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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

LearnHowToBecome.org, a leading resource provider for higher education and career information, has released its list of the best colleges and universities in Colorado for 2017. 20 four-year schools made the list, with University of Denver, Regis University, Colorado School of Mines, University of Colorado—Colorado Springs and Colorado Colleges coming in with the highest scores. Of the 15 two-year schools that were also included, Aims Community College, Colorado Northwestern Community College, Trinidad State Junior College, Front Range Community College and Red Rocks Community College were the top five schools. A full list of schools is included below. “These schools have shown a commitment to preparing their students for success in college and beyond, with numbers to prove it,” said Wes Ricketts, senior vice president of LearnHowToBecome.org. “We measure data from each school, but also dig deeper into the success of alumni after college to find which colleges in Colorado truly are the best for students.” To be included on the “Best Colleges in Colorado” list, schools must be regionally accredited, not-for-profit institutions. Each college is also scored on additional data points including the number of career and academic resources, annual alumni earnings 10 years after entering college, financial aid availability, graduation rates and student/teacher ratios. Complete details on each college, their individual scores and the data and methodology used to determine the LearnHowToBecome.org “Best Colleges in Colorado” list, visit: Colorado’s Best Four-Year Colleges for 2017 include: Adams State University Colorado Christian University Colorado College Colorado Mesa University Colorado School of Mines Colorado State University-Fort Collins Colorado State University-Global Campus Colorado State University-Pueblo Fort Lewis College Johnson & Wales University-Denver Metropolitan State University of Denver Naropa University Regis University United States Air Force Academy University of Colorado Boulder University of Colorado Colorado Springs University of Colorado Denver University of Denver University of Northern Colorado Western State Colorado University Colorado’s Best Two-Year Colleges for 2017 include: Aims Community College Arapahoe Community College Colorado Northwestern Community College Community College of Aurora Community College of Denver Front Range Community College Lamar Community College Morgan Community College Northeastern Junior College Otero Junior College Pickens Technical College Pikes Peak Community College Pueblo Community College Red Rocks Community College Trinidad State Junior College ### About Us: LearnHowtoBecome.org was founded in 2013 to provide data and expert driven information about employment opportunities and the education needed to land the perfect career. Our materials cover a wide range of professions, industries and degree programs, and are designed for people who want to choose, change or advance their careers. We also provide helpful resources and guides that address social issues, financial aid and other special interest in higher education. Information from LearnHowtoBecome.org has proudly been featured by more than 700 educational institutions.


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Proper nutrition can unleash amazing powers, moms have always assured us, frequently citing Popeye the Sailor Man as evidence. Now, two University of Colorado Boulder scientists have confirmed just how potent some nutrients can be. In findings published today in the journal Cell, postdoctoral fellow Hongyun Tang and Professor Min Han, both of CU Boulder's Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, detail how fat levels in a tiny soil-dwelling roundworm (C. elegans) can tip the balance between whether the worm makes eggs or sperm. Although the researchers discovered this phenomenon in worms, the research could have implications for future studies into human fertility and reproductive development. Scientists have long recognized a connection between dietary fat and reproductive development in mammals, including humans. "Studies in humans and rats have suggested that a high-fat diet is a major cause of early puberty in girls," said Han, the senior author of the paper. "It makes sense from an evolutionary standpoint that reproductive success would be coupled to food availability." However, Han said, scientists understand surprisingly little about just how fat levels might be translated into fertility. C. elegans comes in two sexes: males and hermaphrodites. Males produce sperm throughout their reproductive lives while hermaphrodites produce sperm only during a brief period, and later switch gears to making eggs. Through a meticulous series of experiments, Tang homed in on one nutrient, a fatty acid called myristic acid, whose abundance, it turns out, worms can "monitor" using an enzyme called acyl-CoA synthase 4 (ACS-4). Fatty acids are chemical building blocks of dietary fats, so their level in a worm's body is one measure of the general nutritional quality of their food. Tang found that the levels of certain fatty acids, including myristic acid, can influence the switch from sperm to egg production. When Tang depleted a particular myristic acid derivative from the germ cells in hermaphrodite worms by blocking the action of ACS-4, the worms never made the switch to making eggs. Typically, a worm's sex-determination -- in this case, making eggs or sperm -- comes down to counting chromosomes. Hermaphrodites' cells have two sex chromosomes while males have only one. Tang, however, discovered that the worm's sex-determination system could also tap into information gathered by monitoring fatty acid levels. But before the fatty acid can become tethered to the protein, it must be temporarily hitched to a molecule called CoA. ACS-4 is the enzyme that links myristic acid to CoA. Tang found that the worms' sex-determination system can be overruled by the levels of myristoyl-CoA and myristoylated proteins. He determined that one component of the sex-determination system, a protein called MAP kinase, proved to be the link between the fatty acid monitoring and the switch from production of sperm to eggs. This fatty-acid sensing phenomenon does not appear to be particular to hermaphroditic nematode species like C. elegans. When Tang partially blocked ACS-4 in females of a conventional male/female nematode species, many of the females made sperm instead of eggs. The researchers call this newly-discovered ACS-mediated mechanism a "lipid sensor" and believe it could be a widespread strategy by which animals translate cues from the environment into physiological responses. The key proteins at work in the nematodes have highly similar counterparts in humans, suggesting that similar regulatory pathways may operate in people. The work was supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.


