Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

University of Dar es Salaam

udsm.ac.tz
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

The University of Dar es Salaam is a public university in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It was established in 1961 as an affiliate college of the University of London. The university became an affiliate of the University of East Africa in 1963, shortly after Tanzania gained its independence from the United Kingdom. In 1970, UEA split into three independent universities: Makerere University in Uganda, the University of Nairobi in Kenya, and the University of Dar es Salaam. Wikipedia.


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The direct dependence of humans on ecosystem services is by far strongest in developing regions where poverty restricts access to resources. This dependency also makes people in developing countries more sensitive to climate change than their developed counterparts. Increasing human populations deteriorates natural habitat, biodiversity and ecosystems services which spiral into poverty and low human welfare. This calls for innovative solutions that encompass the entire socio-ecological-economic system, as recognized on a global scale in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. However, innovative and practical solutions require downscaling to regional levels for identifying concrete sets of drivers of change. For Africa specifically, the interplay of human population growth, land use change, climate change and human well-being is a major challenge. This project focuses on the Serengeti-Maasai Mara Ecosystem and associated agricultural areas, a region in East Africa that encompasses parts of Kenya and Tanzania. The ecosystem is world-famous for key aspects of its biodiversity, such as the migration of 1.3 million wildebeest. This flagship ecosystem role will enhance the international interest in the project. In this project, internationally leading researchers from Norway, the Netherlands, Scotland, Denmark and Germany are teaming up with strong local partners in Tanzania and Kenya. The research will be organised in seven interlinked work packages: 1) assemble and integrate the so far separate Kenyan and Tanzanian relevant data on the region; 2) quantify the connections between human population growth, land use change, climate change and biodiversity change; 3) test how biodiversity change leads to changes in key ecosystem services; 4) quantify the dependence of human livelihoods on these ecosystem services. We will implement innovative ways for communication and dissemination of the results of continuous engagement by local stakeholders.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.4-1 | Award Amount: 3.79M | Year: 2011

The proposal addresses the workforce deficit in sub-Saharan countries in Africa by improving the overall performance of the workforce. Management strengthening activities will be tested to identify what improvements can be made within available resources in decentralised management structures. The management strengthening activities will develop integrated approaches to improving workforce performance based on a situation analysis and monitor the impact on workforce performance and on unintended systems effects. New knowledge will be developed on the effectiveness of an action-based approach to management strengthening and what strategies improve health workforce performance in different contexts.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.4-3 | Award Amount: 2.24M | Year: 2011

In sub-Saharan Africa health improvement remains a major development challenge. A growing evidence base demonstrates that health systems must be strengthened to secure progress in addressing mortality and tackling disease burdens. Yet there is a dearth of African research to support such action. African Ministers of Health and international agencies have, therefore, called for accelerated development of relevant research. At present, relatively few African scientists work in the field of health policy and systems (HPS) research and few African universities offer relevant training programmes. And although such research derives its utility largely from its ability to inform decision-making, interactions between the research and policy communities are generally weak and policy makers are often unaware of, or uninterested, in relevant research. The development of sustained African HPS research capacity, thus, requires the consolidation and strengthening of relevant research and educational programmes, as well as the development of stronger engagement between the policy and research communities. CHEPSAA will address both of these issues. Its goal is to extend sustainable African capacity to produce and use high quality HPS research. It builds on and expands the work of an existing HPS capacity development partnership among seven African universities, drawing in the support of four European universities with particular expertise in this field. During its lifetime it will: review capacity development needs amongst the African organizations and their national networks; strengthen African skills and organisational capacity to support HPS research and training; extend existing training programmes provided by the African participants; and support the development of excellent academic teaching and research networks both to sustain national and regional demand for HPS training and research, and to facilitate the use of research in policy making.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.10M | Year: 2015

