Denver, CO, United States
Denver, CO, United States

The University of Denver , founded in 1864, is the oldest private university in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States. The University of Denver is a coeducational, four-year university in Denver, Colorado. DU enrolls approximately 5,000 undergraduate students and 6,000 graduate students. The 125-acre main campus is a designated arboretum and is located primarily in the University Neighborhood, about seven miles south of downtown Denver. Wikipedia.

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University of Denver | Date: 2016-08-17

Various arrangements for identifying and grading cancer in tissue samples are presented. A digital image of a stained tissue sample may be acquired. A Shearlet transform may be performed on the digital image of the stained tissue sample. Shearlet coefficients may be calculated based on the performed Shearlet transform of the normalized digital RGB image of the stained tissue sample. A trained neural network may be applied to create a plurality of feature maps using the digital image and Shearlet coefficients, wherein the trained neural network was trained using a plurality of images and Shearlet coefficients of a plurality of digital images. A classifier may be applied to an output of the trained neural network to identify whether cancer is present in the stained tissue sample. A notification may be output that is indicative of a grade of detected cancer in the sample.

McRae K.,University of Denver
Emotion (Washington, D.C.) | Year: 2012

Studies of emotion regulation typically contrast two or more strategies (e.g., reappraisal vs. suppression) and ignore variation within each strategy. To address such variation, we focused on cognitive reappraisal and considered the effects of goals (i.e., what people are trying to achieve) and tactics (i.e., what people actually do) on outcomes (i.e., how affective responses change). To examine goals, we randomly assigned participants to either increase positive emotion or decrease negative emotion to a negative stimulus. To examine tactics, we categorized participants' reports of how they reappraised. To examine reappraisal outcomes, we measured experience and electrodermal responding. Findings indicated that (a) the goal of increasing positive emotion led to greater increases in positive affect and smaller decreases in skin conductance than the goal of decreasing negative emotion, and (b) use of the reality challenge tactic was associated with smaller increases in positive affect during reappraisal. These findings suggest that reappraisal can be implemented in the service of different emotion goals, using different tactics. Such differences are associated with different outcomes, and they should be considered in future research and applied attempts to maximize reappraisal success. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

Peterson R.L.,University of Denver | Pennington B.F.,University of Denver
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterised by slow and inaccurate word recognition. Dyslexia has been reported in every culture studied, and mounting evidence draws attention to cross-linguistic similarity in its neurobiological and neurocognitive bases. Much progress has been made across research specialties spanning the behavioural, neuropsychological, neurobiological, and causal levels of analysis in the past 5 years. From a neuropsychological perspective, the phonological theory remains the most compelling, although phonological problems also interact with other cognitive risk factors. Work confi rms that, neurobiologically, dyslexia is characterised by dysfunction of the normal left hemisphere language network and also implicates abnormal white matter development. Studies accounting for reading experience demonstrate that many recorded neural diff erences show causes rather than Effects of dyslexia. Six predisposing candidate genes have been identifi ed, and evidence shows gene by environment interaction.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY | Award Amount: 177.83K | Year: 2016

This study is focused on improving the understanding of the interactions between soluble iron (Fe) and organic material in fine particles in the atmosphere. This research is relevant to the larger question of how atmospheric iron affects the processing and aging of the organics in atmospheric particulate matter. The results will provide information useful to atmospheric chemists and to environmental health professionals.

The project will examine the importance of the Fe-assisted oxidation route of water-soluble organic carbon. It consists of three tasks: (1) field sampling, (2) characterization of the particulate matter, and (3) photochemical laboratory experiments. The field samples will be analyzed to assess the sources of the atmospheric Fe, since the source of the Fe may determine its chemical speciation and, thus, its solubility and availability to chemical reactions. Aqueous extracts of the field samples will be subjected to an artificial aging process and undergo analysis for oxidation state and the chemical speciation of total iron, and the production of reactive oxygen species will be quantified. By investigating the role of transition metals and taking into account aqueous chemistry, this project will offer a more complete picture of how organic compounds are aged in the atmosphere. The results will provide useful information on the role iron plays in the processing of organic compounds in atmospheric particulate matter and the potential impacts of these mixed particles on human health.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: DYN COUPLED NATURAL-HUMAN | Award Amount: 332.84K | Year: 2016

This interdisciplinary research project will explore the factors associated with success in restoring forest ecosystems in river basins that have been degraded, including the reciprocal causality between peoples attitudes and the dynamics of plant communities on land they are managing. The project will provide new insights and information about plant community dynamics before and after restoration and the attitudes, knowledge sources, and perspectives of land managers regarding restoration. The project will generate new knowledge about interactions between human and natural systems with respect to the influence of ecological variables on public and private land managers perspectives as well as the influence of land managers perspectives on the ecological variables. Project findings will inform land managers about the best practices for restoration and will provide much-needed feedback to restoration scientists about the degree to which their findings are being used and whether anticipated improvements to plant communities are occurring. Results will be disseminated through regional workshops and trade publications aimed at land managers as well as through scholarly presentations and publications directed toward the scientific community. The project also will provide education and training opportunities for graduate and undergraduate students.

