University of Eastern Africa, Baraton

www.ueab.ac.ke
Eldoret, Kenya

The University of Eastern Africa, Baraton is a private coeducational Seventh-day Adventist university located about 50 km from Eldoret Kenya. It offers various degrees in a number of graduate and undergraduate programs in the fields of Business, the Humanities, Agriculture, Technology, Health science and Education. Baraton University, as it is popularly known, is run by the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and is part of its system of higher education. It is fully accredited by the Commission for Higher Education, Kenya Government, and was the first private University to receive a Charter granted by the republic of Kenya on March 28, 1991. The University is also a member of the Inter-University Council for East Africa, The Association of Commonwealth Universities, and the Association of African Universities.The mission of UEAB is the provision and advancement of a holistic Christian quality education for the youth with the aim of equipping them with necessary skills for service for God and humanity. Wikipedia.

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Chantler T.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Otewa F.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton | Onyango P.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Odhiambo F.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Developing World Bioethics | Year: 2013

Community Engagement (CE) has been presented by bio-ethicists and scientists as a straightforward and unequivocal good which can minimize the risks of exploitation and ensure a fair distribution of research benefits in developing countries. By means of ethnographic fieldwork undertaken in Kenya between 2007 and 2009 we explored how CE is understood and enacted in paediatric vaccine trials conducted by the Kenyan Medical Research Institute and the US Centers for Disease Control (KEMRI/CDC). In this paper we focus on the role of paid volunteers who act as an interface between villagers KEMRI/CDC. Village Reporters' (VRs) position of being both with the community and with KEMRI/CDC is advantageous for the conduct of trials. However it is also problematic in terms of exercising trust, balancing allegiances and representing community views. VRs role is shaped by ambiguities related to their employment status and their dual accountability to researchers and their villages. VRs are understandably careful to stress their commitment to self-less community service since it augments their respectability at community level and opens up opportunities for financial gain and self-development. Simultaneously VRs association with KEMRI/CDC and proximity to trial participants requires them to negotiate implicit and explicit expectations for material and medical assistance in a cultural setting in which much importance is placed on sharing and mutuality. To ensure continuity of productive interactions between VRs, and similar community intermediaries, and researchers, open discussion is needed about the problematic aspects of relational ethics, issues concerning undue influence, power relations and negotiating expectations. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Ngemu E.K.,University of Eldoret | Khayeka-Wandabwa C.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Kweka E.J.,Tropical Pesticides Research Institute | Choge J.K.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton | And 2 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: Ensuring that no baby is born with HIV is an essential step towards achieving an AIDS-free generation. To achieve this, strategies that decouple links between childbirth and HIV transmission are necessary. Traditional forms of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), has been recommended. Recognizing the importance and challenges of combination of methods to achieve rapid PMTCT, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended option B Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) for all HIV-positive pregnant women. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the HAART in PMTCT. A cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women in Kenya were obtained from the DREAM Center, Nairobi. The study participants underwent adherence counselling and Option B of HAART [Nevirapine(NVP) + Lamivudine + Zidovudine] at the fourth week of gestation followed by an intravenous NVP administration intrapartum and postpartum NVP syrup to the respective infants for six weeks. Absolute pre-HAART and post-HAART CD4 counts and viral loads counts were determined. Comparison of the CD4 counts and viral loads before and after administration of HAART were done using Wilcoxon's Matched Pairs Signed-Ranks Test. Findings. The mean absolute CD4 cell counts in mothers after administration of HAART was significantly higher (Z = 15.664, p < 0.001) than before the administration of HAART). Also the viral load of the mothers significantly (Z = 11.324, p < 0.001) reduced following HAART treatment. Following the HAART administration in mothers, up to 90% of children were confirmed to be HIV negative. Conclusion: Administration of HAART to mothers and children demonstrated an effective mechanism of PMTCT. However, other aspects of HAART such as adherence, costs, mothers behaviour during HAART, and the child feeding programme during the therapy should further be evaluated and ascertained how they can affect the overall efficacy of option B HAART in PMTCT. © 2014 Ngemu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | University of Helsinki, University of Eastern Finland, University of Illinois at Chicago and University of Eastern Africa, Baraton
Type: | Journal: Journal of pathogens | Year: 2016

In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1 0.6mm and 16.0 1.2mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6 1.0mm). The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime) showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4 0.7-22.1 0.9mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125-250mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens.


