Cruz Alta, Brazil

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Ribeiro J.P.,Hospital Of Clinicas | Ribeiro J.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Chiappa G.R.,Hospital Of Clinicas | Callegaro C.C.,Hospital Of Clinicas | Callegaro C.C.,University of Cruz Alta
Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy | Year: 2012

Background: Heart failure induces histological, metabolic and functional adaptations in the inspiratory muscles. This inspiratory muscle weakness, which occurs in 30% to 50% of the heart failure patients, is associated with reduction in the functional capacity, reduction in the quality of life and with a poor prognosis in these individuals. Objectives: The objective of this review was to discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms that may explain the role of the inspiratory muscles in the exercise limitation with focus in the reflexes that control the ventilation and the circulation during the exercise. Method: We performed searches in the PUBMED database using the terms "inspiratory muscles", "inspiratory muscle training", "metaboreflex" and "chemoreflex" and including studies published since 1980. Results: Inspiratory muscle weakness is associated with exercise intolerance and with an exaggerated inspiratory chemoreflex and metaboreflex in heart failure. The inspiratory metaboreflex may be attenuated by the inspiratory muscle training or by the aerobic exercise training improving the exercise performance. Conclusions: Patients with heart failure may present changes in the inspiratory muscle function associated with inspiratory chemoreflex and metaboreflex hyperactivity, which exacerbate the exercise intolerance.


Da Silva A.S.,Santa Catarina State University | Martins D.B.,University of Cruz Alta | Soares J.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Franca R.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Parasitology Research | Year: 2013

Rangeliosis is a hemoparasitosis that affects dogs in Brazil. The disease has similar clinical and pathological characteristics to other hemo-protozoan infections. So, this paper has aimed to report a clinical case of infection by Rangelia vitalii in one dog, focusing on the need for the differential diagnosis to other infectious diseases. The animal showed apathy, anemia, thrombocytopenia, alteration of leucogram, and bleeding. The first difference was the observation of parasites in blood smears, where R. vitalii was visualized within leukocytes and erythrocytes. The confirmation of the clinical diagnosis was made by molecular test to R. vitalii. The dog was debilitated, and died a few hours after treatment at the veterinary hospital. At necropsy, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and mild jaundice in the abdominal viscera were found. This article draws attention to the need for the parasitological, serological, and molecular to differential diagnosis in order to differentiate from other clinically similar disorders. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


de Campos B.-H.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Amado T.J.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Bayer C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Nicoloso R.S.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Fiorin J.E.,University of Cruz Alta
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2011

Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a crucial role in soil quality and can act as an atmospheric C-CO 2 sink under conservationist management systems. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects (19 years) of tillage (CT-conventional tillage and NT-no tillage) and crop rotations (R0-monoculture system, R1-winter crop rotation, and R2-intensive crop rotation) on total, particulate and mineralassociated organic carbon (C) stocks of an originally degraded Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Southern Brazil. The climate is humid subtropical Cfa 2a (Köppen classification), the mean annual precipitation 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature 19.2 °C. The plots were divided into four segments, of which each was sampled in the layers 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m. Sampling was performed manually by opening small trenches. The SOM pools were determined by physical fractionation. Soil C stocks had a linear relationship with annual crop C inputs, regardless of the tillage systems. Thus, soil disturbance had a minor effect on SOM turnover. In the 0-0.30 m layer, soil C sequestration ranged from 0 to 0.51 Mg ha -1 yr -1, using the CT R0 treatment as base-line; crop rotation systems had more influence on soil stock C than tillage systems. The mean C sequestration rate of the cropping systems was 0.13 Mg ha -1 yr -1 higher in NT than CT. This result was associated to the higher C input by crops due to the improvement in soil quality under long-term no-tillage. The particulate C fraction was a sensitive indicator of soil management quality, while mineral-associated organic C was the main pool of atmospheric C fixed in this clayey Oxisol. The C retention in this stable SOM fraction accounts for 81 and 89 % of total C sequestration in the treatments NT R1 and NT R2, respectively, in relation to the same cropping systems under CT. The highest C management index was observed in NT R2, confirming the capacity of this soil management practice to improve the soil C stock qualitatively in relation to CT R0. The results highlighted the diversification of crop rotation with cover crops as a crucial strategy for atmospheric C-CO 2 sequestration and SOM quality improvement in highly weathered subtropical Oxisols.


de Campos B.-H.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Amado T.J.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Tornquist C.G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Nicoloso R.S.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Fiorin J.E.,University of Cruz Alta
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2011

