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Eldoret, Kenya

The University of Eastern Africa, Baraton is a private coeducational Seventh-day Adventist university located about 50 km from Eldoret Kenya. It offers various degrees in a number of graduate and undergraduate programs in the fields of Business, the Humanities, Agriculture, Technology, Health science and Education. Baraton University, as it is popularly known, is run by the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and is part of its system of higher education. It is fully accredited by the Commission for Higher Education, Kenya Government, and was the first private University to receive a Charter granted by the republic of Kenya on March 28, 1991. The University is also a member of the Inter-University Council for East Africa, The Association of Commonwealth Universities, and the Association of African Universities.The mission of UEAB is the provision and advancement of a holistic Christian quality education for the youth with the aim of equipping them with necessary skills for service for God and humanity. Wikipedia.


Nyantika A.N.,University of Eastern Finland | Nyantika A.N.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton | Tuomainen T.-P.,University of Eastern Finland | Kauhanen J.,University of Eastern Finland | And 2 more authors.
Hypertension Research | Year: 2016

Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from fish have been shown to lower blood pressure. However, there is little information about the association with orthostatic hypotension, for which hypertension is a risk factor. We investigated the associations between serum long-chain omega-3 PUFAs and orthostatic hypotension in 1666 middle-aged or older men and women free of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes or hypertension in 1998-2001 in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) in eastern Finland. We also investigated the associations with mercury exposure, a major source of which is fish, and which has been associated with higher CVD risk in KIHD. Orthostatic hypotension was defined as decrease in systolic blood pressure of at least 20 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure of at least 10 mm Hg within 1 min of standing. Orthostatic hypotension was found in 146 participants (8.8%). The mean serum concentrations were 1.67% (s.d. 0.92) for eicosapentaenoic acid, 0.79% (s.d. 0.16) for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 2.78 (s.d. 0.92) for docosahexaenoic acid of all serum fatty acids. The mean pubic hair mercury concentration was 1.5 μg g -1 (s.d. 1.6). We did not find statistically significant associations between the serum long-chain omega-3 PUFAs or pubic hair mercury and risk of orthostatic hypotension, except for DPA. Those in the highest vs. the lowest serum DPA tertile had multivariate-adjusted 41% lower odds for orthostatic hypotension (95% confidence interval 7-63%, P-trend=0.02). Serum long-chain omega-3 PUFAs or mercury exposure were not associated with the risk of orthostatic hypotension, except for the inverse association with DPA. © 2016 The Japanese Society of Hypertension. Source


Miruka D.O.,Maseno University | Ochieng J.O.,University of Tokyo | Were J.W.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton | Waindi E.N.,Maseno University
Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology | Year: 2013

Water-borne infections are among the most recent emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases throughout the world. WHO estimates that 80% of all illnesses in the world are caused by water-borne disease pathogens that thrive due to inadequate sanitation and polluted water. This study determined the presence of enteric microbes in medium earthen fish farm ponds and waters in the region. Fifty-seven Oreochromis niloticus L. and 36 water samples were collected over three months from 12 ponds within Maseno and Luanda Division. Sixty-six enteric microbes were found - Vibrio hollisae (18.2%), Proteus vulgaris (12.1%), Yersinia spp. (7.6%), Salmonella typhi (7.6), Aeromonas hydrophilia (7.6%), Edwardsiella tarda (6.1%), and Escherichia coli (6.1%) were the most isolated Enterobacteriaceae from water. Fifty enteric microbes were collected from fish intestines; Citrobacter freundi (62%) and Proteus spp. were the most common. Thirty-nine bacteria were isolated from the macerated fish flesh with Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas being the most common. Water temperature, salinity dissolved oxygen and pH were within the expected range. Earthen fish ponds harbor enteric microbes that could be pathogenic to humans, although they had low faecal bacterial indicators signifying minimal contamination from human waste. © 2013 European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology of Polish Academy of Sciences. Source


Chantler T.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Otewa F.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton | Onyango P.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Odhiambo F.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Developing World Bioethics | Year: 2013

