University of Energy and Natural Resources
Sunyani, Ghana

The University Of Energy And Natural Resources is a public university in Sunyani, Ghana. The university was established in 2012 and had its start up infrastructure from the Sunyani campus of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.The university was formerly the Faculty of Forest Resource Technology of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology . It was handed over to the management of UENR on June 7, 2012. Wikipedia.

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Mansourian S.,University of Geneva | Stanturf J.A.,Center for Forest Disturbance Science | Derkyi M.A.A.,University of Energy and Natural Resources | Engel V.L.,São Paulo State University
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2017

Restoring forest landscapes is critical in the face of continued global forest loss and degradation. In this article, we explore some challenges underlying the delivery of global commitments to restore forest landscapes. We propose that three fundamental questions need to be resolved upfront for the effective implementation of Forest Landscape Restoration and related commitments: (1) What social and ecological landscape objectives are being sought through Forest Landscape Restoration? (2) How are specific areas being selected for restoration? (3) How is success measured when restoring forest landscapes? We believe that there is an urgent need to adequately answer these questions to successfully implement political commitments for large-scale forest restoration. © 2017 Society for Ecological Restoration

Sakah M.,TU Darmstadt | Diawuo F.A.,University of Lisbon | Diawuo F.A.,University of Energy and Natural Resources | Katzenbach R.,TU Darmstadt | Gyamfi S.,University of Energy and Natural Resources
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2017

Ghana has been facing perennial power rationing over the years due to fuel supply challenges. The country's energy system is likely to suffer additional strain from rising energy demand fueled by population growth, rapid urbanization and economic development. Fortunately, there are enormous renewable energy resources which can provide sustainable electrification as backbone to socioeconomic development while curbing global warming. Ghana's energy strategy targets 100% access to electricity and 10% share of sustainable power in national generation mix by 2020. Despite the existence of numerous policies and a “Renewable Energy Act”, current contribution of non-conventional renewable energy to electricity generation is less than 1%. The right mix of policies to address the unique domestic conditions and achieve its specific development goals remains insufficient. This study reviews the regulatory framework, financing incentives and other provisions of Ghana´s Renewable Energy Act. It critically examines the policy´s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and treats based on comparative analysis and lessons drawn from failed and successful implementation of similar policies around the world. The study also assesses the impact of policy on project development. It was found that the performance of Ghana´s renewable energy policy on grid connected electricity has been poor compared to its target. The fundamental reasons for this unsatisfactory performance may be attributed to partial implementation of policies, lack of market driven support schemes, lack of pricing policy framework, weak grid network, limited access to funds and inconsistencies in renewable energy development strategies. This study proposes the following countermeasures; I.Ghana should comprehensively harmonize renewable energy regulatory and fiscal policies with domestic electricity pricing regime, driven support schemes should be prioritized for cost effectiveness and minimum governmental influence. These reforms can help eliminate some of the major barriers to sustainable electrification in Ghana while the lessons provide a learning curve for other African countries. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Osei F.B.,University of Energy and Natural Resources | Osei F.B.,University of Twente | Stein A.,University of Twente
BMC Public Health | Year: 2017

Background: Diarrhea is a public health menace, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the biological and anthropogenic characteristics is abundant. However, little is known about its spatial patterns especially in developing countries like Ghana. This study aims to map and explore the spatial variation and hot-spots of district level diarrhea incidences in Ghana. Methods: Data on district level incidences of diarrhea from 2010 to 2014 were compiled together with population data. We mapped the relative risks using empirical Bayesian smoothing. The spatial scan statistics was used to detect and map spatial and space-Time clusters. Logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between space-Time clustering and urbanization strata, i.e. rural, peri-urban, and urban districts. Results: We observed substantial variation in the spatial distribution of the relative risk. There was evidence of significant spatial clusters with most of the excess incidences being long-Term with only a few being emerging clusters. Space-Time clustering was found to be more likely to occur in peri-urban districts than in rural and urban districts. Conclusion: This study has revealed that the excess incidences of diarrhea is spatially clustered with peri-urban districts showing the greatest risk of space-Time clustering. More attention should therefore be paid to diarrhea in peri-urban districts. These findings also prompt public health officials to integrate disease mapping and cluster analyses in developing location specific interventions for reducing diarrhea. © 2017 The Author(s).

