North West England, United Kingdom

University of Cumbria
North West England, United Kingdom

The University of Cumbria is a university in Cumbria. Its headquarters are in Carlisle. Other major campuses are at Lancaster, Ambleside, Barrow-in-Furness, and London. It was established in 2007, following the merger of St Martin's College, the Cumbria Institute of the Arts and the Cumbrian campuses of the University of Central Lancashire. Its roots extend back to the Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts established in 1822 and Charlotte Mason teacher training college in the 1890s. The university is based upon the idea of a "distributed learning network", so that teaching takes place both at the university's main campuses, and at remote colleges of further education around Cumbria, a rural county that includes the Lake District. Wikipedia.

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Litchfield D.,Edge Hill University | Donovan T.,University of Cumbria
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance | Year: 2016

Rapid scene recognition is a global visual process we can all exploit to guide search. This ability is thought to underpin expertise in medical image perception yet there is no direct evidence that isolates the expertise-specific contribution of processing scene previews on subsequent eye movement performance. We used the flash-preview moving window paradigm (Castelhano & Henderson, 2007) to investigate this issue. Expert radiologists and novice observers underwent 2 experiments whereby participants viewed a 250-ms scene preview or a mask before searching for a target. Observers looked for everyday objects from real-world scenes (Experiment 1), and searched for lung nodules from medical images (Experiment 2). Both expertise groups exploited the brief preview of the upcoming scene to more efficiently guide windowed search in Experiment 1, but there was only a weak effect of domain-specific expertise in Experiment 2, with experts showing small improvements in search metrics with scene previews. Expert diagnostic performance was better than novices in all conditions but was not contingent on seeing the scene preview, and scene preview actually impaired novice diagnostic performance. Experiment 3 required novice and experienced observers to search for a variety of abnormalities from different medical images. Rather than maximizing the expertise-specific advantage of processing scene previews, both novices and experienced radiographers were worse at detecting abnormalities with scene previews. We discuss how restricting access to the initial glimpse can be compensated for by subsequent search and discovery processing, but there can still be costs in integrating a fleeting glimpse of a medical scene. © 2016 American Psychological Association.

Esformes J.I.,Cardiff Metropolitan University | Bampouras T.M.,University of Cumbria
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2013

Postactivation potentiation (PAP) refers to increased muscular force generation after previous muscular activity. Various studies have used different squat variations as a PAP stimulus; however, different squat depths can have different mechanical and physiological demands that could yield different PAP levels and subsequent performance. The study aimed to compare the effects of the parallel (PS) and quarter (QS) squat on PAP. Twenty-seven, semiprofessional, male rugby union players (mean 6 SD, 18 6 2 years, 87.2 6 5.4 kg, 180.7 6 5.1 cm) performed a countermovement jump (BL-CMJ) followed by a 10-minute rest. Subsequently, they performed 3 PS or QS, at each squat's respective 3-repetition maximum load, in a randomized counterbalanced order. After a 5-minute rest, another countermovement jump (CMJ) was performed (POSTCMJ). Countermovement jump height (JH), peak power (PP), impulse (I), and flight time (FT) were recorded using a contact mat. BL-CMJ and POST-CMJ pairwise comparisons for all variables were conducted for each squat type to examine performance changes. Delta values were compared to examine whether one squat produced better CMJ results. Both squats induced PAP for all the variables (p , 0.05), although PS produced better results than QS (p , 0.05; JH, 4.6 6 2 vs. 3.5 6 2 cm; I, 15 6 6 vs. 12 6 5 N·s; PP, 285 6 109 vs. 215 6 96 W; FT, 34 6 23 vs. 26 6 11 milliseconds for PS vs. QS). This is the first study to demonstrate that different squat types can induce PAP and that PS is more beneficial for subsequent CMJ performance compared with QS. It is suggested that the deeper depth of PS, which increases gluteus maximum activation and work produced, is responsible for the increased CMJ performance. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Chang K.,University of Cumbria
Disasters | Year: 2010

This project analysed changes in community cohesion following a natural disaster. Data were collected from a flood-affected community using a questionnaire survey. Analyses revealed that community cohesion was not predicted by the length of residence, or any other demographic characteristic of residents, but rather by a sense of community, community cognition and the degree of community participation. Cohesion alteration was not uniform, but varied along levels of hazard severity (degree of flood invasion). Cohesion increased in line with hazard severity at the initial flood stage, as residents recognised the importance of community unity and came together to cope with their losses. When the severity increased, residents transferred their focus to individual interests, which resulted in decreased cohesion. This project distinguishes itself in examining community cohesion in the wake of a natural disaster in the real world. Implications regarding community reconstruction and suggestions for hazard researchers are discussed accordingly. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