Ndiku M.,Loma Linda University | Ndiku M.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton | Jaceldo-Siegl K.,Loma Linda University | Singh P.,Loma Linda University | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background/Objective:Although gender inequality in nutritional status has been consistently reported in several parts of South Asia, in sub-Sahara Africa there is a paucity of data and conflicting conclusions. We conducted a study to assess if gender inequality in food intake and nutritional status is present in rural Eastern Kenya.Subjects/Methods:This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted in the Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani region in Eastern Kenya, two rural districts where grains are the main contributor of energy intake. There were 629 children aged < 60 months, randomly selected for participation in the study.Results:Boys consistently had higher energy intakes than girls (P0.005). More girls were stunted, underweight and wasted 51.7%, (49.9-53.5), 32.1%, (30.4-33.7), 4.6%, (3.9-5.4) than boys 35.9% (34.2-37.7), 14.6% (13.4-15.9) and 1.2% (0.8-1.6), respectively, P0.001. Of the total, 24.6% (23.1-26.2) of the girls were severely stunted compared with boys 16.3% (15.0-17.7). Boys had higher Z-score indices (height-for-age (HAZ)1.33±1.86, weight-for-age (WAZ)0.60±1.53 and weight-for-height (WHZ)0.25±1.23) than girls (HAZ2.02±1.94, WAZ1.37±1.27 and WHZ0.10±1.49), all P<0.001.Conclusions:The prevalence of malnutrition among children in rural Eastern Kenya is sizable. However, girls were more stunted, underweight and wasted than boys at all age categories due to their consistent lower food intake. Further research is needed to expose the social and cultural determinants underlying gender discrimination in intra-household allocation of food. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Miruka D.O.,Maseno University | Ochieng J.O.,University of Tokyo | Were J.W.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton | Waindi E.N.,Maseno University
Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology | Year: 2013

Water-borne infections are among the most recent emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases throughout the world. WHO estimates that 80% of all illnesses in the world are caused by water-borne disease pathogens that thrive due to inadequate sanitation and polluted water. This study determined the presence of enteric microbes in medium earthen fish farm ponds and waters in the region. Fifty-seven Oreochromis niloticus L. and 36 water samples were collected over three months from 12 ponds within Maseno and Luanda Division. Sixty-six enteric microbes were found - Vibrio hollisae (18.2%), Proteus vulgaris (12.1%), Yersinia spp. (7.6%), Salmonella typhi (7.6), Aeromonas hydrophilia (7.6%), Edwardsiella tarda (6.1%), and Escherichia coli (6.1%) were the most isolated Enterobacteriaceae from water. Fifty enteric microbes were collected from fish intestines; Citrobacter freundi (62%) and Proteus spp. were the most common. Thirty-nine bacteria were isolated from the macerated fish flesh with Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas being the most common. Water temperature, salinity dissolved oxygen and pH were within the expected range. Earthen fish ponds harbor enteric microbes that could be pathogenic to humans, although they had low faecal bacterial indicators signifying minimal contamination from human waste. © 2013 European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology of Polish Academy of Sciences.