Soil C-CO 2 emissions are sensitive indicators of management system impacts on soil organic matter (SOM). The main soil C-CO 2 sources at the soil-plant interface are the decomposition of crop residues, SOM turnover, and respiration of roots and soil biota. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impacts of tillage and cropping systems on long-term soil C-CO 2 emissions and their relationship with carbon (C) mineralization of crop residues. A long-term experiment was conducted in a Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, with subtropical climate Cfa (Köppen classification), mean annual precipitation of 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature of 19.2 °C. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems: (a) conventional tillage (CT) and (b) no tillage (NT) in combination with three cropping systems: (a) R0- monoculture system (soybean/wheat), (b) R1- winter crop rotation (soybean/wheat/soybean/black oat), and (c) R2- intensive crop rotation (soybean/black oat/soybean/black oat + common vetch/maize/oilseed radish/wheat). The soil C-CO 2 efflux was measured every 14 days for two years (48 measurements), by trapping the CO 2 in an alkaline solution. The soil gravimetric moisture in the 0-0.05 m layer was determined concomitantly with the C-CO 2 efflux measurements. The crop residue C mineralization was evaluated with the mesh-bag method, with sampling 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, and 140 days after the beginning of the evaluation period for C measurements. Four C conservation indexes were used to assess the relation between C-CO 2 efflux and soil C stock and its compartments. The cropresidue C mineralization fit an exponential model in time. For black oat, wheat and maize residues, C mineralization was higher in CT than NT, while for soybean it was similar. Soil moisture was higher in NT than CT, mainly in the second year of evaluation. There was no difference in tillage systems for annual average C-CO 2 emissions, but in some individual evaluations, differences between tillage systems were noticed for C-CO 2 evolution. Soil C-CO 2 effluxes followed a bi-modal pattern, with peaks in October/November and February/March. The highest emission was recorded in the summer and the lowest in the winter. The C-CO 2 effluxes were weakly correlated to air temperature and not correlated to soil moisture. Based on the soil C conservation indexes investigated, NT associated to intensive crop rotation was more C conserving than CT with monoculture.


Copatti C.E.,University of Cruz Alta | Copatti B.R.,University of Cruz Alta
Biota Neotropica | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to analyze the ictiofaun of Cambará River, Uruguay Basin, as well as the body dimensions of the organisms. The work was accomplished in two stretches of Cambará River (2nd order) in Cruz Alta, RS. To the accomplishment of this research were performed identifications of individuals captured in May, September and November 2009 and February 2010 by using of gillnets, which remained in water for 24 hours, being checked every eight hours (1:00 and 9:00 AM and 5:00 P.M.). Besides the gillnets, were also used trawl (mesh 1.0 mm), and fishing rods. The fish collected were cataloged and fixed in formaldehyde at 10.0% and then conserved in alcohol 70.0%. In total, 420 individuals were identified, with a richness of 26 species and eight families. The species were classified in: constant (23.08%), accessory (42.31%) and accidental (34.61%). Loricariidae (nine species and 156 individuals) and Characidae (seven species and 136 individuals) were the most typical. Among individuals collected are highlighted as more abundant: Hemiancistrus fuliginosus (89), Astyanax eigenmanniorum (50), and Rhamdia aff. quelen (44). One recorded species was of large mien (Hoplias lacerdae, with 164.92 g total weight and 23.40 cm total length), five medium sized species (98.55-164.92 g total weight and 19.56-21.50 cm total length) and 20 small species (less than 57.79 g total weight and 17.38 cm total length). The diversity was higher in hotter months, mainly between 1:00 and 9:00 A.M. The collector curve showed that still exist species of fish for being collected in Cambará River. Concluding that despite of the existence of environmental impacts in the stretch of study, it showed satisfactory diversity and richness, influenced by factors like heterogeneity of habitats and supply of allochthonouss material, as well as intrinsic factors (activity and reproduction) to the present species.


Binelo M.O.,Federal University of Ceará | Binelo M.O.,University of Cruz Alta | De Almeida A.L.F.,Federal University of Ceará | Cavalcanti F.R.P.,Federal University of Ceará
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2011

This paper discusses the design of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems and proposes a genetic algorithm to obtain the position and orientation of each MIMO array antenna that maximizes the ergodic capacity for a given propagation scenario. One challenging task in the MIMO system design is to accommodate the multiple antennas in the mobile device without compromising the system capacity, due to spatial and electrical constraints. Based on an interface between the antenna model and the propagation channel model, the ergodic capacity is considered as the objective function of the MIMO array optimization. Simulation results corroborate the importance of polarization and antenna pattern diversities for MIMO in small terminals. Our results also show that the electromagnetic coupling effect can be exploited by the optimizer to decrease signal correlation and increase MIMO capacity. A comparison among a uniform linear array (ULA), a uniform circular array (UCA), and a genetic algorithm (GA)-optimized array is also carried out, showing that the topology given by the optimizer is superior to that of the standard ULA and UCA for the considered propagation channel. © 2011 IEEE.


