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Irakleion, Greece

The University of Crete is the principal higher education institution on the island of Crete, Greece, and one of the country's most academically acclaimed and reputable ones. The University ranked 48th in the The Times Higher Education annual list of the top 100 universities founded in the past 50 years. The University of Crete, is a multi-disciplinary, research-oriented institution, located in the cities of Rethymno and Heraklion, in the island of Crete. It is a University well-known both nationally and internationally for its state-of-the-art research, undergraduate curricula, and graduate programmes. It is considered the best University in Greece by The Times Higher Education mainly due to its research influence in which it ranks 145th out of the top 400 Universities of the World, and also in 2012 by QS World University Rankings. It is notable that it achieves this distinction although it has less than 30% of the faculty members in comparison to other larger Universities in Greece. The University was established in 1973 and started functioning in the academic year 1977-78. Since its establishment, it has developed considerable research activity and has undertaken innovative initiatives that reflect its dynamic. As a higher education institution, it is a legal entity of public law, i.e. it operates under the supervision of the State. The seat of the University is in Rethymnon.The supreme administrative body of the University is the senate, which is presided over by the Rector of the University. The Head of the University is the Rector who is assisted by three Vice-Rectors in the exercise of his duties; all four together form the institution's high authority. They are elected for a period of three years by the teaching staff and representatives of the student body. The current rector is Prof. Evripides Stefanou.During the 2011-2012 academic year the University of Crete had 16,767 undergraduate students , more than 548 Faculty members as well as approximately 420 administrative staff, in Schools and their Departments in the cities of Rethymnon and Heraklion. On several research topics the University of Crete collaborates closely with FO.R.T.H.The School of Letters, the School of Social science and the School of Education are based in Rethymnon. The School of Letters consists of the Departments of History, Archaeology, Philosophy, Social Studies, and Philology; the School of Social science consists of the Departments of Economics, Psychology, Sociology and Political science; the School of Education consists of the Departments of Primary Education and Pre-Primary Education.The School of science and the School of Health science are based in Heraklion, the School of science includes the Departments of Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Materials Science and Technology, and Physics, while the School of Health science includes the faculty of Medicine. The Natural History Museum of Crete, established in 1981 at Heraklion, is also part of the University of Crete.Although still very young, the University of Crete has already shown its commitment in the evolving process of European integration, and it operates as an integral member of the European Research and Education Areas. It is currently coordinating and participating in European Union programs and activities such as ERASMUS, LINGUA, TEMPUS etc. and has important links and cooperations with other Mediterranean and Eastern European countries as well as with many U.S. Universities and Colleges, through international Programs.The student union also operates a radio station. Wikipedia.

Many bivalvian mollusks have a sperm-transmitted mitochondrial genome (M), along with the standard egg-transmitted one (F). The phenomenon, known as doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mtDNA, is the only known case in which biparental inheritance of a cytoplasmic genome is the rule rather than the exception. In the mussel Mytilus sperm mitochondria disperse randomly among blastomeres in female embryos, but form an aggregate and stay in the same blastomere in male embryos. In adults, somatic tissues of both sexes are dominated by the F genome. Sperm contains only the M genome and eggs the F (and perhaps traces of M). A female produces mostly daughters, mostly sons, or both sexes in about equal numbers, irrespective of its mate. Thus maleness and M mtDNA fate are tightly linked and under maternal control. Hybridization and triploidization affect the former but not the latter, which suggests that the two are not causally linked. Gene content and arrangement are the same in conspecific F and M genomes, but primary sequence has diverged from 20 % to 40 %, depending on species. The two genomes differ at the control region (CR). Synonymous substitutions accumulate faster in the M than the F genome and non-synonymous even faster. Expression studies indicate that the M genome is active only at spermatogenesis. These observations suggest that the M genome is under a more relaxed selective constraint than the F. Some mytilid species carry, in low frequencies, sperm-transmitted mtDNAs whose primary sequence is of the F type and the CR is an F/M mosaic ("masculinized" genomes). In venerids sperm mitochondria behavior, M genome fate and sex determination are as in mytilids. In unionids the M genome also evolves faster than the F and F/M sequence divergence reaches 50 %. The identification of F-specific and M-specific open reading frames in non-coding regions of unionids and mytilids, in conjunction with the CR's mosaic structure of masculinized genomes, suggest that the mitochondrial genomes of species with DUI carry sequences that affect their transmission route. A model that incorporates these findings is presented in this review. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Haldoupis C.,University of Crete
Space Science Reviews | Year: 2012