Cabras I.,University of Cumbria
International Journal of Public Sector Management | Year: 2011

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate public procurement activity within the Cumbria County Council and its effects on the local supply chain. The paper seeks to identify the role of public procurement within the county, in relation to the propensity for income retention (or leakage) at local level. In addition, the paper seeks to consider issues related to public procurement in peripheral and rural areas, with particular reference to small and medium businesses operating in Cumbria, and to provide a spatial analysis of money flows at regional and national level. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative data, from primary and secondary sources, were obtained from a survey questionnaire conducted among the Council's suppliers and from SpikesCavell, an agency specializing in collecting procurement data, respectively. The study focuses on public sector suppliers. It analyses suppliers' attributes and characteristics such as size, location and sector of activity are used in order to explore suppliers' patterns of spend in relation to inward and outward cash-flows within the County. Additionally, the paper explores the effects of the local authority's procurement in terms of advantages/disadvantages for the local supply chain. Findings: The paper highlights the ability of competitive tendering systems to achieve cash saving and reduce wastage; but questions whether the adoption of such systems in the public sector produces positive economic effects on the local supply chain in peripheral and remote areas. Originality/value: There is a lack of research on the impact of public procurement at regional and sub-regional level and its significance as a source of income and businesses operating within local supply chains. This paper seeks to contribute to filling this research gap by presenting and analysing data associated with procurement activity within a peripheral local authority. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Chapman I.,University of Cumbria
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

Up until recently Peak Oil was a major discussion point crossing from academic research into mainstream journalism, yet it now attracts far less interest. This paper evaluates the reasons for this and on-going relevance of Peak Oil, considering variations in predictive dates for the phenomenon supported by technological, economic and political issues. Using data from agencies, the validity of each position is assessed looking at reserves, industrial developments and alternative fuels. The complicating issue of demand is also considered.The conclusions are that, supported by commercial interests, an unsubstantiated belief in market and technical solutions, and a narrow paradigmatic focus, critics of Peak Oil theory have used unreliable reserve data, optimistic assumptions about utilisation of unconventional supplies and unrealistic predictions for alternative energy production to discredit the evidence that the resource-limited peak in the world's production of conventional oil has arrived, diverting discussion from what should be a serious topic for energy policy: how we respond to decreasing supplies of one of our most important energy sources. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Carlisle in northwest England suffered its worse floods for more than 180 years in 2005. A study, reported here, was undertaken to assess the health and social impacts of these floods via in-depth, taped individual and focus-group interviews with people whose homes had been flooded and with agency workers who helped them. Respondents spoke of physical health ailments, psychological stress, water health-and-safety issues related to the floods, and disputes with insurance and construction companies, which they felt had caused and exacerbated psychological health problems. Support workers also suffered from psychological stress. Furthermore, it was found that people had low expectations of a flood and were not prepared. The findings are presented in five sections covering flood risk awareness, water contamination issues, physical health, mental health, and impact on frontline support workers. The discussion focuses on the implications of the findings for policy and practice vis-à-vis psychological health provision, contamination issues, training and support for frontline support workers, matters relating to restoration, and preparation for flooding. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Knowledge Transfer Partnership | Award Amount: 45.38K | Year: 2013

To produce a toolkit for reduction in carbon emissions in self-catering properties by engaging owners in best practice and installing and monitoring energy efficiency improvements.

Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Knowledge Transfer Partnership | Award Amount: 36.30K | Year: 2013

To create, implement and exploit a GIS-enabled, standards-compliant on-line recording tool for collating freshwater biological records for use by non-scientists and investigate sustainable income streams.

Agency: GTR | Branch: AHRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 32.40K | Year: 2011

In the context of service integration and development, communities in Health and Social Care require interrogation: analysis enables identification of community in relation to governance, professional practice and user/citizen constituencies. Knowledge, understandings and identities within different communities need recognition if cross-community engagement and development work is to be undertaken; those who themselves cross communities or identify with multiple health and social care communities may be valuable connectors, in either formal or informal roles. In contrast to predominant theories in organisational studies (e.g. functionalist; social learning), humanities offers the lens of virtue ethics with which to examine connectedness in communities and change over time. Workshop activity found that whilst policy can be disruptive of pre-existing communities in health and social care, communities can respond, to affirm their purpose and seek joint understandings of purpose with others. Future research should explore how communities in health and social care respond to changing circumstances, and what factors influence whether community forms and capacity are enabled or threatened by policy and practice developments.

Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Knowledge Transfer Partnership | Award Amount: 72.60K | Year: 2014

To enable retailers in collaboration to develop sophisticated e/m/omni-commerce activity via online Independent Retailer Department Store and a Carlisle market place app.

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