East Africa (EA) has one of the worlds fastest growing populations, with maxima around water-bodies and rapid urbanisation. Climate change is adding to existing problems increasing vulnerability of the poorest. HyCRISTAL is driven by EA priorities. EA communities rely on rainfall for food via agriculture. EAs inland lakes are rain-fed and provide water, power and fisheries. For EAs growing cities, climate impacts on water resources will affect water supply & treatment. HyCRISTAL will therefore operate in both urban & rural contexts. Change in water availability will be critical for climate-change impacts in EA, but projections are highly uncertain for rain, lakes, rivers and groundwater, and for extremes. EA Long-Rains are observed to be decreasing; while models tend to predict an increase (the EA Climate paradox) although predictions are not consistent. This uncertainty provides a fundamental limit on the utility of climate information to inform policy. HyCRISTAL will therefore make best use of current projections to quantify uncertainty in user-relevant quantities and provide ground-breaking research to understand and reduce the uncertainty that currently limits decision making. HyCRISTAL will work with users to deliver world-leading climate research quantifying uncertainty from natural variability, uncertainty from climate forcings including those previously unassessed, and uncertainty in response to these forcings; including uncertainties from key processes such as convection and land-atmopshere coupling that are misrepresented in global models. Research will deliver new understanding of the mechanisms that drive the uncertainty in projections. HyCRISTAL will use this information to understand trends, when climate-change signals will emerge and provide a process-based expert judgement on projections. Working with policy makers, inter-disciplinary research (hydrology, economics, engineering, social science, ecology and decision-making) will quantify risks for rural & urban livelihoods, quantify climate impacts and provide the necessary tools to use climate information for decision making. HyCRISTAL will work with partners to co-produce research for decision-making on a 5-40 year timescale, demonstrated in 2 main pilots for urban water and policies to enable adaptive climate-smart rural livelihoods. These cover two of three areas of need from the African Ministerial Council on Environments Comprehensive Framework of African Climate Change Programmes. HyCRISTAL has already engaged 12 partners from across EA. HyCRISTALs Advisory Board will provide a mechanism for further growing stakeholder engagement. HyCRISTAL will work with the FCFA global & regional projects and CCKE, sharing methods, tools, user needs, expertise & communication. Uniquely, HyCRISTAL will capitalise on the new LVB-HyNEWS, an African-led consortium, governed by the East African Community, the Lake Victoria Basin Commission and National Meteorological and Hydrological agencies, with the African Ministerial Conference on Meteorology as an observer. HyCRISTAL will build EA capacity directly via collaboration (11 of 25 HyCRISTAL Co-Is are African, with 9 full-time in Africa), including data collection and via targeted workshops and teaching. HyCRISTAL will deliver evidence of impact, with new and deep climate science insights that will far outlast its duration. It will support decisions for climate-resilient infrastructure and livelihoods through application of new understanding in its pilots, with common methodological and infrastructure lessons to promote policy and enable transformational change for impact-at-scale. Using a combination of user-led and science-based management tools, HyCRISTAL will ensure the latest physical science, engineering and social-science yield maximum impacts. HyCRISTAL will deliver outstanding outputs across FCFAs aims; synergies with LVB-HyNEWS will add to these and ensure longevity beyond HyCRISTAL.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2013.2.5-01 | Award Amount: 4.95M | Year: 2014

TRANSMANGO aims to obtain a comprehensive picture of the effects of the global drivers of change (climate, economic concentration and market structure, financial power, resource competition, marginalization, property rules, geo-political shifts, consumer preferences, consumption patterns and nutritional transition) on European and global food demand and on raw material production (and, consequently, on food flows). The research focuses on the vulnerability and resilience of European food systems in a context of socio-economic, behavioral, technological, institutional and agro-ecological change and aims to enhance understanding of the new challenges and opportunities that the food sector will face in the future. Vulnerability assessment methodologies and dynamic modeling tools will be reviewed, upgraded and developed to assess the resilience of Europes agro-food sector and food security situation and to understand the sustainability frontiers of different food production systems under the new unfolding conditions. The project will collect analytical data that will be used to design scenarios for the desired transition pathways in the food system. Based on these scenarios, TRANSMANGO will provide guidance to support the transition towards sustainability and will offer recommendations to address Europes medium- and long-term food security.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRASUPP-7-2014 | Award Amount: 1.34M | Year: 2015

