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North West England, United Kingdom

The University of Cumbria is a university in Cumbria. Its headquarters are in Carlisle. Other major campuses are at Lancaster, Ambleside, Barrow-in-Furness, and London. It was established in 2007, following the merger of St Martin's College, the Cumbria Institute of the Arts and the Cumbrian campuses of the University of Central Lancashire. Its roots extend back to the Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts established in 1822 and Charlotte Mason teacher training college in the 1890s. The university is based upon the idea of a "distributed learning network", so that teaching takes place both at the university's main campuses, and at remote colleges of further education around Cumbria, a rural county that includes the Lake District. Wikipedia.

Cameron N.,Regional Athletics Center North East | Bampouras T.M.,University of Cumbria
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

The performance characteristics of skeletal muscle are transient in nature and have been shown to be significantly affected by its contractile history, where the phenomenon of acute enhancement is termed postactivation potentiation (PAP). Acute enhancement of dynamic activity has been observed when preceded by resistance exercises; however little information exists for plyometric activity as a conditioning stimulus. In addition, no study has examined PAP effects on more than one subsequent performance trial. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether countermovement jump (CMJ) performance could be enhanced if preceded by heavyresistance exercise or by dynamic plyometric activity over 3 trials. Thirteen anaerobically trained male subjects (mean ± SD: age, 22 ± 3 years; height, 182.4 ± 4.3 cm; body mass, 82.7 ± 9.2 kg) performed in a counterbalanced order 3 half squats using a 3 repetition maximum loading (SQUAT), a set of 24 contacts of lower body plyometric exercises (PLYO), or a control of no activity (REST) 5 minutes before each CMJ. Three sets of each treatment and CMJ were performed in total and maximal displacement (dmax), peak power (Ppeak), and peak vertical force (Fpeak) were recorded, whereas rate of force development and relative force (F/body mass) were calculated for every trial. No significant differences were revealed for any of the other variables, but greater displacement was found for SQUAT compared to REST or PLYO, whereas no differences were revealed for any of the conditions for the repeated trials. Although heavy resistance-induced PAP seems to enhance jump height compared to REST or PLYO in repeated CMJ performance, it has no additional benefit on repeated trials. © 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

Esformes J.I.,Cardiff Metropolitan University | Bampouras T.M.,University of Cumbria
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

Postactivation potentiation (PAP) refers to increased muscular force generation after previous muscular activity. Various studies have used different squat variations as a PAP stimulus; however, different squat depths can have different mechanical and physiological demands that could yield different PAP levels and subsequent performance. The study aimed to compare the effects of the parallel (PS) and quarter (QS) squat on PAP. Twenty-seven, semiprofessional, male rugby union players (mean 6 SD, 18 6 2 years, 87.2 6 5.4 kg, 180.7 6 5.1 cm) performed a countermovement jump (BL-CMJ) followed by a 10-minute rest. Subsequently, they performed 3 PS or QS, at each squat's respective 3-repetition maximum load, in a randomized counterbalanced order. After a 5-minute rest, another countermovement jump (CMJ) was performed (POSTCMJ). Countermovement jump height (JH), peak power (PP), impulse (I), and flight time (FT) were recorded using a contact mat. BL-CMJ and POST-CMJ pairwise comparisons for all variables were conducted for each squat type to examine performance changes. Delta values were compared to examine whether one squat produced better CMJ results. Both squats induced PAP for all the variables (p , 0.05), although PS produced better results than QS (p , 0.05; JH, 4.6 6 2 vs. 3.5 6 2 cm; I, 15 6 6 vs. 12 6 5 N·s; PP, 285 6 109 vs. 215 6 96 W; FT, 34 6 23 vs. 26 6 11 milliseconds for PS vs. QS). This is the first study to demonstrate that different squat types can induce PAP and that PS is more beneficial for subsequent CMJ performance compared with QS. It is suggested that the deeper depth of PS, which increases gluteus maximum activation and work produced, is responsible for the increased CMJ performance. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

This project analysed changes in community cohesion following a natural disaster. Data were collected from a flood-affected community using a questionnaire survey. Analyses revealed that community cohesion was not predicted by the length of residence, or any other demographic characteristic of residents, but rather by a sense of community, community cognition and the degree of community participation. Cohesion alteration was not uniform, but varied along levels of hazard severity (degree of flood invasion). Cohesion increased in line with hazard severity at the initial flood stage, as residents recognised the importance of community unity and came together to cope with their losses. When the severity increased, residents transferred their focus to individual interests, which resulted in decreased cohesion. This project distinguishes itself in examining community cohesion in the wake of a natural disaster in the real world. Implications regarding community reconstruction and suggestions for hazard researchers are discussed accordingly. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010. Source

Cabras I.,University of Cumbria
International Journal of Public Sector Management

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate public procurement activity within the Cumbria County Council and its effects on the local supply chain. The paper seeks to identify the role of public procurement within the county, in relation to the propensity for income retention (or leakage) at local level. In addition, the paper seeks to consider issues related to public procurement in peripheral and rural areas, with particular reference to small and medium businesses operating in Cumbria, and to provide a spatial analysis of money flows at regional and national level. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative data, from primary and secondary sources, were obtained from a survey questionnaire conducted among the Council's suppliers and from SpikesCavell, an agency specializing in collecting procurement data, respectively. The study focuses on public sector suppliers. It analyses suppliers' attributes and characteristics such as size, location and sector of activity are used in order to explore suppliers' patterns of spend in relation to inward and outward cash-flows within the County. Additionally, the paper explores the effects of the local authority's procurement in terms of advantages/disadvantages for the local supply chain. Findings: The paper highlights the ability of competitive tendering systems to achieve cash saving and reduce wastage; but questions whether the adoption of such systems in the public sector produces positive economic effects on the local supply chain in peripheral and remote areas. Originality/value: There is a lack of research on the impact of public procurement at regional and sub-regional level and its significance as a source of income and businesses operating within local supply chains. This paper seeks to contribute to filling this research gap by presenting and analysing data associated with procurement activity within a peripheral local authority. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Up until recently Peak Oil was a major discussion point crossing from academic research into mainstream journalism, yet it now attracts far less interest. This paper evaluates the reasons for this and on-going relevance of Peak Oil, considering variations in predictive dates for the phenomenon supported by technological, economic and political issues. Using data from agencies, the validity of each position is assessed looking at reserves, industrial developments and alternative fuels. The complicating issue of demand is also considered.The conclusions are that, supported by commercial interests, an unsubstantiated belief in market and technical solutions, and a narrow paradigmatic focus, critics of Peak Oil theory have used unreliable reserve data, optimistic assumptions about utilisation of unconventional supplies and unrealistic predictions for alternative energy production to discredit the evidence that the resource-limited peak in the world's production of conventional oil has arrived, diverting discussion from what should be a serious topic for energy policy: how we respond to decreasing supplies of one of our most important energy sources. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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