The University of Delaware is the largest university in Delaware. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, Wilmington, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is medium-sized – approximately 16,000 undergraduate and 3,500 graduate students. UD is a private university and receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant and urban-grant state-supported research institution. As of 2013, the school's endowment is valued at about US$1.171 billion. Delaware has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.UD is classified as a research university with very high research activity by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. The university's programs in engineering, science, business, hospitality management, education, urban affairs and public policy, public administration, agriculture, history, chemical and biomolecular engineering, chemistry and biochemistry have been highly ranked with some drawing from the historically strong presence of the nation's chemical and pharmaceutical industries in the state of Delaware, such as DuPont and W. L. Gore and Associates. It is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. UD was the first American university to begin a study abroad program.The school from which the university grew was founded in 1743, making it one of the oldest in the nation. However, UD was not chartered as an institution of higher learning until 1833. Its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom would go on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Wikipedia.
University of Delaware and Rowan University | Date: 2015-05-27
A compound is provided according to structure 4, (4) wherein n has a value from 0 to 48 and Z is hydroxyl or a benzene ring bearing substituents R_(11)-R_(15), wherein R_(1)-R_(15 )are each individually selected from the group consisting of H, allyl, alkyl, alkoxy, phenyl, phenoxy, halide, hydroxyl, glycidyl, (meth)acryloyl, 3-(meth)acryloyl-2-hydroxy-1-propoxy, 2,3-epoxypropyl, maleate, and structure (a) wherein at least one of R_(1)-R_(5), at least one of R_(6)-R_(10), and at least one of R_(11)-R_(15 )is hydroxyl or an ether or ester derived from it.
University of Delaware | Date: 2015-07-30
A self-healing composite membrane includes a continuous ionomer phase in which is dispersed a plurality of hollow fibers and/or microcapsules each containing a liquid healing agent that includes a dispersion or solution of a healing ionomer in a liquid vehicle. Electrochemical devices employing the self-healing composite membranes are provided.
University of Delaware | Date: 2016-09-06
Malware detection methods systems, and apparatus are described. Malware may be detected by obtaining a plurality of malware binary executables and a plurality of goodware binary executables, decompiling the plurality of malware binary executables and the plurality of goodware binary executable to extract corresponding assembly code for each of the plurality of malware binary executables and the plurality of goodware binary executable, constructing call graphs for each of the plurality of malware binary executables and the plurality of goodware binary executables from the corresponding assembly code, determining similarities between the call graphs using graph kernels applied to the call graphs for each of the plurality of malware binary executables and the plurality of goodware binary executables, building a malware detection model from the determined similarities between call graphs by applying a machine learning algorithm such as a deep neural network (DNN) algorithm to the determined similarities, and identifying whether a subject executable is malware by applying the built malware detection model to the subject executable.
University of Delaware | Date: 2015-07-21
A compound including a cation of the following structure is provided (1), wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of polymer residues and substituted or unsubstituted alkyl groups, and R is H or a polymer residue. A membrane including the above cation, and electrochemical devices employing this membrane, are also provided.
University of Delaware | Date: 2015-03-26
The invention provides a system and a process that allow for the selective electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide with high energy efficiency, using a cathode comprised of tin in combination with an anode comprised of platinum. The electrolysis system may be comprised of a single or two compartment cell and may employ an organic electrolyte or an ionic liquid electrolyte. The invention permits the storage of solar, wind or conventional electric energy by converting carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and liquid fuels.
University of Delaware | Date: 2017-09-27
Medical treatment simulation systems and devices are disclosed. One device includes an overlay, a simulated treatment structure, at least one feedback device, and at least one processor. The overlay is configured to be secured to the live subject and to cover at least a portion of a body of the live subject. The simulated treatment structure is configured to simulate a structure associated with the medical procedure. The at least one feedback device is configured to provide a feedback signal to the live subject. The at least one processor is connected to the simulated treatment structure and the at least one feedback device. The processor is programmed to operate the feedback device to provide the feedback signal based upon input generated from interaction between a treatment provider and the simulated treatment structure. The disclosed devices may be used to simulate intravenous, catheter, defibrillation, and/or thoracic treatments.
Griffin A.L.,University of Delaware
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience | Year: 2015
Despite decades of research, the neural mechanisms of spatial working memory remain poorly understood. Although the dorsal hippocampus is known to be critical for memoryguided behavior, experimental evidence suggests that spatial working memory depends not only on the hippocampus itself, but also on the circuit comprised of the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Disruption of hippocampal-mPFC interactions may result in failed transfer of spatial and contextual information processed by the hippocampus to the circuitry in mPFC responsible for decision making and goaldirected behavior. Oscillatory synchrony between the hippocampus and mPFC has been shown to increase in tasks with high spatial working memory demand. However, the mechanisms and circuitry supporting hippocampal-mPFC interactions during these tasks is unknown. The midline thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE) is reciprocally connected to both the hippocampus and the mPFC and has been shown to be critical for a variety of working memory tasks. Therefore, it is likely that hippocampal-mPFC oscillatory synchrony is modulated by RE activity. This article will review the anatomical connections between the hippocampus, mPFC and RE along with the behavioral studies that have investigated the effects of RE disruption on working memory task performance. The article will conclude with suggestions for future directions aimed at identifying the specific role of the RE in regulating functional interactions between the hippocampus and the PFC and investigating the degree to which these interactions contribute to spatial working memory. © 2015 Griffin.