In African Communities of Practice (CoPs), international collaboration and the pursuit of scientific endeavour has faced a major barrier with the lack of access to e-Infrastructures and high performance network infrastructure enjoyed by European counterparts. With AfricaConnect, the proposed AfricaConnect2 and regional developments, this situation is changing rapidly. In the project Teaming-up for exploiting e-Infrastructures potential to boost RTDI in Africa (eI4Africa) it has been demonstrated clearly that it is possible to develop e-Infrastructures in Africa. It has also been demonstrated clearly that, as with the rest of the world, easy to use web portals, or Science Gateways, are needed to help CoPs to easily access e-Infrastructure facilities and through these collaborate with CoPs across the world. However, a major problem exists: it is very difficult for non-experts to develop Science Gateways and supporting e-Infrastructures. Elements of guides and supporting materials exist but these are either written for different audiences or out of date. This present Coordination and Support Action, called Energising Scientific Endeavour through Science Gateways and e-Infrastructures in Africa (Sci-GaIA), therefore proposes to bring together these materials into clearly structured guides and educational documents that can be used to train and support representatives of NRENs, CoPs and, importantly, Universities to develop Science Gateways and other e-Infrastructures services in Africa. Sci-GaIA plans to work with new and emerging CoPs to develop these exciting technologies, to strengthen e-Infrastructure service provision, especially in terms of open access linked data, and to deliver training and dissemination workshops. This will give a sustainable foundation on which African e-Infrastructures can be developed and be linked to scientific networks across Africa. Importantly, the results of our project will be usable by CoPs in Europe and the rest of the world.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.4-7 | Award Amount: 3.94M | Year: 2011

The goal of universal health coverage is receiving growing attention. How best to improve risk pooling and to ensure that the most socially disadvantaged receive priority in having their health care costs met, are questions yet to be answered, particularly within the African context where very few countries have achieved universal health systems. South Africa is introducing National Health Insurance, where formal sector workers will make mandatory contributions which will be pooled with allocations from general tax revenue. Tanzania is integrating existing health insurance schemes for formal and informal sector workers under the management of a single insurer. Translating such health financing reforms into intended changes on the ground requires a well functioning monitoring and evaluation system which provides data that allow policies to be improved over time, and consequently strengthen their potential to achieve universal health coverage. This research aims to support these reforms intended to achieve universal coverage in South Africa and Tanzania by monitoring and evaluating the policy processes. Specifically, it seeks to: track policy formulation and planning for implementation; monitor the progress of policy implementation at both the national and district levels, with an emphasis on identifying implementation problems and serving as an early warning system for policy makers and implementers; evaluate the impact of interventions aimed at progressing towards the goal of universal coverage; engage with policy makers and implementers at all levels about the research findings throughout the study period; and synthesise the results from the studies in the two countries, and compare these with experiences in other countries, to draw out policy implications on health financing mechanisms and implementation strategies supporting the achievement of universal coverage for quality health care in low- and middle-income countries.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2012-3.3. | Award Amount: 1.03M | Year: 2012

The eI4Africa project aims to boost the research, technological development and innovation (RTDI) potential of African e-Infrastructures and to support policy dialogues and Euro-African cooperation in the framework of the Joint Africa-EU Strategic Partnership on trade, regional integration and infrastructures (JAES Partnership #3) as well as the Joint Africa-EU Strategic Partnership on science, information society and space (JAES Partnership #8).\n\nSpecifically, the eI4Africa project seeks to achieve the following main objectives:\n\n- Define and implement a structured multi-channel outreach strategy to support the development of African national and regional research and education networks (NRENs/RENs), build cooperation between Euro-African NRENs, RENs and user communities, raise awareness at policy level on the benefits and value of research and education networks, and promote and strengthen Euro-African collaborative research on e-Infrastructures and their applications;\n\n- Produce a state-of-the-art study of e-Infrastructure application uptake in Africa to identify who are early adopters of e-Infrastructures (providers) and which user communities are early beneficiaries (consumers) of e-Infrastructures;\n\n- Select existing flagship demonstrations from other continents and illustrate their relevance to the African context in order to stimulate policy dialogue on e-Infrastructures;\n\n- Stimulate targeted policy and regulatory discussions, including (but not limited to) cross-border connectivity and affordable access to infrastructure by organising awareness raising flagship African e-Infrastructure application demonstrations.\n\nThe project Consortium consists of 9 partners with significant experience of ICT policies in Europe and Africa and Africa-EU S&T/ICT/Infrastructures cooperation. It is capable of significantly impacting the expansion of Euro-African e-Infrastructures in close liaison with the EC/AUC and in partnership with key stakeholders in the field.