April 28, 2017 - Tropical rainforests are often described as the "lungs of the earth," able to inhale carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and exhale oxygen in return. The faster they grow, the more they mitigate climate change by absorbing CO2. This role has made them a hot research topic, as scientists question what will happen to this vital carbon sink long-term as temperatures rise and rainfall increases. Conventional wisdom has held that forest growth will dramatically slow with high levels of rainfall. But University of Colorado Boulder researchers this month turned that assumption on its head with an unprecedented review of data from 150 forests that concluded just the opposite. "Our data suggest that as large-scale climate patterns shift in the tropics, and some places get wetter and warmer, forests will accelerate their growth, which is good for taking carbon out of the atmosphere," said Philip Taylor, a research associate with the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR). "In some ways, this is a good-news story, because we can expect greater CO2 uptake in tropical regions where rainfall is expected to increase. But there are a lot of caveats." Ecologists have long thought that forest growth follows a hump-shaped curve when it comes to precipitation: To a point, more rainfall leads to more growth. But after about 8 feet per year, it was assumed too much water can waterlog the ecosystem and slow the growth rate of forests. While working in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica, Taylor, who got his doctoral degree in ecology and evolutionary biology at CU Boulder, began to question this assumption. "Here we were in a place that got 16 feet of rain per year, and it was one of the most productive and carbon-rich forests on Earth. It clearly broke from the traditional line of thinking," he said. Intrigued, Taylor spent four years synthesizing data on temperature, rainfall, tree growth and soil composition from rainforests in 42 countries, compiling what he believes is the largest pan-tropical database to date. The study, published April 17 in the journal Ecology Letters, found that cooler forests (below 68 degrees F on average), which make up only about 5 percent of the tropical forest biome, seemed to follow the expected hump-shaped curve. But warmer forests, which are in the majority, did not. "The old model was formed with a lack of data from warm tropical forests," said Taylor. "It turns out that in the big tropical forests that do the vast majority of the 'breathing' the situation is flipped. Instead of water slowing growth down, it accelerates it." Taylor cautioned this does not mean climate change won't negatively impact tropical forests at all. In the short term, research has shown, droughts in the Amazon Basin have already led to widespread plant death and a 30 percent decrease in carbon accumulation in the past decade. "A lot of climate change is happening at a pace far quicker than what our study speaks to," he says. "Our study speaks to what we can expect forests to do over hundreds of years." Because the carbon cycle is complex, with forests also releasing carbon into the atmosphere as plants die, it's still impossible to say what the net impact of a wetter climate might be on the forest's ability to sequester carbon, said senior author Alan Townsend, a professor of environmental studies. "The implications of the change still need to be worked out, but what we can say is that the forest responds to changes in rainfall quite differently than what has been a common assumption for a long time," said Townsend. Going forward, the authors hope the findings will set the record straight for educators and scientists. "Our findings fundamentally change a view of the tropical forest carbon cycle that has been published in textbooks and incorporated into models of future climate change for years," said Taylor. "Given how much these forests matter to the climate, these new relationships need to be a part of future climate assessments." The research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Current