Da Silva A.S.,Santa Catarina State University | Lopes L.S.,Santa Catarina State University | Diaz J.D.S.,University of Cruz Alta | Tonin A.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2013

Lice infestations are commonly seen in buffaloes, causing damage directly to the animal, i.e., itching, skin lesions, and anemia. In addition, these insects can also be vectors for infectious diseases. The present study describes an outbreak of lice in buffaloes as well as evidence for Haematopinus tuberculatus acting as a vector of anaplasmosis. Lice and blood were collected from 4 young buffaloes (2- to 4-mo-old) and a molecular analysis for the presence of Anaplasma marginale was conducted. DNA of A. marginale was detected in the blood of all 4 animals. Twelve lice were collected and separated in 4 groups, with 3 insects each, to comprise a pool of samples. After DNA extraction and molecular analysis, a positive PCR for A. marginale was found in all pooled samples. These results identify sucking lice as potential vectors of anaplasmosis. However, additional studies are necessary to fully evaluate the vector potential of H. tuberculatus for A. maginale transmission. © 2013 American Society of Parasitologists.


Garlet T.M.B.,University of Cruz Alta | Flores R.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Messchmidt A.A.,UNICRUZ
Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais | Year: 2011

Mentha x gracilis Sole is a hybrid that produces essential oils rich in monoterpenes. Aimed at the clonal propagation of this plant, nodal segments from aseptic plants were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MSO) medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 μM kinetin, benzyl adenine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ). After 30 days, plants were transferred to MOS medium without cytokinin supplementation. The best results were obtained in medium supplemented with 2 μM TDZ, which proved to be a viable method for the rapid production of a large number of seedlings. After transference to the greenhouse, plants propagated with TDZ had a larger number of glandular trichomes.


Brenner C.G.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Mallmann C.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Arsand D.R.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Arsand D.R.,University of Cruz Alta | And 2 more authors.
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2011

In this work, an analytical methodological study was carried out to determine the antimicrobials sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, as well as their metabolites, in hospital effluent. The determinations were conducted by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-QqLIT-MS). The data acquisition was made in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, in which two SRM transitions were monitored to ensure that the target compounds were accurately identified by the information dependent acquisition (IDA) function. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.25 and 0.80μgL -1 for sulfamethoxazole and 0.15 and 0.50μgL -1 for trimethoprim. The linear range for the SMX was 0.8-100.0μgL -1 and TMP was 0.5-100.0μgL -1 on the basis of six-point calibration curves generated by means of linear regression analysis. The coefficients of the correlation were higher than 0.999, which ensured the linearity of the method. The average concentration of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim found in hospital effluent was 27.8 and 6.65μgL -1, respectively. The analytical methodology employed allowed two metabolites to be identified, N4-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole and α-hydroxy-trimethoprim. Fragmentation pathways were proposed. An analytical methodological study was carried out to determine the antimicrobials sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, as well as their metabolites, in hospital effluent. Two SRM transitions were monitored to ensure that the target compounds were accurately identified by the IDA function. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Martins A.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Mallmann C.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Arsand D.R.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Arsand D.R.,University of Cruz Alta | And 2 more authors.
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2011

In this study, an investigation was carried out into the occurrence of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in the effluent of the university hospital (HUSM) of the UFSM. The degradation of these antimicrobials by the electrocoagulation (EC) process was also examined, in both the aqueous solution and hospital effluent, and a study was conducted in order to identify the subproducts formed. The experiments were optimized through factorial planning and, also, checked by response surface methodology. The best conditions for EC (achieving 58.0% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction) were obtained by using 13mAcm -2, 500mgL -1 of NaCl, and 30mm of interelectrode distance. The quantification of SMX (27.8μgL -1) and TMP (6.65μgL -1) in the hospital effluent, and the identification of the degradation products were carried out through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quadrupole linear and ion trapping with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS-QTrap). Removals of 88.0% (degradation only) and 33.0% (adsorption only) were achieved for aqueous solutions of SMX and TMP, respectively, under optimized conditions. In hospital effluent samples, fortified with additions of SMX and TMP, corresponding removals of 16.0% (degradation) and 28.0% (adsorption) were achieved. This suggests that the EC process is efficient in degrading SMX in aqueous solution, although the same was not the case with TMP. The degradation products of SMX were identified (m/z 256.0 and 288.5); however, only the latter is mentioned in the literature. Toxicological aspects were not considered in this study. An investigation was carried out into the occurrence of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in the effluent of a hospital. All experiments were optimized through factorial planning and, also, checked by response surface methodology. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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