Nd-isotopic data are presented for the granitoids that straddle the Archaean-Proterozoic (A-P) boundary in southwestern Tanzania along the Itigi-Makongolosi road traverse. On the basis of their Nd depleted mantle (TDM) ages, two groups of granitoids can be identified: those which show TDM ages of 2541-2894Ma and are therefore belonging to the Archaean and those which have Proterozoic TDM ages of 2031-2430Ma. Archaean granitoids are deformed, grayish in colour and consist of plagioclase, biotite and quartz and include a few microcline-rich, rare biotite pink alkali granites whereas the Proterozoic ones include mainly undeformed, microcline-rich, pink alkali granites. Although there are several compositional overlaps between the two, Proterozoic granitoids differ from those of the Archaean in showing enrichment in incompatible elements and overall higher abundances of the rare earth elements. Both Archaean and Proterozoic granitoids show negative to slightly positive Eu anomalies. These geochemical characteristics are attributed to the involvement of plagioclase in their magmagenesis indicating their generation at low pressures and shallow depths with the Proterozoic granitoids being derived from a more felsic protolith. Nd-isotopic data, coupled with petrography and lithological field relationships as well as major and trace elements geochemistry of the granitoids, places the A-P boundary approximately 150. km inside from the southern traditionally accepted boundary near Lake Rukwa in southwestern Tanzania. This implies that the size of the Archaean Tanzania Craton is smaller than hitherto understood. Small vestiges/domains showing Archaean ages within the Proterozoic regions could be explained as being slivers of tectonically interleaved Archaean material found within the Proterozoic terrane in southwestern Tanzania. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 61.20K | Year: 2015

Central and Southern Africa (C&SA) exemplifies the issues that FCFA aims to address: a complex mix of remote and regional climate drivers that challenge conventional climate model simulations, high levels of poorly simulated multi-year climate variability, an extremely low level of investment in climate science relative even to other parts of Africa but particularly West Africa; high physical and socio-economic exposure to climate that projections indicate may become drier and more variable in the future; and low adaptive capacity resulting in decision-making and medium-term planning that is inhibited by significant political, institutional and economic barriers. Meanwhile economic growth and significant infrastructure planning is taking place within C&SA in the absence of adequate climate information. Deficient understanding of many key climate features in C&SA is one barrier to the integration of climate information into decision-making. UMFULA will provide a step-change in climate science in C&SA. Our objectives include: (i) fundamental research into key climate processes over C&SA and how these are dealt with in models; (ii) a process-based evaluation to determine how models invoke change and whether that change is credible; (iii) production of novel climate products (Work Packages WP1-2) encompassing convection permitting and very high resolution (c4 km) ocean-atmosphere coupled simulations that will reveal processes of high impact events and as yet unexplored complexities of the climate change signal. We will also focus on neglected but critical elements of the circulation such as the links between C&SA and the role of local features including the Angolan Low, Botswana anticyclone, Angola/Benguela Frontal Zone, and the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge. Based on this research and through co-production with stakeholders we will generate improved and streamlined climate information for decision-makers (WP3). We will use a deliberative and participatory methodology to test findings from FCFA pillars 1 and 2 with stakeholders based on deep engagement in two contrasting case studies: the Rufiji river basin in Tanzania, and sub-national decision-making in Malawi. They are carefully selected as exemplars of multi-sector, multi-stakeholder, and multi-scale decision situations which can be compared for transferable lessons on the effective use of climate services. In-depth understanding of decision-making contexts, including political economy, theories of institutional change, and individual motivation from behavioural sciences will inform how to tailor and target climate projections for most effective use (WP4). The case study areas (WP5-6) will test these findings through a co-produced framework of C&SA-appropriate decision-making under climate uncertainty to identify robust climate services-informed intervention pathways (portfolios of policies and investments that could work well over a broad range of climatic and socio-economic futures). Our Capstone Work Package (WP7), and major outcome, will be the synthesis of best decision-making models and appraisal methods that are transferable in the African context and enable effective use of climate information in medium-term decision-making. The seven UMFULA Work Packages cut across the three FCFA pillars to ensure maximum complementarity and integration. We are a consortium with world-leading expertise in climate science, decision science and adaptation research and practice, together with stakeholder networks and strong, long-standing relationships in C&SA. We comprise 5 UK and 13 African institutions.

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