wildfire policy can't adequately protect people, homes and ecosystems from the longer, hotter fire seasons climate change is causing, according to a new paper led by the University of Colorado Boulder. Efforts to extinguish every blaze and reduce the buildup of dead wood and forest undergrowth are becoming increasingly inadequate on their own. Instead, the authors -- a team of wildfire experts -- urge policymakers and communities to embrace policy reform that will promote adaptation to increasing wildfire and warming. "Wildfire is catching up to us," said lead author Tania Schoennagel, a research scientist at CU Boulder's Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research. "We're learning our old tools aren't enough and we need to approach wildfire differently." This means accepting wildfire as an inevitable part of the landscape, states the new paper published today in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The western U.S. has seen a 2-degrees-Celsius rise in annual average temperature and lengthening of the fire season by almost three months since the 1970s; both elements contribute to what the authors refer to as the "new era of western wildfires." This pattern of bigger, hotter fires, along with the influx of homes into fire-prone areas--over 2 million since 1990--has made wildfire vastly more costly and dangerous. "For a long time, we've thought that if we try harder and do better, we can get ahead of wildfire and reduce the risks," said Schoennagel, who also is an adjunct faculty member in CU Boulder's Geography Department. "We can no longer do that. This is bigger than us and we're going to have to adapt to wildfire rather than the other way around." As part of this adaptation process, the authors advocate for actions that may be unpopular, such as allowing more fires to burn largely unimpeded in wildland areas and intentionally setting more fires, or "controlled burns," to reduce natural fuels like undergrowth in more developed areas. Both these steps would reduce future risk and help ecosystems adapt to increasing wildfire and warming. They also argue for reforming federal, state and local policies that have the unintended consequence of encouraging people to develop in fire-prone areas. Currently, federal taxpayers pick up the tab for preventing and fighting western wildfires--a cost that has averaged some $2 billion a year in recent years. If states and counties were to bear more of that cost, it would provide incentive to adopt planning efforts and fire-resistant building codes that would reduce risk. Re-targeting forest thinning efforts is another beneficial reform suggested by the authors. The federal government has spent some $5 billion since 2006 on thinning dense forests and removing fuel from some 7 million hectares (17 million acres) of land, often in remote areas. But these widespread efforts have done little to reduce record-setting fires. Directing thinning projects to particularly high-risk areas, including communities in fire-prone regions and forests in particularly dry areas, would increase adaptation to wildfire, the authors said. Additionally, as climate change forces species to move their ranges, some may vanish entirely. Familiar landscapes will disappear, a fact that makes many people balk. But such changes, including those caused by wildfire, could be necessary for the environment in the long run, says Max Moritz, a fire scientist at the University of California Cooperative Extension and a co-author on the paper. "We need the foresight to help guide these ecosystems in a healthy direction now so they can adjust in pace with our changing climate," he said. "That means embracing some changes while we have a window to do so." Critical to making a policy of adaptation successful, said Schoennagel, will be education and changing people's perception of wildfire. "We have to learn that wildfire is inevitable, in the same way that droughts and flooding are. We've tried to control fire, but it's not a control we can maintain. Like other natural disasters, we have to learn to adapt."