Dunham N.T.,Ohio State University | Opere P.O.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton
Primates | Year: 2016

Infant adoption has been reported in a variety of primate taxa both in captive and natural settings. Adoption by females may be adaptive by increasing inclusive fitness via shared genes between adoptive mother and adoptee or by providing valuable maternal practice which, in turn, may increase the female’s future reproductive success. Others have argued that adoption may be non-adaptive and the result of a general attraction toward infants. Our study examines a unique case of adoption by an adult female Angola black and white colobus monkey (Colobus angolensis palliatus) who adopted an extra-group infant alongside her own biological infant. We compare infant behaviors and mother-infant interactions between biological infant and adoptee and then compare both biological infant and adoptee behavioral profiles to those of infants under normal circumstances. Data were collected from July 2014 to June 2015 on three habituated groups in the Diani Forest of Kenya. Scan sampling and pooled data were used to create daily and monthly behavioral profiles for the biological infant and adoptee, as well as a mean monthly profile of four infants under normal circumstances. Data include time spent (1) clinging to mother/adoptive mother, (2) clinging to another individual, (3) behaving independently, and (4) behaving in close proximity to mother/adoptive mother. Initially, the adoptee struggled to achieve behavioral profiles consistent with those of the biological infant and normal colobus infants of the same age as he spent significantly more time moving independently and significantly less time clinging to the adoptive mother. After the mysterious death of the biological infant in mid-January 2015, the adoptee assumed a behavioral profile similar to that of infants under normal conditions. This case does not support adaptive hypotheses for adoption (i.e., inclusive fitness or learning to mother). Instead, because the biological infant died, possibly due to the presence of the adoptee, we argue that this case of infant adoption was non-adaptive. Ultimately, this adoption appears to have been an outcome of the adoptee’s persistent desire to be cared for and the female’s strong propensity to engage in allomaternal behavior. © 2016 Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan


PubMed | Ohio State University and University of Eastern Africa, Baraton
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Primates; journal of primatology | Year: 2016

Infant adoption has been reported in a variety of primate taxa both in captive and natural settings. Adoption by females may be adaptive by increasing inclusive fitness via shared genes between adoptive mother and adoptee or by providing valuable maternal practice which, in turn, may increase the females future reproductive success. Others have argued that adoption may be non-adaptive and the result of a general attraction toward infants. Our study examines a unique case of adoption by an adult female Angola black and white colobus monkey (Colobus angolensis palliatus) who adopted an extra-group infant alongside her own biological infant. We compare infant behaviors and mother-infant interactions between biological infant and adoptee and then compare both biological infant and adoptee behavioral profiles to those of infants under normal circumstances. Data were collected from July 2014 to June 2015 on three habituated groups in the Diani Forest of Kenya. Scan sampling and pooled data were used to create daily and monthly behavioral profiles for the biological infant and adoptee, as well as a mean monthly profile of four infants under normal circumstances. Data include time spent (1) clinging to mother/adoptive mother, (2) clinging to another individual, (3) behaving independently, and (4) behaving in close proximity to mother/adoptive mother. Initially, the adoptee struggled to achieve behavioral profiles consistent with those of the biological infant and normal colobus infants of the same age as he spent significantly more time moving independently and significantly less time clinging to the adoptive mother. After the mysterious death of the biological infant in mid-January 2015, the adoptee assumed a behavioral profile similar to that of infants under normal conditions. This case does not support adaptive hypotheses for adoption (i.e., inclusive fitness or learning to mother). Instead, because the biological infant died, possibly due to the presence of the adoptee, we argue that this case of infant adoption was non-adaptive. Ultimately, this adoption appears to have been an outcome of the adoptees persistent desire to be cared for and the females strong propensity to engage in allomaternal behavior.


Nyantika A.N.,University of Eastern Finland | Nyantika A.N.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton | Tuomainen T.-P.,University of Eastern Finland | Kauhanen J.,University of Eastern Finland | And 2 more authors.
Hypertension Research | Year: 2016

Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from fish have been shown to lower blood pressure. However, there is little information about the association with orthostatic hypotension, for which hypertension is a risk factor. We investigated the associations between serum long-chain omega-3 PUFAs and orthostatic hypotension in 1666 middle-aged or older men and women free of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes or hypertension in 1998-2001 in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) in eastern Finland. We also investigated the associations with mercury exposure, a major source of which is fish, and which has been associated with higher CVD risk in KIHD. Orthostatic hypotension was defined as decrease in systolic blood pressure of at least 20 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure of at least 10 mm Hg within 1 min of standing. Orthostatic hypotension was found in 146 participants (8.8%). The mean serum concentrations were 1.67% (s.d. 0.92) for eicosapentaenoic acid, 0.79% (s.d. 0.16) for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 2.78 (s.d. 0.92) for docosahexaenoic acid of all serum fatty acids. The mean pubic hair mercury concentration was 1.5 μg g -1 (s.d. 1.6). We did not find statistically significant associations between the serum long-chain omega-3 PUFAs or pubic hair mercury and risk of orthostatic hypotension, except for DPA. Those in the highest vs. the lowest serum DPA tertile had multivariate-adjusted 41% lower odds for orthostatic hypotension (95% confidence interval 7-63%, P-trend=0.02). Serum long-chain omega-3 PUFAs or mercury exposure were not associated with the risk of orthostatic hypotension, except for the inverse association with DPA. © 2016 The Japanese Society of Hypertension.


Virtanen J.K.,University of Eastern Finland | Nyantika A.N.,University of Eastern Finland | Nyantika A.N.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton | Kauhanen J.,University of Eastern Finland | And 2 more authors.
Hypertension Research | Year: 2012

Fish or fish oil consumption has been associated with lower blood pressure. Fish may also contain methylmercury, which has been associated with cardiovascular diseases and higher blood pressure. Our aim was to study the associations of serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), mainly reflecting fish or fish oil intake, and hair mercury concentration with blood pressure. Data were available for 848 men and 909 women from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 53-73 years. We excluded participants with ischemic heart disease, stroke, diabetes or hypertension treatment, leaving 396 men and 372 women. Log-transformed values were used to study the associations. The mean serum concentrations were 1.63% (s.d. 0.91) for EPA, 0.77% (s.d. 0.16) for DPA and 2.73% (s.d. 0.90) for DHA of all serum fatty acids. Multivariate-adjusted serum EPADPADHA was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (β4.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.02-0.99) and pulse pressure (β4.41, 95% CI 6.95-1.87), but not with diastolic blood pressure (β0.45, 95% CI 2.31-1.52). The associations were similar with EPA, DPA and DHA evaluated individually. The mean hair mercury concentration was 1.42 μg g 1 (s.d. 1.54). Hair mercury was not associated with blood pressure and it did not modify the association between PUFA and blood pressure. These results suggest that higher serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration has a modest inverse association with blood pressure in older men and women. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Hypertension All rights reserved.


Nyantika A.N.,University of Eastern Finland | Nyantika A.N.,University of Eastern Africa, Baraton | Tuomainen T.-P.,University of Eastern Finland | Kauhanen J.,University of Eastern Finland | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2015

Objectives: To investigate the associations of serum long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and hair mercury with future blood pressure in an ageing population.Design: Prospective study with baseline measurements in 1998–2001 and follow-up measurements in 2005–2008. The linear relationships (β) of baseline serum fatty acids and hair mercury with future systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were analyzed with multiple linear regression models, using log-transformed values.Participants: 181 men and 200 women aged 53–73 y from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) population in Eastern Finland, who were free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes or hypertension at baseline.Measurements: Total serum esterified and nonesterified fatty acids and pubic hair mercury were used as markers for exposure. Anthropometric and other lifestyle and health-related data were collected.Results: The mean serum concentrations were 1.67% (SD 0.92) for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 0.79% (SD 0.16) for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 2.78 (SD 0.92) for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), of all serum fatty acids. The mean hair mercury concentration was 1.5 μg/g (SD 1.6). We did not find statistically significant associations between the baseline serum long-chain omega-3 PUFA concentrations or hair mercury content and future blood pressure. Hair mercury did not modify the associations with the long-chain omega-3 PUFAs, either.Conclusions: Higher serum long-chain omega-3 PUFA concentration, a biomarker of fish or fish oil consumption, may not have an impact on future blood pressure in an ageing population. © 2015, Serdi and Springer-Verlag France.

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