Deans H.,Independent researcher | Ros-Tonen M.A.F.,University of Amsterdam | Derkyi M.,University of Energy and Natural Resources
Environmental Management | Year: 2017

Value chain analyses have focused mainly on collaboration between chain actors, often neglecting collaboration “beyond the chain” with non-chain actors to tackle food security, poverty and sustainability issues in the landscapes in which these value chains are embedded. Comparing conventional and advanced value chain collaborations involving small-scale cocoa farmers in Ghana, this paper analyzes the merits of a more integrated approach toward value chain collaboration. It particularly asks whether advanced value chain collaboration targeting cocoa-producing areas potentially offers an entry point for implementing a landscape approach. The findings detail current chain actors and institutions and show how advanced value chain collaboration has a greater positive impact than conventional value chain collaboration on farmers’ social, human and natural capital. The paper concludes that the integrated approach, focus on learning, and stable relationships with small-scale farmers inherent in advanced value chain collaboration makes it both more sustainable and effective at the local level than conventional approaches. However, its scope and the actors’ jurisdictional powers and self-organization are too limited to be the sole tool in negotiating land use and trade-offs at the landscape level. To evolve as such would require certification beyond the farm level, partnering with other landscape stakeholders, and brokering by bridging organizations. © 2017 The Author(s)

Cobbinah P.B.,Charles Sturt University | Anane G.K.,University of Energy and Natural Resources
Climate and Development | Year: 2016

In Ghana, the agricultural sector is climate-dependent and susceptible to threatening impacts of climate change, yet, little is known about climate change adaptation in rural farming communities. This article examines the effects of, and local adaptation response to, climate change in rural farming communities in the Jaman North District of Ghana. Using meteorological data, changes in rainfall and temperature over the past 30 years were analyzed. In addition, social research methods were used to analyse interviews and household survey data on climate change impacts on, and adaption responses of rural communities. Results showed that the changing weather patterns, in the form of erratic rainfall and increasing temperatures, have become an additional burden to rural farming communities who are already faced with limited level of mechanization. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