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Feeling heartbroken from a recent breakup? Just believing you're doing something to help yourself get over your ex can influence brain regions associated with emotional regulation and lessen the perception of pain. That's the takeaway from a new University of Colorado Boulder study that measured the neurological and behavioral impacts the placebo effect had on a group of recently broken-hearted volunteers. "Breaking up with a partner is one of the most emotionally negative experiences a person can have, and it can be an important trigger for developing psychological problems," said first author and postdoctoral research associate Leonie Koban, noting that such social pain is associated with a 20-fold higher risk of developing depression in the coming year. "In our study, we found a placebo can have quite strong effects on reducing the intensity of social pain." For decades, research has shown that placebos - sham treatments with no active ingredients - can measurably ease pain, Parkinson's disease and other physical ailments. The new study, published in March in the Journal of Neuroscience, is the first to measure placebos' impact on emotional pain from romantic rejection. Researchers recruited 40 volunteers who had experienced an "unwanted romantic breakup" in the past six months. They were asked to bring a photo of their ex and a photo of a same-gendered good friend to a brain-imaging lab. Inside a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machine, the participants were shown images of their former partner and asked to recall the breakup. Then they were shown images of their friend. They were also subjected to physical pain (a hot stimulus on their left forearm). As these stimuli were alternately repeated, the subjects rated how they felt on a scale of 1 (very bad) to 5 (very good). Meanwhile, the fMRI machine tracked their brain activity. While not identical, the regions that lit up during physical and emotional pain were similar. This finding alone sends an important message to the heartbroken, said senior author Tor Wager, a professor of psychology and neuroscience at CU Boulder: "Know that your pain is real - neuro-chemically real." The subjects were then taken out of the machine and given a nasal spray. Half were told it was a "powerful analgesic effective in reducing emotional pain." Half were told it was a simple saline solution. Back inside the machine, the subjects were again shown images of their ex and subjected to pain. The placebo group not only felt less physical pain and felt better emotionally, but their brain responded differently when shown the ex. Activity in the brain's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - an area involved with modulating emotions - increased sharply. Across the brain, areas associated with rejection quieted. Notably, after the placebo, when participants felt the best they also showed increased activity in an area of the midbrain called the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The PAG plays a key role in modulating levels of painkilling brain chemicals, or opioids, and feel-good neurotransmitters like dopamine. While the study did not look specifically at whether the placebo prompted the release of such chemicals, the authors suspect this could be what's happening. "The current view is that you have positive expectations and they influence activity in your prefrontal cortex, which in turn influences systems in your midbrain to generate neurochemical opioid or dopamine responses," said Wager. Previous studies have shown that the placebo effect alone not only eases depression, but may actually make antidepressants work better. "Just the fact that you are doing something for yourself and engaging in something that gives you hope may have an impact," said Wager. "In some cases, the actual chemical in the drug may matter less than we once thought." The authors said the latest study not only helps them better understand how emotional pain plays out in the brain, but can also hint at ways people can use the power of expectation to their advantage. Said Koban: "What is becoming more and more clear is that expectations and predictions have a very strong influence on basic experiences, on how we feel and what we perceive." Bottom line, if you've been dumped recently: "Doing anything that you believe will help you feel better will probably help you feel better," she said.


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

WASHINGTON, DC -- The American Geophysical Union (AGU) today published a collection of 27 essays as commentaries in its scientific journals highlighting the important role Earth and space science research plays in society. The essays, covering a broad swath of scientific disciplines and written by notable scientists in their fields, discuss the critical role of research, the growing importance of data and the increasing globalization of the scientific enterprise. Together, they highlight how Earth and space science research can help grow our economy and enable our society to thrive. An overview of the special collection is detailed in a blog post by AGU's journal editors, and AGU's director and assistant director of publications. The collection comes as science is increasingly under threat in the United States and around the world and ahead of Saturday's March for Science. AGU is one of nearly 200 partner organizations that have joined with science advocates, science educators, scientists and concerned citizens to advocate for evidence-based policymaking, science education, research funding and inclusivity as part of the March for Science. About 70 percent of the near-Earth objects large enough to cause severe regional damage have yet to be discovered. While the chance of an impact is small, the consequences can potentially be severe, so reasonable measures, such as finding, tracking and characterizing the asteroids should be undertaken, writes Amy Mainzer, senior research scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. Snow is critical in sustaining human life. It provides water and plays a key role in the climate through its unrivaled power to cool the Earth. It is also changing rapidly. In Water Resources Research, Matthew