Billions of dollars are spent each year to restore degraded river systems around the world. Research on efforts to restore degraded riparian ecosystems have tended to focus on the interplay between engineering designs and the natural dynamics of water, vegetation, and other natural components of the ecosystem, but very little attention has been given to ascertaining how the knowledge, backgrounds, and motivations of people involved in restoration affect the ecological outcomes of such projects. The investigators will undertake this project by expanding on a database they previously assembled based on detailed vegetation surveys and environmental parameters for more than 400 sites along streams in the Colorado River and Rio Grande basins in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. They will seek answers to four sets of questions using these natural-system data and data about human attitudes and behavior gathered through the conduct of online surveys and in-person interviews with land managers for each of the sites: (1) How does plant community structure change as a consequence of restoration? (2) What aspects of a land managers background best explain variability in attitudes toward nature and science? (3) Do elements of the natural environment predict land manager attitudes about science or nature? (4) Do the attitudes of land managers toward science and/or nature affect the success of restoration projects? The impact of restoration activities will be measured with comparisons of vegetation over time within restoration sites as well as comparisons among restoration sites and non-restoration reference sites. The variability in restoration outcomes will be explored using the human-system data, including information about knowledge sources, perspectives on science and nature, and background information, such as education level and level of authority. Qualitative information from interviews will complement the quantitative data from the statistical analyses in order to ascertain which of many factors are important for describing overall patterns. This project is supported by the NSF Dynamics of Coupled Natural and Human Systems (CNH) Program.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY | Award Amount: 142.17K | Year: 2016

We can try to change our emotions by changing our thoughts, but sometimes this is not successful. This CAREER project tests the innovative prediction that certain thoughts engage neural processes to improve our ability to regulate emotions under certain conditions. The researcher, Dr. Kateri McRae, at the University of Denver, will examine whether what a person is doing and what parts of their brain are most active, just before changing their thinking, will matter. When a task uses cognitive processes that overlap with brain regions used during emotion regulation, then the regulation that follows will be easier and more effective. The educational portion of the CAREER projects has two parts. First, undergraduate students will partner with community members to develop multimedia resources about emotions and emotion regulation that will be available via the internet. Second, outreach to the community and underrepresented students will focus on teaching them about making valid conclusions from psychological science, and learning what neuroscience measures in particular can tell us. The potential benefits of this project include discovering the conditions that allow people to manage their emotions. Benefits also include educating a large community about emotion regulation, neuroscience, and the scientific method.

The central hypothesis of this CAREER proposal is that overlapping cognitive and neural processes pave a path for emotion regulation by enhancing cognitive reappraisal. Central to this hypothesis is that rather than being passive victims of their emotions, people have tools they can use to influence their emotions. This project tests the hypothesis that three cognitive processes facilitate subsequent emotion regulation. The first process involves our brains tendency to resolve conflict quickly and efficiently. This project examines the effects of cognitive processes involved in emotional conflict resolution. The second process is decreasing self-focus and thus emotional responses. The third process involves top-down emotion generation, such as that generated via language or rich narratives. Validated experimental manipulations are used with multiple measures of affect across six laboratory experiments. Each of the three candidate processes will be manipulated in their own study. Psychophysiological measures (e.g., electrodermal activity, heart rate, respiration) and self-reports will be used, and their effects on cognitive reappraisal examined. Three fMRI neuroimaging studies (one per process) will test the hypothesis that overlapping neural processes characterize effective precursors of cognitive reappraisal. Lastly, a large-scale neuroimaging analysis will collapse across the three fMRI studies to identify brain regions that are common to successful cognitive reappraisal across contexts. The educational dissemination plan includes having undergraduate students work with community members to develop multimedia presentations, and discussing neuroscience research methods focusing on valid and accurate conclusions. The implications include a better understanding of processes that lead to efficient emotion regulation, thereby enhancing personal well-being and productivity. The implications also include facilitating better understanding of psychological science across a variety of populations.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ELECT, PHOTONICS, & MAG DEVICE | Award Amount: 310.00K | Year: 2016

The electronic and magnetic devices that currently enable rapid information processing and massive data storage are formed in part using metallic structures with dimensions approaching 100 nanometers. Often these devices function due to an applied flow of electrons, and this charge flow generates heat. In many cases this heat limits the performance of these tiny devices and prevents gains in technology. This project aims to explore ways to simultaneously avoid or exploit this heating by study of thermal effects in a particular nanoscale metallic magnetic device known as a non-local spin valve. These devices are already known to allow generation of flows of angular momentum, or spin, in a metallic nanowire with no associated charge flow. However, their operation usually requires large applied electron flows in other elements of the device. The main motivation of this work is to provide the transformative knowledge of thermal effects in these devices that could eventually allow operation with only applied heat, eliminating the charge flow altogether. This will enable simplification and further size reduction in future devices that could significantly advance data storage and other technologies.