News Article | January 5, 2016

Julian Bennett, ANUC's space science director, and a team member inspect the newly installed climate-measuring instrument from NASA. Image: Iain Sutherland Plantain sellers, fruit vendors and market stalls line the road as taxis and local tro tro buses dart through the busy high street. The lively centre of Koforidua, hemmed in by lush green mountains, appears to be the typical Ghanaian city. A short drive outside town, atop the roof of the All Nations University College (ANUC), history is in the making. Members of Ghana’s first university space science laboratory, joined by a NASA engineer, are busily installing meteorological instruments. The installation will provide the university with detailed climate readings from Koforidua and its surroundings and feed back to NASA’s global climate database in the US. The project is the latest achievement for the university which, along with the government and a string of other academic institutions, is helping spearhead Ghana’s fledgling space science industry. While often met with scepticism and criticism about spending, the quest to create space science programs in Ghana and across Africa is taking off. Those involved believe the benefits can be felt across society, with space satellites helping transform everything from agriculture practices to quashing illegal mining, while promoting space education could help encourage Ghana’s new generation of engineers and academics. "[Space science] can benefit Ghana as a whole,” said Julian Bennett, the university’s space science director. “It is an opportunity for us in Ghana, but it is not easy doing these things from here without the facilities available.” ANUC students work with their CanSat ahead of its 2013 launch. Image: AP/Christian Thompson ANUC took its first tentative steps into space science in 2013 by launching a CanSat, a basic can-sized device fitted with antennas and a camera that hovers above ground tethered to a helium balloon and sends images back to ground. The university has since opened an amateur ground station to study satellites in orbit, made contact with the international space station, installed UHF and VHF antennas, and has plans to launch a CubeSat by 2018, Bennett explained. “People have this view that space science means launching a rocket or observing faraway galaxies, but in reality a lot of it is actually relating to earth and observations,” NASA instrument engineer Jon Rodriguez added. Nestled on the top floor in between university classrooms and engineering laboratories, the epicentre of ANUC’s space initiative is a small, unassuming room. Multiple monitors on one side make up its ground station while a prototype of its CubeSat and a white board of ideas draw your attention at the other. "I remember the very first day we heard a voice," said Bennett. "We were here one evening just tracking satellites… and we turned it on and we could hear a voice. [It's] not very common in our region to hear a live voice signal. We were very excited and jumping around the place." This excitement for space science was spurred by Ghana’s government, which in 2011 launched the Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute (GSSTI). It follows in the path of several other African nations in promoting space science and looking to the final frontier to help address on-the-ground issues and local problems. A campus building at ANUC in Koforidua which houses the university's space science initiatives. Image: Iain Sutherland Approaching the gates of Ghana’s Atomic Energy Commission in Accra, where two guards stand in front, I enter and pass down the long driveway and a cluster of concrete buildings hidden from the roadside come into view. Individuals in white coats and suits walk around the well-kept lawns as staff from the GSSTI drive me around the complex. Here, development work for the government program is underway, but is kept under wraps during my visit. GSSTI's conversion of a 32-metre satellite antenna into a telescope as part of its radio astronomy project is off limits, although GSSTI said it should be completed in June. In addition to unveiling a telescope and astronomy centre in collaboration with the South African government, GSSTI has designs to send its first satellite to space by 2020. The government allocated GHC$38.5 million (US$10 million) to nuclear and space science technology in 2015 as it aims to further space education and benefit from its own satellite imagery. A short drive outside the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission is the University of Ghana’s graduate school where many GSSTI staff are based, including Eric Aggrey, a project manager at the institute. “[People] always see space science as just sending man to the Moon,” he explained. “I am very much keen about human development... most of the time our teaching ends on the blackboard and now we can have people practising their skills. [That] will help us a lot." A recently installed antenna at the space science department at the All Nations University College (ANUC) in Korofidua, Ghana. Image: Iain Sutherland The government has 20 staff at its institute, while the nearby University of Ghana has started courses in astronomy, as does the Kwame Nkrumah University in Kumasi. ANUC’s initiative currently employs six people, and the school has aspirations to start academic courses in astronomy and space science. Outreach programs on space education are also happening at primary schools across the country. But the value of the nascent Ghanaian space program isn't just for education. At present, the nation is reliant on satellite images from foreign companies, but by having its own independent satellites, Aggrey and others believe significant benefits can be felt across society. “God willing, we will also go into launching our own satellite. In the next couple of years we are going to be able to clearly define our needs and design a satellite to fill our needs,” Aggrey said. "If we have our own or a regional satellite then we will have a common agenda if it is for agriculture, environmental degradation, storms... then we can use them to address local problems," said Godfred Frempong, chief scientist at the country’s Science and Technology Policy Research Institute (STEPRI). “[In] Ghana, for example, illegal mining is destroying our environment," Frempong continued. "So if we have a satellite [in orbit] we can use it to pinpoint where activity is going on. That would perhaps not be activity of interest to the US, but it is of interest to us.” Illegal gold mining is a major problem for the West African nation, with hundreds of artisanal mines operating across the country. Although there is a dedicated government taskforce, the prospect of having a tailored satellite to monitor the landscape may prove a significant tool in the fight. The GSSTI’s Aggrey says satellite imaging and climate data could also help better manage natural disasters. He believes it could help prevent tragedies like that which occurred in June this year, when at least 25 people were killed in floods across the capital Accra. Climatological data can also make an impact in agriculture, and the University of Natural Resources and Energy in Ghana’s central region is another institution looking to “tap into” space and offer solutions to the country’s many farmers. The university started its space science initiative in 2012, and has set up a ground station to collect meteorological and weather information. It's scheduled to launch its inaugural satellite in September 2016. “[The satellite] will be for improving weather [forecasting]," explained Amos Kabo-Bah, acting head of UENR's Earth Observation Innovation Centre. "In Africa [forecasting is] a key problem because data sources are not very good. We will be contributing towards the improvement of weather prediction and supporting the farmers and agriculture.” With almost half of the population employed in agriculture, improving climatological data to better serve the country’s farmers could have wide-reaching benefits. “You can show where we have water and not, the type of crops, where certain crops grow well and it can even detect pollution in the rivers,” GSSTI’s Aggrey added. “We can design a satellite specifically for Ghana.” The ground station at the University of Energy and Natural Resources (UENR) in Sunyani, Ghana. Image courtesy UENR The centre, funded through central grants at a cost of GHC$1.5 million (US$390,000), has partnered with the government’s forestry, disaster management and fire services to harness satellite data. “We have intentions of developing the data we receive into what we call wildfire indices,” Kabo-Bah said. “We want to be able to tell in West Africa how wildfires occur and we should be able to predict them and send them to all agencies via mobiles who need the information” Still, one of the biggest challenges for Ghana's space industry remains addressing criticism that it's irresponsible to spend government funds on space initiatives in a country where even amid great urban development, poverty still affects 20 percent of the population, a nationwide electricity crisis continues, and corruption is rampant. “One of the biggest challenges is getting the average Ghanaian excited about what we are doing,” Bennett explained. “We are coming from a side of the world where it is a challenge getting money to buy food and clothes," Bennett added. "So why should we spend so much money which could have been used to feed so many people just to build a satellites to taking pictures. I don’t think the benefits have sunk in yet.” Nearby Nigeria is already benefiting from its own satellites. Its Space Research and Development Agency launched the NigeriaSat-1 in 2003 and now operates several satellites, with imaging data used to monitor oil activity in the Niger Delta, among other focuses. And others on the continent are following suit. Ethiopia unveiled a US$3 million space observatory in June, Kenya launched a space program in 2012, and Angola is in the process of building a satellite in partnership with a Russian consortium. It remains to be seen how far Ghana’s fledgling space science industry will go, but the prospects look bright as its set of space pioneers continue to develop the country’s unlikely forays into space science. “It is not that we can compete with NASA, but we will build the infrastructure to tap into the knowledge we have here in Ghana,” STEPRI director Frempong concluded. “The frontier of science is unlimited.”