Sturm and Charles Parr, geophysicists at the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Michael Goldstein, a professor of finance at Babson College, provide a strong rationale and guidelines for accelerated snow research that will allow society to make major impending decisions related to snow resources on the soundest base and best scientific knowledge. Essential science for understanding risks from radiation for airline passengers and crews Cosmic ray fluxes will likely be the highest since the dawn of the aviation age during the upcoming solar minimum, a low point in the solar cycle when weak solar activity provides less protection against cosmic rays entering the atmosphere. Considering this, measuring high-altitude radiation doses and turning those data into useful information for aviation operators, schedulers and frequent flyers will provide support for key decisions, according to Delores Knipp, a researcher professor at the University of Colorado Boulder, in a commentary in Space Weather. A commentary in Tectonics by Timothy Stahl, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Michigan and co-authors from the University of Michigan and the University of Colorado Boulder, explores the scientific pathways through which earthquake-resilient societies are developed. They highlight recent case studies of evidence-based decision making and how modern research is improving the way societies respond to earthquakes. Solving water quality problems in agricultural landscapes: new approaches for these nonlinear, multi-process, multi-scale systems Changes in climate and agricultural practices are putting pressure on agro-environmental systems all over the world. Patrick Belmont, an associate professor at Utah State University, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, a distinguished professor at the University of California - Irvine, present a perspective, gained from a decade of research and stakeholder involvement in the Minnesota River Basin, where research findings have influenced solutions and policy in directions not obvious at the outset. Their essay appears in Water Resources Research. Scientific advances in the field of coastal hydrogeology have enabled responsible management of water resources and protection of important ecosystems. To address the problems of the future, we must continue to make scientific advances, and groundwater hydrology needs to be firmly embedded in integrated coastal zone management. This will require interdisciplinary scientific collaboration, open communication between scientists and the public, and strong partnerships with policymakers, according to Holly Michael, an associate professor at the University of Delaware and co-authors, in a commentary in Water Resources Research. The simultaneous emergence of the terms "GeoHealth" and "Planetary Health" from the earth science and health communities, respectively, signals recognition that developing a new relationship between humanity and our natural systems is becoming an urgent global health priority -- if we are to prevent a backsliding from the past century's great public health gains. Achieving meaningful progress will require collaboration across a broad swath of scientific disciplines as well as with policy makers, natural resource managers, members of faith communities and movement builders around the world, write members of the Planetary Health Alliance in GeoHealth. The American Geophysical Union is dedicated to advancing the Earth and space sciences for the benefit of humanity through its scholarly publications, conferences, and outreach programs. AGU is a not-for-profit, professional, scientific organization representing 60,000 members in 137 countries. Join the conversation on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and our other social media channels. The following press release can be found at: https:/


News Article | April 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Feeling heartbroken from a recent breakup? Just believing you're doing something to help yourself get over your ex can influence brain regions associated with emotional regulation and lessen the perception of pain.That's the takeaway from a new University of Colorado Boulder study that measured the neurological and behavioral impacts the placebo effect had on a group of recently broken-hearted volunteers.


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

A recent report from the Wisconsin Institute for Law and Liberty attempts to compare student test score performance for the 2015-16 school year across Wisconsin’s public schools, charter schools, and private schools participating in one of the state’s voucher programs. Though it highlights important patterns in student test score performance, the report’s limited analyses fail to provide answers as to the relative effectiveness of school choice policies. Apples to Apples: The Definitive Look at School Test Scores in Milwaukee and Wisconsin was reviewed by Benjamin Shear of the University of Colorado Boulder. Comparing a single year’s test scores across school sectors that serve different student populations is inherently problematic. One fundamental problem of isolating variations in scores that might be attributed to school differences is that the analyses must adequately control for dissimilar student characteristics among those enrolled in the different schools. The report uses linear regression models that use school-level characteristics to attempt to adjust for these differences and make what the authors claim are “apples to apples” comparisons. Based on these analyses, the report concludes that choice and charter schools in Wisconsin are more effective than traditional public schools. Unfortunately, the limited nature of available data undermines any such causal conclusions. The inadequate and small number of school-level variables included in the regression models are not able to control for important confounding variables, most notably prior student achievement. Further, the use of aggregate percent-proficient metrics masks variation in performance across grade levels and makes the results sensitive to the (arbitrary) location of the proficiency cut scores. The report’s description of methods and results also includes some troubling inconsistencies. For example the report attempts to use a methodology known as “fixed effects” to analyze test score data in districts outside Milwaukee, but such a methodology is not possible with the data described in the report. Thus, concludes Professor Shear, while the report does present important descriptive statistics about test score performance in Wisconsin, it wrongly claims to provide answers for those interested in determining which schools or school choice policies in Wisconsin are most effective. Find the review by Benjamin Shear at: http://nepc.colorado.edu/thinktank/review-milwaukee-vouchers Find Apples to Apples: The Definitive Look at School Test Scores in Milwaukee and Wisconsin, by Will Flanders, published by the Wisconsin Institute for Law and Liberty, at: http://www.will-law.