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Edinburgh, United Kingdom

The University of Edinburgh , founded in 1583, is the sixth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university.The University of Edinburgh is ranked 17th in the world by the 2013–14 and 2014–15 QS rankings. The Research Excellence Framework, a research ranking used by the UK government to determine future research funding, ranked Edinburgh 4th in the UK in 2014. It is ranked 12th in the world in arts and humanities by the 2014–15 Times Higher Education Ranking. It is ranked the 15th most employable university in the world by the 2013 Global Employability University Ranking. It is a member of both the Russell Group, and the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and Oxford.The university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, and helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the North. Alumni of the university include some of the major figures of modern history, including the physicist James Clerk Maxwell, naturalist Charles Darwin, philosopher David Hume, mathematician Thomas Bayes, surgeon Joseph Lister, signatories of the American declaration of independence John Witherspoon and Benjamin Rush, inventor Alexander Graham Bell, first president of Tanzania Julius Nyerere, and a host of famous authors such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Robert Louis Stevenson, J.M. Barrie and Sir Walter Scott. Associated people include 20 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Turing Award winners, 1 Abel Prize winner, 1 Fields Medal winner, 1 Pulitzer Prize winner, 3 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, 2 currently-sitting UK Supreme Court Justices, and several Olympic gold medallists. It continues to have links to the British Royal Family, having had the Duke of Edinburgh as its Chancellor from 1953 to 2010 and Princess Anne since 2011.Edinburgh receives approximately 47,000 applications every year, making it the third most popular university in the UK by volume of applicants. Entrance is competitive, with 2012–2013 having an acceptance rate of 11.5% and offer rate of 38.6%. Wikipedia.


Background: Few data are available from randomised trials about the effect of thrombolysis with alteplase on long-term functional outcome in patients who have had acute ischaemic stroke and no trial has reported effects on health-related quality of life. A secondary objective of the third International Stroke Trial (IST-3) was to assess the effect of thrombolysis on such outcomes at 18 months. Methods: In this open-label, international, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial, 3035 patients with ischaemic stroke from 12 countries were randomly allocated within 6 h of onset via a secure central system to either intravenous alteplase (0·9 mg/kg; n=1515) plus standard care or standard care alone (control; n=1520). 2348 patients were scheduled for 18-month follow-up. For our main analysis, survivors were assessed at 18 months with the Oxford handicap scale (OHS; the primary outcome was the adjusted odds of OHS score 0-2). We also used the EuroQoL (EQ) instrument and asked questions about overall functioning and living circumstances. We analysed the OHS and the five EQ domains by ordinal logistic regression and calculated the mean difference between treatment groups in EQ utility index and visual analogue scale score. Analyses were adjusted for key baseline prognostic factors. This study is registered with controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN25765518. Findings: At 18 months, 408 (34·9%) of 1169 patients in the alteplase group versus 414 (35·1%) of 1179 in the control group had died (p=0·85). 391 (35·0%) of 1117 patients versus 352 (31·4%) of 1122 had an OHS score of 0-2 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·28, 95% CI 1·03-1·57; p=0·024). Treatment was associated with a favourable shift in the distribution of OHS grades (adjusted common OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·10-1·55; p=0·002). Alteplase treatment was associated with significantly higher overall self-reported health (adjusted mean difference in EQ utility index 0·060; p=0·019). The differences between the groups in visual analogue scale score and the proportion living at home were not significant. Interpretation: IST-3 provides evidence that thrombolysis with intravenous alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke does not affect survival, but does lead to statistically significant, clinically relevant improvements in functional outcome and health-related quality of life that are sustained for at least 18 months. © 2013 The IST-3 collaborative group. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Source


Ralston S.H.,University of Edinburgh
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

A 73-year-old man presents with a 5-year history of low back pain that is exacerbated by standing. During the past year, pain has developed in his buttocks and legs when he walks, and it is not relieved by acetaminophen. The neurologic examination is unremarkable. Radiographs of the spine show coarsening of the trabecular pattern in several lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae and expansion of several lumbar vertebral bodies. The total serum alkaline phosphatase level is 350 U per liter (reference range, 40 to 125); the results of liver-function tests and other routine laboratory tests are normal. How should he be further evaluated and treated? Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Bickmore W.A.,University of Edinburgh | Van Steensel B.,Netherlands Cancer Institute
Cell | Year: 2013

The architecture of interphase chromosomes is important for the regulation of gene expression and genome maintenance. Chromosomes are linearly segmented into hundreds of domains with different protein compositions. Furthermore, the spatial organization of chromosomes is nonrandom and is characterized by many local and long-range contacts among genes and other sequence elements. A variety of genome-wide mapping techniques have made it possible to chart these properties at high resolution. Combined with microscopy and computational modeling, the results begin to yield a more coherent picture that integrates linear and three-dimensional (3D) views of chromosome organization in relation to gene regulation and other nuclear functions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Bickmore W.A.,University of Edinburgh
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics | Year: 2013

In vivo, the human genome functions as a complex, folded, three-dimensional chromatin polymer. Understanding how the human genome is spatially organized and folded inside the cell nucleus is therefore central to understanding how genes are regulated in normal development and dysregulated in disease. Established light microscopy-based approaches and more recent molecular chromosome conformation capture methods are now combining to give us unprecedented insight into this fascinating aspect of human genomics. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Background The benefit of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients presenting with stable chest pain has not been systematically studied. We aimed to assess the effect of CTCA on the diagnosis, management, and outcome of patients referred to the cardiology clinic with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. Methods In this prospective open-label, parallel-group, multicentre trial, we recruited patients aged 18-75 years referred for the assessment of suspected angina due to coronary heart disease from 12 cardiology chest pain clinics across Scotland. We randomly assigned (1:1) participants to standard care plus CTCA or standard care alone. Randomisation was done with a web-based service to ensure allocation concealment. The primary endpoint was certainty of the diagnosis of angina secondary to coronary heart disease at 6 weeks. All analyses were intention to treat, and patients were analysed in the group they were allocated to, irrespective of compliance with scanning. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01149590. Findings Between Nov 18, 2010, and Sept 24, 2014, we randomly assigned 4146 (42%) of 9849 patients who had been referred for assessment of suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. 47% of participants had a baseline clinic diagnosis of coronary heart disease and 36% had angina due to coronary heart disease. At 6 weeks, CTCA reclassified the diagnosis of coronary heart disease in 558 (27%) patients and the diagnosis of angina due to coronary heart disease in 481 (23%) patients (standard care 22 [1%] and 23 [1%]; p<0·0001). Although both the certainty (relative risk [RR] 2·56, 95% CI 2·33-2·79; p<0·0001) and frequency of coronary heart disease increased (1·09, 1·02-1·17; p=0·0172), the certainty increased (1·79, 1·62-1·96; p<0·0001) and frequency seemed to decrease (0·93, 0·85-1·02; p=0·1289) for the diagnosis of angina due to coronary heart disease. This changed planned investigations (15% vs 1%; p<0·0001) and treatments (23% vs 5%; p<0·0001) but did not affect 6-week symptom severity or subsequent admittances to hospital for chest pain. After 1·7 years, CTCA was associated with a 38% reduction in fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (26 vs 42, HR 0·62, 95% CI 0·38-1·01; p=0·0527), but this was not significant. Interpretation In patients with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease, CTCA clarifies the diagnosis, enables targeting of interventions, and might reduce the future risk of myocardial infarction. Funding The Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health and Social Care Directorates funded the trial with supplementary awards from Edinburgh and Lothian's Health Foundation Trust and the Heart Diseases Research Fund. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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