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Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

The University of Dar es Salaam is a public university in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It was established in 1961 as an affiliate college of the University of London. The university became an affiliate of the University of East Africa in 1963, shortly after Tanzania gained its independence from the United Kingdom. In 1970, UEA split into three independent universities: Makerere University in Uganda, the University of Nairobi in Kenya, and the University of Dar es Salaam. Wikipedia.

Mkony C.A.,University of Dar es Salaam
Journal of Public Health Policy | Year: 2012

From independence in 1961 Tanzania approached development with an ambitious, socialist agenda, including plans for educating its health workforce to reach rural villagers whose needs German and British rulers had relegated behind those of Europeans, Indians, and Arabs. The new nation's health system was to provide services by employing non-elitist university graduates and auxiliary health workers-educated using resources of poor Tanzanians. This article documents how the Muhimbili University of Allied Health Sciences (MUHAS) evolved from independence, gaining its charter in 2007. Faculty face overwhelming challenges to prepare graduates to lead a health system where the workforce numbers, in every category of auxiliary and professional, have not kept pace with a population that has quadrupled since 1961. The article reviews development of what are now the MUHAS Schools of Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, and Public Health and Social Sciences-in their social and economic context. It closes with reflections about important changes for MUHAS since independence. MUHAS and other health professional schools need to collaborate, sharing meager national resources, to dramatically scale up enrollment. Graduates lead the health system and the many schools that educate health workers from village health post managers through referral hospital specialists and researchers. The text is accompanied by a detailed timeline. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Source

Park K.H.,University of Dar es Salaam
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences | Year: 2014

This paper deals with the similarity solution for a spherical or circular opening excavated in elastic-strain softening rock mass compatible with a linear Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) or a nonlinear Hoek-Brown (H-B) yield criterion. A similarity solution for stresses and displacement is presented by replacing the partial differential equations from stress equilibrium, constitutive law, and consistency equations with first-order ordinary differential equations. The Runge-Kutta (R-K) method is used to solve those first-order ordinary differential equations. Some measures are discussed to solve numerical instability problems in the use of R-K driver with adaptive steps. For comparison, the simple numerical stepwise procedure for a spherical opening is also presented by modifying the previous procedure for a circular opening. Three data sets are used to show the accuracy and practical application of the proposed methods. The results show the importance in choosing the solver for the system of ordinary differential equations and the initial values in the similarity solution. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Research on vegetable oil for biofuels in Africa and Asia has focused mainly on Jatropha curcas while other potential oil bearing plants have received little attention. Vegetable oil production potential for five oil bearing plant species namely: Aleurites moluccana, Croton megalocarpus, Jatropha curcas, Moringa oleifera and Pachira glabra were investigated. Nuts and seeds of the plants were collected from the wild and their potential for vegetable oil production assessed in terms of seed/nut acreage yield, seed/nut oil content, harvesting requirement, and upstream processing before vegetable oil recovery. All five varieties were found to contain acceptable but different oil content ranging from 20 to 33% w/w, and seed/nut acreage yield of 3 t ha -1 y -1 to 12.5 t ha -1 y -1. Upstream processing was needed for A. moluccana to break open nuts to release the kernel, and dehulling for both C. megalocarpus and J. curcas to release the seeds, before extracting the vegetable oil, while the seeds of both M. oleifera and P. glabra did not need upstream processing. The Multi-criteria Decision Analysis ranked C. megalocarpus as the plant with the highest vegetable oil production potential of 1.8 t ha -1 y -1 followed by M. oleifera, J. curcas (1 t ha -1 y -1), A. moluccana, and P. glabra. The analysis underlines the need for more studies on C. megalocarpus and M. oleifera for biofuel production in Africa and other regions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Tibuhwa D.D.,University of Dar es Salaam
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2013

Background: This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers.Methodology: The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values.Results: Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20-30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400-900 annually.Conclusion: This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood. © 2013 Tibuhwa; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Tibuhwa D.D.,University of Dar es Salaam
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2012

Background: Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals.Methods: Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed.Results: Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely affected by wild animals.Conclusion: In order to salvage a noted tremendous decrease of knowledge in mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy from vanishing, there is a need to document it throughout, and incorporate it in lower levels of our education system. Mushroom cultivation may possibly be the best alternative crop for the two communities thus should be advocated for improving livelihood and reduce human wildlife conflicts. The new recorded use of ascospores to anaesthaesia the bees during honey harvesting should be exploited and scaled up for sustainable integrated bee keeping and mushroom farming. © 2012 Tibuhwa; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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