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/apples.pdf The National Education Policy Center (NEPC) Think Twice Think Tank Review Project (http://thinktankreview.org) provides the public, policymakers, and the press with timely, academically sound reviews of selected publications. The project is made possible in part by support provided by the Great Lakes Center for Education Research and Practice: http://www.greatlakescenter.org The National Education Policy Center (NEPC), housed at the University of Colorado Boulder School of Education, produces and disseminates high-quality, peer-reviewed research to inform education policy discussions. Visit us at: http://nepc.colorado.edu


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

All stakeholders in the scientific research enterprise -- researchers, institutions, publishers, funders, scientific societies, and federal agencies - should improve their practices and policies to respond to threats to the integrity of research WASHINGTON - All stakeholders in the scientific research enterprise -- researchers, institutions, publishers, funders, scientific societies, and federal agencies - should improve their practices and policies to respond to threats to the integrity of research, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Actions are needed to ensure the availability of data necessary for reproducing research, clarify authorship standards, protect whistleblowers, and make sure that negative as well as positive research findings are reported, among other steps. The report stresses the important role played by institutions and environments - not only individual researchers -- in supporting scientific integrity. And it recommends the establishment of an independent, nonprofit Research Integrity Advisory Board to support ongoing efforts to strengthen research integrity. The board should work with all stakeholders in the research enterprise to share expertise and approaches for minimizing and addressing research misconduct and detrimental practices. "The research enterprise is not broken, but it faces significant challenges in creating the conditions needed to foster and sustain the highest standards of integrity," said Robert Nerem, chair of the committee that wrote the report, and Institute Professor and Parker H. Petit Professor Emeritus, Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology. "To meet these challenges, all parties in the research enterprise need to take deliberate steps to strengthen the self-correcting mechanisms that are part of research and to better align the realities of research with its values and ideals." A growing body of evidence indicates that substantial percentages of published results in some fields are not reproducible, the report says, noting that this is a complex phenomenon and much remains to be learned. While a certain level of irreproducibility due to unknown variables or errors is a normal part of research, data falsification and detrimental research practices -- such as inappropriate use of statistics or after-the-fact fitting of hypotheses to previously collected data -- apparently also play a role. In addition, new forms of detrimental research practices are appearing, such as predatory journals that do little or no editorial review or quality control of papers while charging authors substantial fees. And the number of retractions of journal articles has increased, with a significant percentage of those retractions due to research misconduct. The report cautions, however, that this increase does not necessarily indicate that the incidence of misconduct is increasing, as more-vigilant scrutiny by the community may be a contributing factor. The report endorses the definition of scientific misconduct proposed in the 1992 Academies report Responsible Science: "fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reporting research." However, many practices that have until now been categorized as "questionable" research practices - for example, misleading use of statistics that falls short of falsification, and failure to retain research data -- should be recognized as "detrimental" research practices, the new report says. Detrimental research practices should be understood to include not only actions of individual researchers but also irresponsible or abusive actions by research institutions and journals. "The research process goes beyond the actions of individual researchers," said Nerem. "Research institutions, journals, scientific societies, and other parts of the research enterprise all can act in ways that either support or undermine integrity in research." Because research institutions play a central role in fostering research integrity, they should maintain the highest standards for research conduct, going beyond simple compliance with federal regulations and applying these standards to all research independent of the source of funding. Institutions' key responsibilities include creating and sustaining a research culture that fosters integrity and encourages adherence to best practices, as well as monitoring the integrity of their research environments. Senior leaders at each institution -- the president, other senior executives, and faculty leaders -- should guide and be actively engaged in these tasks. Furthermore, they must have the capacity to effectively investigate and address allegations of research misconduct and to address the