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Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

The University of Dar es Salaam is a public university in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It was established in 1961 as an affiliate college of the University of London. The university became an affiliate of the University of East Africa in 1963, shortly after Tanzania gained its independence from the United Kingdom. In 1970, UEA split into three independent universities: Makerere University in Uganda, the University of Nairobi in Kenya, and the University of Dar es Salaam. Wikipedia.

Mkony C.A.,University of Dar es Salaam
Journal of Public Health Policy | Year: 2012

From independence in 1961 Tanzania approached development with an ambitious, socialist agenda, including plans for educating its health workforce to reach rural villagers whose needs German and British rulers had relegated behind those of Europeans, Indians, and Arabs. The new nation's health system was to provide services by employing non-elitist university graduates and auxiliary health workers-educated using resources of poor Tanzanians. This article documents how the Muhimbili University of Allied Health Sciences (MUHAS) evolved from independence, gaining its charter in 2007. Faculty face overwhelming challenges to prepare graduates to lead a health system where the workforce numbers, in every category of auxiliary and professional, have not kept pace with a population that has quadrupled since 1961. The article reviews development of what are now the MUHAS Schools of Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, and Public Health and Social Sciences-in their social and economic context. It closes with reflections about important changes for MUHAS since independence. MUHAS and other health professional schools need to collaborate, sharing meager national resources, to dramatically scale up enrollment. Graduates lead the health system and the many schools that educate health workers from village health post managers through referral hospital specialists and researchers. The text is accompanied by a detailed timeline. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Source

Park K.H.,University of Dar es Salaam
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences | Year: 2014

This paper deals with the similarity solution for a spherical or circular opening excavated in elastic-strain softening rock mass compatible with a linear Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) or a nonlinear Hoek-Brown (H-B) yield criterion. A similarity solution for stresses and displacement is presented by replacing the partial differential equations from stress equilibrium, constitutive law, and consistency equations with first-order ordinary differential equations. The Runge-Kutta (R-K) method is used to solve those first-order ordinary differential equations. Some measures are discussed to solve numerical instability problems in the use of R-K driver with adaptive steps. For comparison, the simple numerical stepwise procedure for a spherical opening is also presented by modifying the previous procedure for a circular opening. Three data sets are used to show the accuracy and practical application of the proposed methods. The results show the importance in choosing the solver for the system of ordinary differential equations and the initial values in the similarity solution. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Tibuhwa D.D.,University of Dar es Salaam
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2012

Background: Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals.Methods: Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed.Results: Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely affected by wild animals.Conclusion: In order to salvage a noted tremendous decrease of knowledge in mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy from vanishing, there is a need to document it throughout, and incorporate it in lower levels of our education system. Mushroom cultivation may possibly be the best alternative crop for the two communities thus should be advocated for improving livelihood and reduce human wildlife conflicts. The new recorded use of ascospores to anaesthaesia the bees during honey harvesting should be exploited and scaled up for sustainable integrated bee keeping and mushroom farming. © 2012 Tibuhwa; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Geochronological, petrographic and geochemical data from eclogites of the Ufipa Terrane in the Ubendian Belt demonstrate that a Pan-African suture zone dated at 593 ± 20, 548 ± 39 and 524 ± 12. Ma (zircon U-Pb SHRIMP) separates the Tanzania Craton from the Bangweulu Block along the Ubendian Belt. These new and surprising data indicate that during the amalgamation of the Gondwana Supercontinent there was a collision between the Archean Cratons of Tanzania and Bangweulu. A clockwise P-T path that climaxed at pressures of 15-20. kbar and temperatures of 610-790. °C were estimated for these eclogites. This indicates a relatively warm subduction with a geothermal gradient of about 10-11. °C/km. Magmatic precursor rocks of kyanite-free eclogites crystallized in the back-arc (group I eclogite) and island-arc (group II eclogite) tectonic settings. The light rare earth elements (LREEs) of group I eclogites range between 10 and 30 times chondritic values suggesting a depleted mantle source similar to that of mid oceanic ridge basalts (MORB). Group II eclogites display characteristic depletions of high-field-strength elements (Na, Ta, Zr and Hf) relative to LREEs that is typical for island-arc basalts. The U-Pb zircon ages at 593 ± 20 and 524 ± 12. Ma from the kyanite-free eclogites have a difference of about 70. Ma. The time interval of this much long is not likely to represent a single subduction event. Therefore, it is more likely that successive accretions of volcanic-arc rocks occurred at 593 ± 20, 548 ± 39 and 524 ± 12. Ma. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 61.20K | Year: 2015

Central and Southern Africa (C&SA) exemplifies the issues that FCFA aims to address: a complex mix of remote and regional climate drivers that challenge conventional climate model simulations, high levels of poorly simulated multi-year climate variability, an extremely low level of investment in climate science relative even to other parts of Africa but particularly West Africa; high physical and socio-economic exposure to climate that projections indicate may become drier and more variable in the future; and low adaptive capacity resulting in decision-making and medium-term planning that is inhibited by significant political, institutional and economic barriers. Meanwhile economic growth and significant infrastructure planning is taking place within C&SA in the absence of adequate climate information. Deficient understanding of many key climate features in C&SA is one barrier to the integration of climate information into decision-making. UMFULA will provide a step-change in climate science in C&SA. Our objectives include: (i) fundamental research into key climate processes over C&SA and how these are dealt with in models; (ii) a process-based evaluation to determine how models invoke change and whether that change is credible; (iii) production of novel climate products (Work Packages WP1-2) encompassing convection permitting and very high resolution (c4 km) ocean-atmosphere coupled simulations that will reveal processes of high impact events and as yet unexplored complexities of the climate change signal. We will also focus on neglected but critical elements of the circulation such as the links between C&SA and the role of local features including the Angolan Low, Botswana anticyclone, Angola/Benguela Frontal Zone, and the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge. Based on this research and through co-production with stakeholders we will generate improved and streamlined climate information for decision-makers (WP3). We will use a deliberative and participatory methodology to test findings from FCFA pillars 1 and 2 with stakeholders based on deep engagement in two contrasting case studies: the Rufiji river basin in Tanzania, and sub-national decision-making in Malawi. They are carefully selected as exemplars of multi-sector, multi-stakeholder, and multi-scale decision situations which can be compared for transferable lessons on the effective use of climate services. In-depth understanding of decision-making contexts, including political economy, theories of institutional change, and individual motivation from behavioural sciences will inform how to tailor and target climate projections for most effective use (WP4). The case study areas (WP5-6) will test these findings through a co-produced framework of C&SA-appropriate decision-making under climate uncertainty to identify robust climate services-informed intervention pathways (portfolios of policies and investments that could work well over a broad range of climatic and socio-economic futures). Our Capstone Work Package (WP7), and major outcome, will be the synthesis of best decision-making models and appraisal methods that are transferable in the African context and enable effective use of climate information in medium-term decision-making. The seven UMFULA Work Packages cut across the three FCFA pillars to ensure maximum complementarity and integration. We are a consortium with world-leading expertise in climate science, decision science and adaptation research and practice, together with stakeholder networks and strong, long-standing relationships in C&SA. We comprise 5 UK and 13 African institutions.

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