Yamaguchi, Japan
Yamaguchi, Japan

The University of East Asia is a private university in Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi, Japan, established in 1974. Wikipedia.


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Hirota S.,University of East Asia | Takahama U.,University of East Asia
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2017

Flavonoids of adzuki bean bind to starch when the beans are cooked with rice. The purpose of this study is to show that adzuki flavonoids can suppress pancreatin-induced digestion of cooked rice starch. The diethyl ether extract of water boiled with adzuki bean inhibited starch digestion, and quercetin and a cyanidin-catechin conjugate (vignacyanidin) but not taxifolin in the extract contributed to the inhibition. The order of their inhibitory effects (taxifolin < quercetin < vignacyanidin) suggested that the effects increased with an increase in their hydrophobicity. The diethyl ether extract also inhibited the starch digestion of cooked rice preincubated in artificial gastric juice, and the level of inhibition was decreased by nitrite. The decrease was due to nitrite-induced consumption of quercetin and vignacyanidin. Taking these results into account, we discuss mechanisms of quercetin- and vignacyanidin-dependent inhibition of starch digestion and the possibility of the decrease in their inhibitory effects by nitrite in the stomach. © 2017 American Chemical Society.


Gaetano L.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | Watanabe K.,University of East Asia | Barogi S.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | Coceani F.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | Coceani F.,CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology
Acta Physiologica | Year: 2010

Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) is now well established as a central effector of pyrogen fever. However, questions remain on the source, local vs. blood-borne, of the compound for the early phase of the typically biphasic fever (Phases 1 and 2) to i.v. pyrogens. To verify the role of centrally formed PGE 2, we examined the cyclooxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) complex through fever to i.v. lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods: Experiments were carried out in the conscious mouse and LPS effect was ascertained on all steps of expression - gene, protein, catalytic activity - of individual enzymes. The analysis was limited to the preoptic-anterior hypothalamus (AH/POA).Results: We found upregulation of the COX2 transcript together with an upward trend for the mPGES1 transcript during Phase 1. Coincidentally, there was a progressive increase in COX2 and mPGES1 protein expression through Phases 1 and 2. Catalytic activity for COX1 and COX2 combined was instead enhanced only in Phase 2, while mPGES1 activity remained steady at an intrinsically high level. Other COX and PGES enzymes were not modified through either Phase, and COX2/mPGES1 changes subsided with fever defervescence.Conclusion: The findings confirm a key function of COX2 and mPGES1 for the synthesis of pyrogenic PGE 2 and, at the same time, document their early response to LPS. We conclude that locally formed PGE 2 in AH/POA is qualified for a role in the initiation of fever. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.


Morina F.,University of Belgrade | Takahama U.,Kyushu University | Yamauchi R.,Gifu University | Hirota S.,University of East Asia | Veljovic-Jovanovic S.,University of Belgrade
Food and Function | Year: 2015

Foods of plant origin contain flavonoids. In the adzuki bean, (+)-catechin, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (rutin), and quercetin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q7G) are the major flavonoids. During mastication of foods prepared from the adzuki bean, the flavonoids are mixed with saliva and swallowed into the stomach. Here we investigated the interactions between Q7G and (+)-catechin at pH 2, which may proceed in the stomach after the ingestion of foods prepared from the adzuki bean. Q7G reacted with nitrous acid producing nitric oxide (NO) and a glucoside of 2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-3(2H)-benzofuranone. (+)-Catechin reacted with nitrous acid producing NO and 6,8-dinitrosocatechin. The production of the dinitrosocatechin was partly suppressed by Q7G, and the suppression resulted in the enhancement of Q7G oxidation. 6,8-Dinitrosocatechin reacted further with nitrous acid generating the o-quinone, and the quinone formation was effectively suppressed by Q7G. In the flavonoids investigated, the suppressive effect decreased in the order Q7G ≈ quercetin > kaempferol > quercetin 4′-O-glucoside > rutin. Essentially the same results were obtained when (-)-epicatechin was used instead of (+)-catechin. The results indicate that nitrous acid-induced formation of 6,8-dinitrosocatechins and the o-quinones can be suppressed by flavonols in the stomach, and that both a hydroxyl group at C3 and ortho-hydroxyl groups in the B-ring are required for efficient suppression. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Miyahara Y.,University of East Asia | Miyahara Y.,Juntendo University | Naito H.,University of East Asia | Naito H.,Juntendo University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2013

