The University of Colorado Boulder is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States. It is the flagship university of the University of Colorado system and was founded five months before Colorado was admitted to the union in 1876. According to The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities , it is considered one of the thirty "Public Ivy League" schools.In 2010, the university consisted of nine colleges and schools and offered over 150 academic programs and enrolled 29,952 students. Eleven Nobel Laureates, nine MacArthur Fellows, and 18 astronauts have been affiliated with CU-Boulder as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history. The university received nearly US$454 million in sponsored research in 2010 to fund programs like the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, and JILA.Colorado Buffaloes competes in nine intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Pacific-12 Conference. The Buffaloes have won 26 NCAA championships: 19 in skiing, six total in men's and women's cross country, and one in football. Approximately 1,500 students participate in 34 intercollegiate club sports annually as well. Wikipedia.
Depue B.E.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2012
Memory of past experience is essential for guiding goal-related behavior. Being able to control accessibility of memory through modulation of retrieval enables humans to flexibly adapt to their environment. Understanding the specific neural pathways of how this control is achieved has largely eluded cognitive neuroscience. Accordingly, in the current paper I review literature that examines the overt control over retrieval in order to reduce accessibility. I first introduce three hypotheses of inhibition of retrieval. These hypotheses involve: (i) attending to other stimuli as a form of diversionary attention, (ii) inhibiting the specific individual neural representation of the memory, and (iii) inhibiting the hippocampus and retrieval process more generally to prevent reactivation of the representation. I then analyze literature taken from the White Bear Suppression, Directed Forgetting and Think/No-Think tasks to provide evidence for these hypotheses. Finally, a neuroanatomical model is developed to indicate three pathways from PFC to the hippocampal complex that support inhibition of memory retrieval. Describing these neural pathways increases our understanding of control over memory in general. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Keller M.C.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2014
Candidate gene × environment (G × E) interaction research tests the hypothesis that the effects of some environmental variable (e.g., childhood maltreatment) on some outcome measure (e.g., depression) depend on a particular genetic polymorphism. Because this research is inherently nonexperimental, investigators have been rightly concerned that detected interactions could be driven by confounders (e.g., ethnicity, gender, age, socioeconomic status) rather than by the specified genetic or environmental variables per se. In an attempt to eliminate such alternative explanations for detected G × E interactions, investigators routinely enter the potential confounders as covariates in general linear models. However, this practice does not control for the effects these variables might have on the G × E interaction. Rather, to properly control for confounders, researchers need to enter the covariate × environment and the covariate × gene interaction terms in the same model that tests the G × E term. In this manuscript, I demonstrate this point analytically and show that the practice of improperly controlling for covariates is the norm in the G × E interaction literature to date. Thus, many alternative explanations for G × E findings that investigators had thought were eliminated have not been. © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry.
O'Reilly R.C.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Trends in Neurosciences | Year: 2010
How is the prefrontal cortex (PFC) organized such that it is capable of making people more flexible and in control of their behavior? Is there any systematic organization across the many diverse areas that comprise the PFC, or is it uniquely adaptive such that no fixed representational structure can develop? Going against the current tide, this paper argues that there is indeed a systematic organization across PFC areas, with an important functional distinction between ventral and dorsal regions characterized as processing What versus How information, respectively. This distinction has implications for the rostro-caudal and medial-lateral axes of organization as well. The resulting large-scale functional map of PFC could prove useful in integrating diverse data, and in generating novel predictions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Wyatte D.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Journal of cognitive neuroscience | Year: 2012
Everyday vision requires robustness to a myriad of environmental factors that degrade stimuli. Foreground clutter can occlude objects of interest, and complex lighting and shadows can decrease the contrast of items. How does the brain recognize visual objects despite these low-quality inputs? On the basis of predictions from a model of object recognition that contains excitatory feedback, we hypothesized that recurrent processing would promote robust recognition when objects were degraded by strengthening bottom-up signals that were weakened because of occlusion and contrast reduction. To test this hypothesis, we used backward masking to interrupt the processing of partially occluded and contrast reduced images during a categorization experiment. As predicted by the model, we found significant interactions between the mask and occlusion and the mask and contrast, such that the recognition of heavily degraded stimuli was differentially impaired by masking. The model provided a close fit of these results in an isomorphic version of the experiment with identical stimuli. The model also provided an intuitive explanation of the interactions between the mask and degradations, indicating that masking interfered specifically with the extensive recurrent processing necessary to amplify and resolve highly degraded inputs, whereas less degraded inputs did not require much amplification and could be rapidly resolved, making them less susceptible to masking. Together, the results of the experiment and the accompanying model simulations illustrate the limits of feedforward vision and suggest that object recognition is better characterized as a highly interactive, dynamic process that depends on the coordination of multiple brain areas.