conflict of interest that institutions may have in conducting these investigations -- for example, by incorporating external perspectives. In addition, research institutions and federal agencies should ensure that good faith whistleblowers - those who raise concerns about the integrity of research - are protected and their concerns addressed in a fair, thorough, and timely manner. Inadequate responses to such concerns have been a critical point of failure in many cases of misconduct where investigations were delayed or sidetracked. Currently, standards for transparency in many fields and disciplines do not adequately support reproducibility and the ability to build on previous work, the report says. Research sponsors and publishers should ensure that the information needed for a person knowledgeable about the field and its techniques to reproduce the reported results is made available at the time of publication or as soon as possible after that. Federal funding agencies and other research sponsors should also allocate sufficient funds to enable the long-term storage, archiving, and access of datasets and code necessary to replicate published findings. Researchers should routinely disclose all statistical tests carried out, including negative findings, the report says. Available evidence indicates that scientific publications are biased against presenting negative results and that the publication of negative results is on the decline. But routine reporting of negative findings will help avoid unproductive duplication of research and make research spending more productive. Dissemination of negative results also has prompted a questioning of established paradigms, leading ultimately to groundbreaking new discoveries. Research sponsors, research institutions, and journals should support and encourage this level of transparency. Scientific societies and journals should develop clear disciplinary authorship standards based on the principle that those who have made a significant intellectual contribution are authors. Those who engage in these activities should be designated as authors, and all authors should approve the final manuscript. Universal condemnation by all disciplines of gift or honorary authorship, coercive authorship, and ghost authorship would also contribute to changing the culture of research environments where these practices are still accepted. To bring a unified focus to addressing challenges in fostering research integrity across all disciplines and sectors, the report urges the establishment of a nonprofit, independent Research Integrity Advisory Board. The RIAB could facilitate the exchange of information on approaches to assessing and creating environments of the highest integrity and to handling allegations of misconduct and investigations. It could provide advice, support, encouragement, and where helpful advocacy on what needs to be done by research institutions, journal and book publishers, and other stakeholders in the research enterprise. The RIAB would have no direct role in investigations, regulation, or accreditation; instead it will serve as a neutral resource that helps the research enterprise respond to challenges. In addition, the report recommends that government agencies and private foundations fund research to quantify conditions in the research environment that may be linked to research misconduct and detrimental research practices, and to develop responses to these conditions. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey of the U.S. Department of the Interior, the Office of Research Integrity of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Office of the Inspector General of the National Science Foundation, the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the Society for Neuroscience, and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are private, nonprofit institutions that provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions related to science, technology, and medicine. They operate under an 1863 congressional charter to the National Academy of Sciences, signed by President Lincoln. For more information, visit http://national-academies. . A roster follows. Sara Frueh, Media Officer Joshua Blatt, Media Assistant Office of News and Public Information 202-334-2138; e-mail news@nas.edu national-academies.org/newsroom Follow us on Twitter at @theNASEM Copies of Fostering Integrity in Research are available from the National Academies Press on the Internet at http://www. or by calling 202-334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242. Reporters may obtain a copy from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above). Robert M. Nerem1,2 (chair) Institute Professor and Parker H. Petit Professor Emeritus Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta Ann M. Arvin2 Lucile Packard Professor of Pediatrics, Vice Provost and Dean of Research, and Professor of Microbiology and Immunology Stanford University Stanford, Calif. C.K. (Tina) Gunsalus Director National Center for Professional and Research Ethics University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Deborah G. Johnson Anne Shirley Carter Olsson Professor Emeritus of Applied Ethics Department of Science, Technology, and Society School of Engineering and Applied Science University of Virginia Charlottesville Michael A. Keller Ida M. Green University Librarian, and Director of Academic Information Resources University Libraries and Academic Information Resources Stanford University Stanford, Calif. W. Carl Lineberger3 E.U. Condon Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, and Fellow JILA University of Colorado Boulder Victoria Stodden Associate Professor of Statistics Institute for Data Sciences and Engineering University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Sara E. Wilson Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Academic Director Bioengineering Graduate Program University of Kansas Lawrence Paul R. Wolpe Asa Griggs Candler Professor of Bioethics, and Director Center for Ethics Emory University Atlanta 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering 2 Member, National Academy of Medicine 3 Member, National Academy of Sciences

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