Miyahara, Y,Naito, H, Ogura, Y, Katamoto, S, and Aoki, J. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 195-201, 2013-This study was undertaken to investigate and compare the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Thirteen male university students (age, 20 ± 1 years; height, 172.2 ± 4.6 cm; weight, 68.4 ± 6.7 kg; mean ± SD) completed 3 different conditions on 3 nonconsecutive days in randomized order: static stretching (SS), PNF stretching (PNF), and no stretching (control, CON). Each condition consisted of a 5-minute rest accompanied by one of the following activities: (a) control, (b) SS, or (c) PNF stretching. The hip flexion range of motion (ROM) was evaluated immediately before and after the activity. The MVC of knee flexion was then measured. Surface electromyography was recorded from the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles during MVC tests and stretching. Although increases in ROM were significantly greater after PNF than after SS (p < 0.01), the decreases in MVC were similar between the 2 treatments. These results suggest that, although PNF stretching increases ROM more than SS, PNF stretching and SS is detrimental to isometric maximal strength. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Takahama U.,University of East Asia | Yamauchi R.,Gifu University | Hirota S.,University of East Asia
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2016

Non-glutinous rice boiled with adzuki bean (adzuki-meshi) is often prepared in Japan, and the colour of rice in adzuki-meshi is purplish red, suggesting the transfer of adzuki bean components to rice. In fact, red-coloured rice of adzuki-meshi contained adzuki bean flavonoids such as (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, taxifolin, quercetin 7-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin, and cyanidin-catechin conjugates (vignacyanidins). A salivary component nitrite reacted with the above flavonoids in adzuki-meshi under the conditions simulating the stomach. The reaction resulted in the decrease in the antioxidative components of adzuki-meshi, and the decrease was accompanied by the production of functional compounds like nitric oxide (•NO), 6,8-dinitrosocatechin, 6,8-dinitrosoepicatechin, and 2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-3(2H)-benzofuranone from nitrous acid, (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, and quercetin, respectively. In this manuscript, functions of adzuki-meshi are discussed considering the reactions of the flavonoids with nitrite in the stomach. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Takahama U.,Kyushu University | Yamauchi R.,Gifu University | Hirota S.,Kyushu Women's University | Hirota S.,University of East Asia
Free Radical Research | Year: 2014

Catechins are ingested as food components and supplements. It is known that catechins are transformed to dinitrosocatechins by nitrite under acidic conditions, suggesting the possibility of their formation in the stomach because saliva contains nitrite. This paper deals with nitrite-induced transformation of (+)-catechin in methanol extracts of adzuki bean into 6,8-dinitrosocatechin in acidified saliva (pH ≈ 1.9). As the mechanism of its formation, addition of nitric oxide (NO) to (+)-catechin semiquinone radical, both of which were produced in nitrous acid/(+)-catechin systems, was proposed. The dinitrosocatechin was oxidized to the quinone by nitrous acid, and the quinone reacted with a salivary component thiocyanate producing 6′-thiocyanato-6, 8-dinitrosocatechin. Since quinones are toxic, we propose a function of thiocyanate as a scavenger of the o-quinone formed from dinitrosocatechins in the stomach. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.