This paper provides a comprehensive update on sporadic E layers that is placed in the context of atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, exemplified here by the fundamental windshear theory processes that govern sporadic E layer formation and variability. Some basics of windshear theory are provided first, followed by a summary of key experimental results, their interpretation and physical understanding. The emphasis is placed on the wind shear control of the diurnal and sub-diurnal variability and altitude descent of sporadic E layers and the key role behind these properties of the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. Furthermore, the paper summarizes recent observations that establish a role also for the planetary waves in sporadic E layer occurrence and long-term variability. The possible mechanisms behind this interaction are examined and evidence is presented which shows that planetary waves affect sporadic E layers indirectly though the amplitude modulation of tides at lower altitudes in the MLT region. Only a brief mention is made about gravity wave effects on sporadic E, which apparently exist but cannot be as crucial in layer forming as thought in the past. There is now enough evidence to suggest that mid- and low-latitude sporadic E is not as "sporadic" as the name implies but a regularly occurring ionospheric phenomenon. This may suggest that the sporadic E layer physics can be incorporated in large-scale atmosphere-ionosphere coupling models. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Froudakis G.E.,University of Crete
Materials Today | Year: 2011

Over the last several years, a significant share of the scientific community has focused its attention on the hydrogen storage problem. Since 1997, when carbon nanotubes appeared to be a promising storage material, many theoretical and experimental groups have investigated the hydrogen storage capacity of these carbon nanostructures. These efforts were not always successful and consequently, the results obtained were often controversial. In the current review we attempt to summarize some the highlights of the work on hydrogen storage in various types of nanotube and nanostructure, in a critical way. The nature of the interaction between hydrogen and the host nanomaterials, as revealed through theoretical modeling, helps us understand the basic mechanisms of hydrogen storage. Analysis of the results reveals why high hydrogen storage capacity at ambient conditions, which meets the DOE targets, cannot occur in bare carbon nanotubes. Through our analysis we also propose guidelines to enhance the hydrogen storage capacity of already synthesized materials and recommend advanced materials for this application. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Stratakis M.,University of Crete | Garcia H.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012

Recent achievements in the activation of dihydrogen, epoxides, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, alkynes, hydrosilanes, or boron hydrides, and on CO 2 fixation, C-C crosscoupling reactions, hydrogen transfer catalysis, are presented. Hardacre and co-workers used heterogenized Au nanoparticles supported on silica to achieve good to excellent selectivity in the benzylation of substituted benzenes with benzyl alcohol. Ying and co-workers used successfully a heterogeneous air- and water-stable reusable PbS-supported gold catalyst for the three-component coupling reaction. Keane and co-workers studied in detail the influence of support and particle size on activity and selectivity regarding the hydrogenation of mdinitrobenzene and chloronitrobenzene. Hii and co-workers developed a flow reactor for the highly selective direct alkylation of amines by alcohols using Au/TiO 2 as catalyst, without the requirement for an inert atmosphere or base. Source

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. This study was conducted to calculate the radiation dose to organs-at-risk and estimate the probability of cancer induction from radiotherapy for HO prophylaxis. Hip irradiation for HO with a 6 MV photon beam was simulated with the aid of a Monte Carlo model. A realistic humanoid phantom representing an average adult patient was implemented in Monte Carlo environment for dosimetric calculations. The average out-of-field radiation dose to stomach, liver, lung, prostate, bladder, thyroid, breast, uterus, and ovary was calculated. The organ-equivalent-dose to colon, that was partly included within the treatment field, was also determined. Organ dose calculations were carried out using three different field sizes. The dependence of organ doses upon the block insertion into primary beam for shielding colon and prosthesis was investigated. The lifetime attributable risk for cancer development was estimated using organ, age, and gender-specific risk coefficients. For a typical target dose of 7 Gy, organ doses varied from 1.0 to 741.1 mGy by the field dimensions and organ location relative to the field edge. Blocked field irradiations resulted in a dose range of 1.4-146.3 mGy. The most probable detriment from open field treatment of male patients was colon cancer with a high risk of 564.3 × 10(-5) to 837.4 × 10(-5) depending upon the organ dose magnitude and the patient's age. The corresponding colon cancer risk for female patients was (372.2-541.0) × 10(-5). The probability of bladder cancer development was more than 113.7 × 10(-5) and 110.3 × 10(-5) for males and females, respectively. The cancer risk range to other individual organs was reduced to (0.003-68.5) × 10(-5). The risk for cancer induction from radiation therapy for HO prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty varies considerably by the treatment parameters, organ site in respect to treatment volume and patient's gender and age. The presented risk estimates may be useful in the follow-up studies of irradiated patients. Source

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