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Ahmed Z.,University of Education of Pakistan
Rawal Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Test anxiety is an arising issue of today's academia. Present research attempted to explore its hidden realities in view of types, causes, prevalence, impact and coping mechanism. Test anxiety and educational performance has an inverse relation. General prevalence has been estimated from 30 to 40 percent in all schools. Female students have more anxiety as compared to male students. Major causes arise from parental attitudes, expectations of high grades, admission in good institutions, job market, work load, lack of preparation, inappropriate test techniques and home-school maladjustment. This problem may be addressed through simulation, yoga, behavior modification, therapeutic approaches, guidance and counseling. Pharmacological measures are effective in severe symptoms only. © 2015 Pakistan Medical Association. All right received. Source

Sharif M.,University of Punjab | Azam M.,University of Punjab | Azam M.,University of Education of Pakistan
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

We study the dynamical instability of anisotropic collapsing cylinder with the expansion-free condition, which generates vacuum cavity within fluid distribution. The perturbation scheme is applied to distinguish Newtonian, post-Newtonian and post-post Newtonian terms, which are used for constructing dynamical equation at Newtonian and post-Newtonian regimes. We analyse the role of pressure anisotropy and energy density inhomogeneity on the stability of collapsing cylinder. It turns out that stability of the cylinder depends upon these physical properties of the fluid, not on the stiffness of the fluid. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source

Liu H.-Y.,South China University of Technology | Mahmood M.H.R.,South China University of Technology | Mahmood M.H.R.,University of Education of Pakistan | Qiu S.X.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Chang C.K.,Michigan State University
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2013

Among metallocorroles, manganese corrole chemistry is one that has flourished prominently in recent years. Numerous manganese corroles have been reported in which the oxidation state of the central manganese ranges from +3 to +6. Manganese(III) corroles are the most common form of stable Mn-corrole complexes. High-valent manganese corroles exhibit quite different spectroscopic and electrochemical properties compared with manganese(III) corroles. (Imido)manganese(V) and (nitrido)manganese(V) corroles are stable enough to be well characterized by spectroscopy. (Oxo)manganese(V) corroles may be prepared by chemical or laser flash photolysis methods, and are important mechanistic probes for oxygen atom transfer reactions in the catalytic oxidation of alkenes. While various (oxo)manganese complexes have been synthesized and extensively studied, the factors controlling their reactivity are not completely understood, suggesting that manganese corrole-mediated oxidation reactions have room for further exploration. In this review, recent advances in the field of manganese corroles are summarized. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Amir M.J.,University of Sargodha | Ali S.,University of Education of Pakistan
International Journal of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2015

The energy density of the universe is proportional to the Ricci scalar curvature in the dynamical Chern-Simon (CS) modified gravity. In this paper, we consider the Amended Friedman-Robertson-Walker (AFRW) universe and explore its scale factor and the Ricci Dark Energy. These turned out to be well-defined and definite. We compare the scale factors of FRW, Generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) and AFRW models graphically. The combined graph of these models show that the behavior of both FRW and AFRW models is similar as these overlap each other for choosing particular values of the integration constants. Also, we draw a combined graph of the Ricci dark energy densities of FRW and AFRW models, in CS gravity, and the energy density of GCG. It shows that the densities of former two models are increasing with time while the energy density of GCG is decreasing. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Sharif M.,University of Punjab | Azam M.,University of Education of Pakistan
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2013

In this paper, we apply the cut and paste procedure to the charged black string for the construction of a thin-shell wormhole. We consider the Darmois-Israel formalism to determine the surface stresses of the shell. We take the Chaplygin gas to deal with the matter distribution on shell. The radial perturbation approach (preserving the symmetry) is used to investigate the stability of static solutions. We conclude that stable static solutions exist both for uncharged and charged black string thin-shell wormholes for particular values of the parameters. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Società Italiana di Fisica. Source

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