Community Engagement (CE) has been presented by bio-ethicists and scientists as a straightforward and unequivocal good which can minimize the risks of exploitation and ensure a fair distribution of research benefits in developing countries. By means of ethnographic fieldwork undertaken in Kenya between 2007 and 2009 we explored how CE is understood and enacted in paediatric vaccine trials conducted by the Kenyan Medical Research Institute and the US Centers for Disease Control (KEMRI/CDC). In this paper we focus on the role of paid volunteers who act as an interface between villagers KEMRI/CDC. Village Reporters' (VRs) position of being both with the community and with KEMRI/CDC is advantageous for the conduct of trials. However it is also problematic in terms of exercising trust, balancing allegiances and representing community views. VRs role is shaped by ambiguities related to their employment status and their dual accountability to researchers and their villages. VRs are understandably careful to stress their commitment to self-less community service since it augments their respectability at community level and opens up opportunities for financial gain and self-development. Simultaneously VRs association with KEMRI/CDC and proximity to trial participants requires them to negotiate implicit and explicit expectations for material and medical assistance in a cultural setting in which much importance is placed on sharing and mutuality. To ensure continuity of productive interactions between VRs, and similar community intermediaries, and researchers, open discussion is needed about the problematic aspects of relational ethics, issues concerning undue influence, power relations and negotiating expectations. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Virtanen J.K.,University of Eastern Finland | Nyantika A.N.,University of Eastern Finland | Nyantika A.N.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton | Kauhanen J.,University of Eastern Finland | And 2 more authors.
Hypertension Research | Year: 2012

Fish or fish oil consumption has been associated with lower blood pressure. Fish may also contain methylmercury, which has been associated with cardiovascular diseases and higher blood pressure. Our aim was to study the associations of serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), mainly reflecting fish or fish oil intake, and hair mercury concentration with blood pressure. Data were available for 848 men and 909 women from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 53-73 years. We excluded participants with ischemic heart disease, stroke, diabetes or hypertension treatment, leaving 396 men and 372 women. Log-transformed values were used to study the associations. The mean serum concentrations were 1.63% (s.d. 0.91) for EPA, 0.77% (s.d. 0.16) for DPA and 2.73% (s.d. 0.90) for DHA of all serum fatty acids. Multivariate-adjusted serum EPADPADHA was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (β4.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.02-0.99) and pulse pressure (β4.41, 95% CI 6.95-1.87), but not with diastolic blood pressure (β0.45, 95% CI 2.31-1.52). The associations were similar with EPA, DPA and DHA evaluated individually. The mean hair mercury concentration was 1.42 μg g 1 (s.d. 1.54). Hair mercury was not associated with blood pressure and it did not modify the association between PUFA and blood pressure. These results suggest that higher serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration has a modest inverse association with blood pressure in older men and women. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Hypertension All rights reserved. Source


Nyantika A.N.,University of Eastern Finland | Nyantika A.N.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton | Tuomainen T.-P.,University of Eastern Finland | Kauhanen J.,University of Eastern Finland | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2015

Objectives: To investigate the associations of serum long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and hair mercury with future blood pressure in an ageing population.Design: Prospective study with baseline measurements in 1998–2001 and follow-up measurements in 2005–2008. The linear relationships (β) of baseline serum fatty acids and hair mercury with future systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were analyzed with multiple linear regression models, using log-transformed values.Participants: 181 men and 200 women aged 53–73 y from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) population in Eastern Finland, who were free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes or hypertension at baseline.Measurements: Total serum esterified and nonesterified fatty acids and pubic hair mercury were used as markers for exposure. Anthropometric and other lifestyle and health-related data were collected.Results: The mean serum concentrations were 1.67% (SD 0.92) for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 0.79% (SD 0.16) for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 2.78 (SD 0.92) for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), of all serum fatty acids. The mean hair mercury concentration was 1.5 μg/g (SD 1.6). We did not find statistically significant associations between the baseline serum long-chain omega-3 PUFA concentrations or hair mercury content and future blood pressure. Hair mercury did not modify the associations with the long-chain omega-3 PUFAs, either.Conclusions: Higher serum long-chain omega-3 PUFA concentration, a biomarker of fish or fish oil consumption, may not have an impact on future blood pressure in an ageing population. © 2015, Serdi and Springer-Verlag France. Source

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