Veron F.,University of Delaware
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2015
Ocean spray consists of small water droplets ejected from the ocean surface following surface breaking wave events. These drops get transported in the marine atmospheric boundary layer, in which they exchange momentum and heat with the atmosphere. Small spray droplets are transported over large distances and can remain in the atmosphere for several days, where they will scatter radiation; evaporate entirely, leaving behind sea salt; participate in the aerosol chemical cycle; and act as cloud condensation nuclei. Large droplets remain close to the ocean surface and affect the air-sea fluxes of momentum and enthalpy, thereby enhancing the intensity of tropical cyclones. This review summarizes recent progress and the emerging consensus about the number flux and implications of small sea spray droplets. I also summarize shortcomings in our understanding of the impact of large spray droplets on the meteorology of storm systems. Copyright © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Knox D.,University of Delaware
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory | Year: 2016
Cholinergic input to the neocortex, dorsal hippocampus (dHipp), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical for neural function and synaptic plasticity in these brain regions. Synaptic plasticity in the neocortex, dHipp, ventral Hipp (vHipp), and BLA has also been implicated in fear and extinction memory. This finding raises the possibility that basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons, the predominant source of acetylcholine in these brain regions, have an important role in mediating fear and extinction memory. While empirical studies support this hypothesis, there are interesting inconsistencies among these studies that raise questions about how best to define the role of BF cholinergic neurons in fear and extinction memory. Nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) cholinergic neurons that project to the BLA are critical for fear memory and contextual fear extinction memory. NBM cholinergic neurons that project to the neocortex are critical for cued and contextual fear conditioned suppression, but are not critical for fear memory in other behavioral paradigms and in the inhibitory avoidance paradigm may even inhibit contextual fear memory formation. Medial septum and diagonal band of Broca cholinergic neurons are critical for contextual fear memory and acquisition of cued fear extinction. Thus, even though the results of previous studies suggest BF cholinergic neurons modulate fear and extinction memory, inconsistent findings among these studies necessitates more research to better define the neural circuits and molecular processes through which BF cholinergic neurons modulate fear and extinction memory. Furthermore, studies determining if BF cholinergic neurons can be manipulated in such a manner so as to treat excessive fear in anxiety disorders are needed. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Zondlo N.J.,University of Delaware
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013
Proline residues have unique roles in protein folding, structure, and function. Proline and the aromatic amino acids comprise the encoded cyclic protein residues. Aromatic protein side chains are defined by their negatively charged π faces, while the faces of the proline ring are partially positively charged. This polarity results from their two-point connection of the side chain to the electron-withdrawing protein backbone, and the lower electronegativity of hydrogen compared to carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The hydrogens adjacent to the carbonyl and amide nitrogen, Hα and Hδ, respectively, are the most partially positive. Proline's side chain is also conformationally restricted, allowing for interaction with aromatic residues with minimal entropic or steric penalty. Proline and aromatic residues can interact favorably with each other, due to both the hydrophobic effect and the interaction between the π aromatic face and the polarized C-H bonds, called a CH/π interaction. Aromatic-proline interactions can occur locally, for example, to stabilize cis-amide bonds, and over larger distances, in the tertiary structures of proteins, and intermolecularly in protein-protein interactions. In peptides and proteins, aromatic-proline sequences more readily adopt cis-prolyl amide bonds, where the aromatic ring interacts with the proline ring in the cis conformation. In aromatic-proline sequences, Trp and Tyr are more likely to induce cis-amide bonds than Phe, suggesting an aromatic electronic effect. This result would be expected for a CH/π interaction, in which a more electron-rich aromatic would have a stronger (more cis-stabilizing) interaction with partial positive charges on prolyl hydrogens.In this Account, we describe our investigations into the nature of local aromatic-proline interactions, using peptide models. We synthesized a series of 26 peptides, TXPN, varying X from electron-rich to electron poor aromatic amino acids, and found that the population of cis-amide bond (Ktrans/cis) is tunable by aromatic electronics. With 4-substituted phenylalanines, we observed a Hammett correlation between aromatic electronics and Ktrans/cis, with cis-trans isomerism electronically controllable by 1.0 kcal/mol. All aromatic residues exhibit a higher cis population than Ala or cyclohexylalanine, with Trp showing the strongest aromatic-proline interaction. In addition, proline stereoelectronic effects can modulate cis-trans isomerism by an additional 1.0 kcal/mol. The aromatic-proline interaction is enthalpic, consistent with its description as a CH/π interaction. Proline-aromatic sequences can also promote cis-prolyl bonds, either through interactions of the aromatic ring with the preceding cis-proline or with the Hα prior to cis-proline. Within proline-rich peptides, sequences commonly found in natively disordered proteins, aromatic residues promote multiple cis-amide bonds due to multiple favorable aromatic-proline interactions. Collectively, we found aromatic-proline interactions to be significantly CH/π in nature, tunable by aromatic electronics. We discuss these data in the context of aromatic-proline and aromatic-glycine interactions in local structure, in tertiary structure, in protein-protein interactions, and in protein assemblies. © 2012 American Chemical Society.