The University of Colorado Boulder is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States. It is the flagship university of the University of Colorado system and was founded five months before Colorado was admitted to the union in 1876. According to The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities , it is considered one of the thirty "Public Ivy League" schools.In 2010, the university consisted of nine colleges and schools and offered over 150 academic programs and enrolled 29,952 students. Eleven Nobel Laureates, nine MacArthur Fellows, and 18 astronauts have been affiliated with CU-Boulder as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history. The university received nearly US$454 million in sponsored research in 2010 to fund programs like the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, and JILA.Colorado Buffaloes competes in nine intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Pacific-12 Conference. The Buffaloes have won 26 NCAA championships: 19 in skiing, six total in men's and women's cross country, and one in football. Approximately 1,500 students participate in 34 intercollegiate club sports annually as well. Wikipedia.
Armitage P.J.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2011
Protoplanetary disks are quasi-steady structures whose evolution and dispersal determine the environment for planet formation. I review the theory of protoplanetary disk evolution and its connection to observations. Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the physics of potential angular momentum transport processesincluding self-gravity, magnetorotational instability, baroclinic instabilities, and magnetic brakingand in developing testable models for disk dispersal via photoevaporation. The relative importance of these processes depends upon the initial mass, size, and magnetization of the disk, and subsequently on its opacity, ionization state, and external irradiation. Disk dynamics is therefore coupled to star formation, pre-main-sequence stellar evolution, and dust coagulation during the early stages of planet formation and may vary dramatically from star to star. The importance of validating theoretical models is emphasized, with the key observations being those that probe disk structure on the scales between 1 AU and 10 AU, where theory is most uncertain. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Copley S.D.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2015
•Promiscuous enzymes catalyze physiologically irrelevant secondary reactions.•Promiscuous activities are not always inefficient.•The concept of promiscuity can be easily extended to noncatalytic proteins.•Promiscuous functions can be the starting point for the evolution of new functions.•Promiscuous functions are used for a wide range of biotechnological applications. Evolutionary biochemists define enzyme promiscuity as the ability to catalyze secondary reactions that are physiologically irrelevant, either because they are too inefficient to affect fitness or because the enzyme never encounters the substrate. Promiscuous activities are common because evolution of a perfectly specific active site is both difficult and unnecessary; natural selection ceases when the performance of a protein is 'good enough' that it no longer affects fitness. Although promiscuous functions are accidental and physiologically irrelevant, they are of great importance because they provide opportunities for the evolution of new functions in nature and in the laboratory, as well as targets for therapeutic drugs and tools for a wide range of technological applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Allen B.L.,University of Colorado at Boulder |
Taatjes D.J.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2015
The RNA polymerase II (Pol II) enzyme transcribes all protein-coding and most non-coding RNA genes and is globally regulated by Mediator-a large, conformationally flexible protein complex with a variable subunit composition (for example, a four-subunit cyclin-dependent kinase 8 module can reversibly associate with it). These biochemical characteristics are fundamentally important for Mediator's ability to control various processes that are important for transcription, including the organization of chromatin architecture and the regulation of Pol II pre-initiation, initiation, re-initiation, pausing and elongation. Although Mediator exists in all eukaryotes, a variety of Mediator functions seem to be specific to metazoans, which is indicative of more diverse regulatory requirements. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Willcutt E.G.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2012
This article describes a comprehensive meta-analysis that was conducted to estimate the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). A systematic literature review identified 86 studies of children and adolescents (N = 163,688 individuals) and 11 studies of adults (N = 14,112 individuals) that met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, more than half of which were published after the only previous meta-analysis of the prevalence of ADHD was completed. Although prevalence estimates reported by individual studies varied widely, pooled results suggest that the prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD is similar, whether ADHD is defined by parent ratings, teacher ratings, or a best estimate diagnostic procedure in children and adolescents (5.9-7.1 %), or by self-report measures in young adults (5.0 %). Analyses of diagnostic subtypes indicated that the predominantly inattentive type is the most common subtype in the population, but individuals with the combined type are more likely to be referred for clinical services. Additional research is needed to determine the etiology of the higher prevalence of ADHD in males than females and to clarify whether the prevalence of ADHD varies as a function of socioeconomic status or ethnicity. Finally, there were no significant prevalent differences between countries or regions of the world after controlling for differences in the diagnostic algorithms used to define ADHD. These results provide important support for the diagnostic validity of ADHD, and argue against the hypothesis that ADHD is a cultural construct that is restricted to the United States or any other specific culture. © 2012 The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc.
