Miyahara Y.,University of East Asia |
Miyahara Y.,Juntendo University |
Naito H.,University of East Asia |
Naito H.,Juntendo University |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2013
Miyahara, Y,Naito, H, Ogura, Y, Katamoto, S, and Aoki, J. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 195-201, 2013-This study was undertaken to investigate and compare the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Thirteen male university students (age, 20 ± 1 years; height, 172.2 ± 4.6 cm; weight, 68.4 ± 6.7 kg; mean ± SD) completed 3 different conditions on 3 nonconsecutive days in randomized order: static stretching (SS), PNF stretching (PNF), and no stretching (control, CON). Each condition consisted of a 5-minute rest accompanied by one of the following activities: (a) control, (b) SS, or (c) PNF stretching. The hip flexion range of motion (ROM) was evaluated immediately before and after the activity. The MVC of knee flexion was then measured. Surface electromyography was recorded from the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles during MVC tests and stretching. Although increases in ROM were significantly greater after PNF than after SS (p < 0.01), the decreases in MVC were similar between the 2 treatments. These results suggest that, although PNF stretching increases ROM more than SS, PNF stretching and SS is detrimental to isometric maximal strength. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Nagaoka T.,St. Marianna University School of Medicine |
Seki Y.,National Museum of Ethnology |
Morita W.,National Museum of Ethnology |
Uzawa K.,Kyoto University |
And 2 more authors.
Anatomical Science International | Year: 2012
The Pacopampa site is located in the northern highlands of Peru and is an archaeological site belonging to the Formative Period (2500-1 BC). The excavation of the Pacopampa site yielded unusual human skeletons from the main platform of a ceremonial center of the site during the 2009 field season. The skeletal remains were associated with a pair of gold earplugs, a pair of gold earrings, and shell objects. This specimen is possibly a female aged 20-39 years. Detailed examination of the neurocranium revealed the presence of artificial cranial deformation with decreased cranial length, increased cranial breadth, and lateral bulging of the parietal bones. The estimated stature of this individual was 162 cm, which is about 15 cm higher than that of contemporary females of Pacopampa and about 20-25 cm higher than that of other Formative Period sites in northern Peru. The peculiarity of this individual, detected not only in the cultural artifacts but also in the physical features, is possible evidence for social stratification in the Formative Period. © Japanese Association of Anatomists 2011.
Takahama U.,Kyushu University |
Yamauchi R.,Gifu University |
Hirota S.,Kyushu Womens University |
Hirota S.,University of East Asia
Free Radical Research | Year: 2014
Catechins are ingested as food components and supplements. It is known that catechins are transformed to dinitrosocatechins by nitrite under acidic conditions, suggesting the possibility of their formation in the stomach because saliva contains nitrite. This paper deals with nitrite-induced transformation of (+)-catechin in methanol extracts of adzuki bean into 6,8-dinitrosocatechin in acidified saliva (pH ≈ 1.9). As the mechanism of its formation, addition of nitric oxide (NO) to (+)-catechin semiquinone radical, both of which were produced in nitrous acid/(+)-catechin systems, was proposed. The dinitrosocatechin was oxidized to the quinone by nitrous acid, and the quinone reacted with a salivary component thiocyanate producing 6′-thiocyanato-6, 8-dinitrosocatechin. Since quinones are toxic, we propose a function of thiocyanate as a scavenger of the o-quinone formed from dinitrosocatechins in the stomach. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.
Yoshikawa K.,Institute for Developmental Research |
Takei S.,Institute for Developmental Research |
Hasegawa-Ishii S.,Institute for Developmental Research |
Chiba Y.,Institute for Developmental Research |
And 6 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2011
Prostaglandin (PG) F2α is a product of cyclooxygenase (COX)-catalyzed metabolism of arachidonic acid and exerts biological functions in various tissues. Prostaglandin ethanolamide (prostamide) F2α is a COX-2-catalyzed metabolite of arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide) that induces pharmacological actions in ocular tissues. Although PGF 2α is one of the most abundant prostaglandins in the brain, function of PGF2α in the central nervous system (CNS) has not been extensively investigated. Recently identified prostamide/PGF synthase catalyzes the reductions of prostamide H2 to prostamide F 2α and PGH2 to PGF2α, chiefly in the CNS. We examined tissue distribution of the enzyme in the CNS by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence, and immuno-electron microscopy. We confirmed histological findings by immunofluorescence analyses of brain cell cultures. Prostamide/PGF synthase was expressed preferentially in the white matter bundles of the entire CNS of adult mice with less marked expression in neuronal cell bodies. The enzyme was colocalized with myelin basic protein (MBP) in myelin sheaths but not in axons. At the ultrastructural level, the enzyme was localized to myelin sheaths. Expression of the enzyme increased between P9 and P14 during the postnatal development, presumably in accordance with myelinogenesis. Cultured oligodendrocytes at 7 days in vitro expressed the enzyme in cytoplasmic processes where the enzyme was colocalized with MBP. Immunoreactivity for COX-2 was detected in white matter and cultured oligodendrocytes. Relatively selective localization of prostamide/PGF synthase suggests that myelin sheaths of the CNS may serve as the sites for producing prostamide F2α and/or PGF2α, which may contribute to the formation and maintenance of central myelin. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Matsumoto M.,Kogakuin University |
Yamanaka S.,Kogakuin University |
Toyama M.,Kogakuin University |
Nomura H.,University of East Asia
European Signal Processing Conference | Year: 2015
This paper introduces an algorithm simulating a moving sound image as a time-variant acoustic event and reports on the results of an investigation of methods for interpolation of binaural responses. As moving sound images require numerous binaural responses, the use of interpolation methods is necessary. We investigated two interpolation methods; one is a linear waveform interpolation method considering of initial time delay difference and the other is a linear interpolation method using the minimum-phase component of a response and an inter-aural time difference model. The methods are evaluated by using a spectrogram of binaural signals simulated by the algorithm. The results showed that the linear interpolation considering the initial time-delay difference resulted in highly precise interpolation and that the inter-aural time difference was maintained in both the methods. © 2002 EUSIPCO.