Gyamfi S.,University of Energy and Natural Resources | Modjinou M.,University of Energy and Natural Resources | Djordjevic S.,Murdoch University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

For decades, Ghana's economy has been fuelled by abundant inexpensive hydropower. As a developing economy, Ghana's electricity demand has long been relatively low, though rising in recent times due to increasing economic growth, urbanization and industrial activities. However, the rapid demand growth, as well as periodic hydrological shocks, leaves the country increasingly reliant on expensive oil and gas-based generation power plants, with a resultant drain on the national economy. The main electricity generation company, the Volta River Authority, is not able to generate enough electricity for all the demand sectors. The electricity supply-demand margins - the difference between peak demand and available supply - of the country fall short of the recommended engineering practice and thus presents a high supply security risk. The country has been experiencing an increase in the frequency of power cuts over the last ten years. It is clear that Ghana will have to expand and diversify its generation capacity in order to improve supply security. This paper provides a review of the assessed potential renewable energy resources, their current exploitation status, and their potential contribution to the electricity supply of the country. The paper also presents the barriers to their utilization and the existing policy and regulatory instruments to overcome those barriers, plus the current and expected future impacts of these instruments. The results show that Ghana has several RES, such as wind, solar PV, mini hydro and modern biomass that can be exploited for electricity production. While their exploitation for electricity generation is currently very low, providing just 0.13% of the country's generation, the review shows a great potential for RES generation to increase substantially over the next decade, looking at the government commitment and legal frameworks that are being put in place. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Derkyi M.,University of Energy and Natural Resources | Ros-Tonen M.A.F.,University of Amsterdam | Kyereh B.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Dietz T.,African Studies Center
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2013