Hirota S.,University of East Asia | Takahama U.,Kyushu University
Food Research International | Year: 2015

By the ingestion of fresh apple fruit, it is masticated squeezing apple juice into the oral cavity and the juice is mixed with saliva. The mixture of saliva and apple juice is swallowed into the stomach where the pH is around 2. This paper deals with the reactions of polyphenols in the juice obtained by mastication of apple fruit with salivary nitrite under acidic conditions. The concentrations of catechins, procyanidins, and chlorogenic acid in the apple juice were approximately 55, 55, and 170μM, respectively, and the polyphenols were oxidized by salivary nitrite under conditions of the stomach. Rates of the oxidation increased in order chlorogenic acid


Iwabuchi E.,Tenshi College | Yamamoto S.,Tenshi College | Endo Y.,Gifu Agri foods Co. | Ochiai T.,University of East Asia | Hirai K.,Tenshi College
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

We investigated the prevalence of Salmonella in chicken meat from northern, central, and southern Japan. Between 2006 and 2008, 821 samples from these three regions were collected and examined. Salmonella isolates were detected in 164 (20.0%) of these samples, with 15 (10.0%) of 150, 113 (27.5%) of 411, and 36 (13.8%) of 260 recovered from the northern, central, and southern regions, respectively. We recovered 452 Salmonella isolates. From the isolates, 27 serovars were identified; the predominant serovars isolated were Salmonella Infantis (n = 81), Salmonella Kalamu (n = 56), and Salmonella Schwarzengrund (n = 43). Of the 452 isolates, 443 (98.0%) were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and 221 (48.9%) showed multiple-antibiotic resistance, thereby implying that multiple-antibiotic resistant Salmonella organisms are widespread in chicken meat in Japan. Resistance to oxytetracycline was most common (72.6%), followed by dihydrostreptomycin (69.2%) and bicozamycin (49.1%). This study, the first to report Salmonella prevalence in chicken meat throughout Japan, could provide valuable data for monitoring and controlling Salmonella infection in the future.© International Association for Food Protection.


Iguchi M.,Hamamatsu University | Kato Y.,University of East Asia
Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine | Year: 2016

We used a randomized controlled trial and examined the effectiveness of a 3-month, home based, exercise program to the functioning in older Japanese adults. Following the intervention, we also conducted 3- And 6-month follow-up studies of physical functioning and exercise adherence. Participants were older adults (n = 32, 16 males and 16 females, age over 75 years). They were randomly divided into exercise and control groups. The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competences, the Mini-Mental State Examinations, as well as physical fitness tests assessing grip strength, maximum step length, 10 m walking speed, and standing on one leg with eyes open were administered to the participants. Moreover, home visit instructions were given biweekly. Participants worked out at home on 3 days a week. Analyses of variance indicated that the intervention group significantly increased their maximum step length and time standing on one leg with eyes open, although there were no significant changes in the other tests. Result of follow-up investigations indicated that maximum step lengths at 3- And 6-months after the intervention were 69.9 and 68.8 cm respectively, which was less than immediately after the intervention (70.6 cm), but significantly higher than before the intervention (65.8 cm). Moreover, the effect of the intervention on standing on one leg with eyes open was maintained at the 6-month follow-up. Furthermore, percentages of participants that exercised more than one day per week 3- And 6 months after the intervention were 87 % and 81 % respectively, which was significantly higher than before the intervention (44 %). These results suggest that the home-based exercise program was effective in promoting adherence for a period of 6-months.


PubMed | University of East Asia and University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan
Type: | Journal: The journal of physiological sciences : JPS | Year: 2017

Orexin-A and -B, and ghrelin are potent orexigenic peptides. The effects of ACT462206, a novel dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA), on ghrelin-induced feeding were examined in adult male Wistar rats. Hyperphagia induced by the intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of ghrelin was significantly suppressed for at least 2h by pretreatment with icv administration of DORA. A marked increase was observed in the number of neurons showing Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), 90min after icv administration of ghrelin. Pretreatment with DORA significantly decreased the number of Fos-immunoreactive (IR) neurons; however, Fos immunoreactivity remained significantly increased. Double-immunostaining for Fos and orexin-A showed that many orexin-A-IR neurons in the LHA coexisted with Fos immunoreactivity after icv administration of ghrelin, but their number was reduced significantly by DORA pretreatment. These results suggest that centrally administered ghrelin may activate the orexinergic and non-orexinergic pathways responsible for the regulation of feeding.

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