The metallic non-local spin valve is an invaluable, though still not thoroughly understood, device for producing and studying pure spin currents. The use of charge currents to produce spin currents in the NLSV was achieved ~15 years ago, and these sensors are poised to play an important role in near-term magnetic recording. However, the electrical injection of spin causes significant heating and thermoelectric effects that strongly affect the performance of the sensors are not yet well characterized and understood. The demonstration of spin injection in the non-local spin valve via purely thermal effects is of even greater interest. These very recent and novel measurements point the way toward implementation of such sensors without the large charge current, which offer many advantages for the ever smaller and more sensitive sensors or more efficient sources demanded by the information technology community. This project takes advantage of unique expertise in creating and measuring thermal gradients and in measuring Seebeck and Peltier effects in nanoscale systems to understand and control heat and spin flow in metallic nanomagnetic devices. The unique ability to directly measure the thermal properties (thermal conductivity, Seebeck, and Peltier coefficients) of the thin film constituents of nanoscale devices using micromachined thermal isolation platforms is a central focus of the project. By removing the bulk substrate from beneath a nanoscale device or thin film, the uncertainty in the direction of heat flow is dramatically reduced, modeling the structure via finite element methods becomes much simpler, and engineering the thermal gradients applied to the nanoscale structures is possible. Specific tasks include: 1) Understanding interface and materials dependence of the spin-dependent Seebeck effect and the absolute Seebeck effect, 2) the Search for magnon-drag contributions, 3) Studies of thermoelectric effects and the spin injection in zero substrate devices, and 4) Thermally engineering response of sensors via external thermal gradients.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 1.80M | Year: 2015

Aquaculture (farmed fish) surpassed wild capture fisheries as the major source of fish production to the world in 2014. On one hand, aquaculture promises to fill the gap left by declining wild fisheries and to provide the world with a reliable, affordable form of fish. On the other hand, aquaculture can have negative consequences such as pollution, inequitable distribution of benefits, and ecological impacts on the wild fish harvested to produce fish feed. These tradeoffs are becoming increasingly evident around Lake Victoria. In the face of stagnating wild fisheries in Lake Victoria and a surging human population around its shores, aquaculture may improve food and livelihood security in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. An international team of researchers from three U.S., one Canadian, and three African institutions are investigating the potential for Lake Victoria-based aquaculture and the implications for wild fisheries, global and local supplies of fish, and regional economic development. Researchers will investigate how global demand for fish affects local markets and the fishers who supply them, how the distribution of benefits from aquaculture can be made more equitable, and how building aquaculture facilities in and near lakes affects the ecology and economics of wild fisheries. This work fills a critical gap in knowledge about the links between aquaculture and wild fish, and it will increase understanding of how emerging markets in developing countries can be structured to promote sustainability and equitability. Given links between poverty and political violence, improving food and income security in East Africa will promote development in a part of the globe with strategic importance to the United States. This project will also build technical and analytical capacity at three East African research institutes, train students in socio-ecological systems modeling, and engage a diverse international, interdisciplinary research team.

This project investigates the dynamic links between the ecology of Lake Victoria (a natural system), the economy of its surrounding fisheries (a human system), and the bridge between these systems created by aquaculture. Within the natural subsystem, dynamics of fish abundance are regulated by predation, competition, and lake productivity. Within the human subsystem, dynamics of demand for fish are driven by local fish consumption and global fish exports. The natural subsystem supplies fish catch to the human subsystem, and the human subsystem impacts fisheries through fishing effort. Aquaculture links these systems through additional production of fish and response to demand. This research will investigate the effects of aquaculture on wild fisheries and food commodity markets through an ecosystem accounting model (MIMES) that links lake biological dynamics with human socio-economic dynamics. New environmental, biological and socio-economic data will be collected through trawl, acoustic, and questionnaire-based surveys. New and existing data will be synthesized with GIS. The expansion of a forecasting model (International Futures or IFs) will investigate effects of global demand dynamics on our system. Finally, MIMES will be used to assess scenarios of aquaculture growth and tradeoffs in fish population dynamics, food security, and income security in the Lake Victoria basin.

University of Denver | Date: 2016-02-11

Some embodiments of the invention are directed toward a robotic head that includes a head enclosure; a translucent face mask coupled with the head enclosure, having a front side and a rear side; a neck system coupled with the head enclosure and configured to move the head enclosure; and a projector coupled with the head enclosure and disposed to project images of a face onto the rear side of the face mask.

University of Denver | Date: 2016-06-30

Systems and methods of the present disclosure may include initializing a first plurality of inertial measurement units (IMUs) and a second plurality of IMUs, and attaching the first plurality of IMUs to a first segment of a subject and the second plurality of IMUs to a second segment of the subject. Such a method may also include obtaining data from the first plurality of IMUs and the second plurality of IMUs as the subject performs a motion, and determining an absolute position of the first segment and the second segment based on the data.

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