional hydrologic approach. This would contradict the assumption that the NWSAS is non-renewable water resource. In this context, the NWSAS is being located in one of the driest regions on the planet; these huge resources have been recognized to be of great importance to the socio-economic development of its riparian countries. So the present paper addresses the necessity of identifying specific cooperation problems which evolve out of these hydro geological attributes and prevalent use patterns. Accordingly, the description of NWSAS as non-renewable, devoid of any meaningful recharge, a rather stagnant water body, disconnected from any surface water body in addition to its classification as " non-renewable" would therefore be misleading and represents one of the most obvious inaccuracy as well. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Nguyen C.H.,Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology |
Tran T.S.,Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology |
Pham D.P.,University of Engineering and Technology
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2014
Computing with words and fuzzy linguistic rule based systems play important roles as they can find various significant applications based on simulating human capability. In fuzzy set approaches, words are mapped to fuzzy sets, on which work operations of the developed methodologies. The interpretability of the methodologies depends on how well word semantics is represented by fuzzy sets, which in practice are designed based on human-user's intuition. In these approaches there is no formal linkage of fuzzy sets with the inherent semantics of words to ensure the interpretability of fuzzy sets and, hence, fuzzy rules. Hedge algebras, as models of linguistic domains of variables, provide a formalism to generate triangular fuzzy sets of terms from their own semantics. This permits for the first time to design genetically terms along with their integrated triangular fuzzy sets and to construct effective fuzzy rule based classifiers. To answer the question if trapezoidal fuzzy sets can be used instead of triangular fuzzy sets in the above design method, in this study we introduce and develop the so-called enlarged hedge algebras, in which the concept of semantics core of words can be modeled. We show that these algebras provide a formal mechanism to design optimal words integrated with their trapezoidal fuzzy sets as well as fuzzy linguistic rule based classifiers to solve classification problems. Two case studies are examined to show the usefulness of the proposed algebras. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.