Taatjes D.J.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2010
The Mediator complex interacts extensively with the RNA polymerase II enzyme and regulates its ability to express protein-coding genes. The mechanisms by which Mediator regulates gene expression remain poorly understood, in part because the structure of Mediator and even its composition can change, depending upon the promoter context. Combined with the sheer size of the human Mediator complex (26 subunits, 1.2 MDa), this structural adaptability bestows seemingly unlimited regulatory potential within the complex. Recent efforts to understand Mediator structure and function have identified expanded roles that include control of both pre- and post-initiation events; it is also evident that Mediator performs both general and gene-specific roles to regulate gene expression. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
George S.M.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2010
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) which has emerged as an important technique for depositing thin films for a variety of applications has been reported. The necessity for continuous and pinhole-free films in semiconductor devices has driven the advancement of ALD. ALD is able to meet the needs for atomic layer control and conformal deposition using sequential, self-limiting surface reactions. The ALD of Al2O3 has developed as a model ALD system. ALD processing is also extendible to very large substrates and to parallel processing of multiple substrates. ALD is a gas phase method based on sequential, selflimiting surface reactions. ALD can deposit very conformal and ultrathin films on substrates with very high aspect ratios. ALD on high aspect ratio structures was then considered including an examination of the times required for conformal growth on high aspect ratio structures. The number of applications for ALD also continues to grow outside of the semiconductor arena.
McHenry C.S.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2011
Bacterial replicases are complex, tripartite replicative machines. They contain a polymerase, polymerase III (Pol III), a βÎ2;2 processivity factor, and a DnaX complex ATPase that loads βÎ2 onto DNA and chaperones Pol III onto the newly loaded βÎ2. Bacterial replicases are highly processive, yet cycle rapidly during Okazaki fragment synthesis in a regulated way. Many bacteria encode both a full-length τ and a shorter γ form of DnaX by a variety of mechanisms. γappears to be uniquely placed in a single position relative to two τ protomers in a pentameric ring. The polymerase catalytic subunit of Pol III, α±, contains a PHP domain that not only binds to a prototypical εμ Mg 2+-dependent exonuclease, but also contains a second Zn 2+-dependent proofreading exonuclease, at least in some bacteria. This review focuses on a critical evaluation of recent literature and concepts pertaining to the above issues and suggests specific areas that require further investigation. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
English A.R.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2013
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, continuous membrane-bound organelle comprised of functionally and structurally distinct domains including the nuclear envelope, peripheral tubular ER, peripheral cisternae, and numerous membrane contact sites at the plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi, endosomes, and peroxisomes. These domains are required for multiple cellular processes, including synthesis of proteins and lipids, calcium level regulation, and exchange of macromolecules with various organelles at ER-membrane contact sites. The ER maintains its unique overall structure regardless of dynamics or transfer at ER-organelle contacts. In this review, we describe the numerous factors that contribute to the structure of the ER.
Batey R.T.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics | Year: 2012
A riboswitch is a non-protein coding sequence capable of directly binding a small molecule effector without the assistance of accessory proteins to regulate expression of the mRNA in which it is embedded. Currently, over 20 different classes of riboswitches have been validated in bacteria with the promise of many more to come, making them an important means of regulating the genome in the bacterial kingdom. Strikingly, half of the known riboswitches recognize effector compounds that contain a purine or related moiety. In the last decade, significant progress has been made to determine how riboswitches specifically recognize these compounds against the background of many other similar cellular metabolites and transduce this signal into a regulatory response. Of the known riboswitches, the purine family containing guanine, adenine and 2′-deoxyguanosine-binding classes are the most extensively studied, serving as a simple and useful paradigm for understanding how these regulatory RNAs function. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the current state of knowledge regarding the structure and mechanism of these riboswitches, as well as insights into how they might be exploited as therapeutic targets and novel biosensors. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.
DeGrand T.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2016
Over the last few years lattice techniques have been used to investigate candidate theories of new physics beyond the standard model. This review gives a survey of results from these studies. Most of these investigations have been of systems of gauge fields and fermions that have slowly running coupling constants. A major portion of the review is a critical discussion of work in this particular subfield, first describing the methods used and then giving a compilation of results for specific models. © 2016 American Physical Society.