Armitage P.J.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2011
Protoplanetary disks are quasi-steady structures whose evolution and dispersal determine the environment for planet formation. I review the theory of protoplanetary disk evolution and its connection to observations. Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the physics of potential angular momentum transport processesincluding self-gravity, magnetorotational instability, baroclinic instabilities, and magnetic brakingand in developing testable models for disk dispersal via photoevaporation. The relative importance of these processes depends upon the initial mass, size, and magnetization of the disk, and subsequently on its opacity, ionization state, and external irradiation. Disk dynamics is therefore coupled to star formation, pre-main-sequence stellar evolution, and dust coagulation during the early stages of planet formation and may vary dramatically from star to star. The importance of validating theoretical models is emphasized, with the key observations being those that probe disk structure on the scales between 1 AU and 10 AU, where theory is most uncertain. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Copley S.D.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2015
•Promiscuous enzymes catalyze physiologically irrelevant secondary reactions.•Promiscuous activities are not always inefficient.•The concept of promiscuity can be easily extended to noncatalytic proteins.•Promiscuous functions can be the starting point for the evolution of new functions.•Promiscuous functions are used for a wide range of biotechnological applications. Evolutionary biochemists define enzyme promiscuity as the ability to catalyze secondary reactions that are physiologically irrelevant, either because they are too inefficient to affect fitness or because the enzyme never encounters the substrate. Promiscuous activities are common because evolution of a perfectly specific active site is both difficult and unnecessary; natural selection ceases when the performance of a protein is 'good enough' that it no longer affects fitness. Although promiscuous functions are accidental and physiologically irrelevant, they are of great importance because they provide opportunities for the evolution of new functions in nature and in the laboratory, as well as targets for therapeutic drugs and tools for a wide range of technological applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Taatjes D.J.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2010
The Mediator complex interacts extensively with the RNA polymerase II enzyme and regulates its ability to express protein-coding genes. The mechanisms by which Mediator regulates gene expression remain poorly understood, in part because the structure of Mediator and even its composition can change, depending upon the promoter context. Combined with the sheer size of the human Mediator complex (26 subunits, 1.2 MDa), this structural adaptability bestows seemingly unlimited regulatory potential within the complex. Recent efforts to understand Mediator structure and function have identified expanded roles that include control of both pre- and post-initiation events; it is also evident that Mediator performs both general and gene-specific roles to regulate gene expression. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
George S.M.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2010
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) which has emerged as an important technique for depositing thin films for a variety of applications has been reported. The necessity for continuous and pinhole-free films in semiconductor devices has driven the advancement of ALD. ALD is able to meet the needs for atomic layer control and conformal deposition using sequential, self-limiting surface reactions. The ALD of Al2O3 has developed as a model ALD system. ALD processing is also extendible to very large substrates and to parallel processing of multiple substrates. ALD is a gas phase method based on sequential, selflimiting surface reactions. ALD can deposit very conformal and ultrathin films on substrates with very high aspect ratios. ALD on high aspect ratio structures was then considered including an examination of the times required for conformal growth on high aspect ratio structures. The number of applications for ALD also continues to grow outside of the semiconductor arena.
McHenry C.S.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2011
Bacterial replicases are complex, tripartite replicative machines. They contain a polymerase, polymerase III (Pol III), a βÎ2;2 processivity factor, and a DnaX complex ATPase that loads βÎ2 onto DNA and chaperones Pol III onto the newly loaded βÎ2. Bacterial replicases are highly processive, yet cycle rapidly during Okazaki fragment synthesis in a regulated way. Many bacteria encode both a full-length τ and a shorter γ form of DnaX by a variety of mechanisms. γappears to be uniquely placed in a single position relative to two τ protomers in a pentameric ring. The polymerase catalytic subunit of Pol III, α±, contains a PHP domain that not only binds to a prototypical εμ Mg 2+-dependent exonuclease, but also contains a second Zn 2+-dependent proofreading exonuclease, at least in some bacteria. This review focuses on a critical evaluation of recent literature and concepts pertaining to the above issues and suggests specific areas that require further investigation. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
DeGrand T.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2016
Over the last few years lattice techniques have been used to investigate candidate theories of new physics beyond the standard model. This review gives a survey of results from these studies. Most of these investigations have been of systems of gauge fields and fermions that have slowly running coupling constants. A major portion of the review is a critical discussion of work in this particular subfield, first describing the methods used and then giving a compilation of results for specific models. © 2016 American Physical Society.