Greater attention for law enforcement resulting from new forest governance initiatives may make livelihoods of people living in or near protected areas in the tropics more vulnerable due to restricted access and competing claims. This paper aims to provide a deeper insight into the livelihoods of inhabitants of the Tano Offin Globally Significant Biodiversity Area (GSBA) in Ghana's high forest zone and how these are becoming under greater pressure. It assesses the governance implications of the implementation of the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) under the Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan of the European Union and projects within the framework of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation plus (REDD. +), with a focus on the need for social safeguards. The study shows that the inhabitants of admitted villages in GSBAs already have few legal livelihood options due to restricted access to the forest, which results in competing claims among resource users and with forest managers. Stronger law enforcement resulting from the FLEGT/VPA to combat illegal logging and the Ghana Forestry Commission's consideration to include GSBAs in its REDD+. programme is likely to further restrict inhabitants' access to forest resources, with the result being increasing competition for scarce resources. Social safeguards therefore need serious consideration when implementing new forest governance regimes. The authors argue that the politics of protected areas need to reconsider the position of the inhabitants by creating space to build a livelihood, paying them for taking care of nature or relocating them beyond the protected area. This might involve hard choices. What eventually is needed is a change towards interactive governance and adaptive co-management. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Badii B.K.,University for Development Studies | Adarkwah C.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Obeng-Ofori D.,University of Energy and Natural Resources | Ulrichs C.,Humboldt University of Berlin
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2014

The pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus F. is a key pest to stored Kersting's groundnut, Macrotyloma geocarpum Harms. There are many reports evaluating various diatomaceous earths (DEs) against stored product pests, but there is limited information on the efficacy of these materials against C. maculatus and none on Kerstings groundnut. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the DEs, Diatomenerde, Probe-A, Fossil shield, and Damol-D1 against C. maculatus in seeds of M. geocarpum. Each DE was applied at 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 2.00 g kg-1, and each treatment infested with newly emerged C. maculatus in petri dishes. The set up was maintained at 50 and 80 % RH regimes at ambient temperature. Data were collected on adult mortality (at 24 h, 48 h, 7 days, and 14 days), oviposition, and progeny emergence of the beetles, and their effects on weight loss and viability of seeds. Probe-A proved the most effective against the beetle, followed by Damol-D1 and Fossil shield. Adult mortality increased progressively with the increasing dosage of DE and exposure time. Seeds treated at 2.00 or 1.50 g kg-1 recorded significantly lower number of eggs and F1 emergence compared with the lower dosages in all DEs. Increased DE concentration consistently decreased seed weight loss due to low beetle infestation, but there was no significant effect on seed viability. DEs were more effective at 50 % RH than at 80 % RH. Probe-A or Damol-D1 applied at 1.50 or 2.00 g kg-1 at 50 % RH is a viable alternative for preventing C. maculatus infestation in stored Kersting's groundnut. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ros-Tonen M.A.F.,University of Amsterdam | Derkyi M.,University of Energy and Natural Resources | Insaidoo T.F.G.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology
Forests | Year: 2014

Natural resource management literature has documented three paradigm shifts over the past decade: from co-management to adaptive co-management and adaptive governance respectively and, more recently, towards landscape governance. The latter is conceived as a governance approach towards negotiated land use at the landscape level to deal with global challenges such as food insecurity, climate change and biodiversity loss. There is not a lot of clarity about how co-management systems could actually evolve into landscape governance. This paper aims to address the gap by exploring how a stalled co-management system for the reforestation of degraded forest areas-the modified taungya system (MTS) in Ghana-could be revitalised and redesigned as a landscape approach. Drawing on case studies and expert consultation, the performance of the national MTS and the MTS under the Community Forestry Management Project is reviewed with regard to five principles (integrated approach, multi-stakeholder negotiation, polycentric governance, continual learning and adaptive capacity) and three enabling conditions (social capital, bridging organisations and long-term funding) distilled from the literature. The authors conclude that some of these principles and conditions were met under the Community Forestry Management Project, but that continual learning, transcending jurisdictional boundaries, developing adaptive capacity, and long-term funding and benefits still pose challenges. © 2014 by the authors.

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