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Abidjan, Ivory Coast

N'Guessan C.A.,University Of Cocody Abidjan | Brisse S.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Le Roux-Nio A.-C.,CNRS Institute of Genetics, Environment and Plant Protection | Poussier S.,University of Reunion Island | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2013

Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil borne bacterial plant pathogen causing bacterial wilt on many important crops. To better monitor epidemics, efficient tools that can identify and discriminate populations are needed. In this study, we assessed variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping as a new tool for epidemiological surveillance of R. solanacearum phylotypes, and more specifically for the monitoring of the monomorphic ecotypes "Moko" (banana-pathogenic) and "brown rot" (potato-pathogenic under cool conditions). Screening of six R. solanacearum genome sequences lead to select 36 VNTR loci that were preliminarily amplified on 24 strains. From this step, 26 single-locus primer pairs were multiplexed, and applied to a worldwide collection of 337 strains encompassing the whole phylogenetic diversity, with revelation on a capillary-electrophoresis genotype. Four loci were monomorphic within all phylotypes and were not retained; the other loci were highly polymorphic but displayed a clear phylotype-specificity. Phylotype-specific MLVA schemes were thus defined, based on 13 loci for phylotype I, 12 loci for phylotype II, 11 loci for phylotype III and 6 for phylotype IV. MLVA typing was significantly more discriminative than egl-based sequevar typing, particularly on monomorphic "brown rot" ecotype (phylotype IIB/sequevar 1) and "Moko disease" clade 4 (Phylotype IIB/sequevar 4). Our results raise promising prospects for studies of population genetic structures and epidemiological monitoring. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Pitra P.,CNRS Geosciences Laboratory of Rennes | Kouamelan A.N.,University Of Cocody Abidjan | Ballevre M.,CNRS Geosciences Laboratory of Rennes | Peucat J.-J.,CNRS Geosciences Laboratory of Rennes
Journal of Metamorphic Geology | Year: 2010

The character of mountain building processes in Palaeoproterozoic times is subject to much debate. Based on the discovery of high-pressure granulites in the Man Rise (Côte d'Ivoire), several authors have argued that Eburnean (Palaeoproterozoic) reworking of the Archean basement was achieved by modern-style thrust-dominated tectonics.A mafic granulite of the Kouibli area (Archean part of the Man Rise, western Ivory Coast) displays a primary assemblage (M1) containing garnet, diopsidic clinopyroxene, red-brown pargasitic amphibole, plagioclase (andesine), rutile, ilmenite and quartz. This assemblage is associated with a subvertical regional foliation. Symplectites that developed at the expense of the M1 assemblage contain orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase (bytownite), green pargasitic amphibole, ilmenite and magnetite (M2). Multiequilibrium thermobarometric calculations and P-T pseudosections calculated with thermocalc suggest granulite facies conditions of ∼ 13 kbar, 850 °C and <7 kbar, 700-800 °C for M1 and M2, respectively. In agreement with the qualitative information obtained from reaction textures and chemical zoning of minerals, this suggests an evolution dominated by decompression accompanied by moderate cooling. A Sm-Nd garnet - whole-rock age of 2.03 Ga determined on this sample indicates that this evolution occurred during the Palaeoproterozoic. It is argued that from the geodynamic point of view the observed features are best explained by homogeneous thickening of the margin of the Archean craton, re-heated and softened due to the accretion of hot, juvenile Palaeoproterozoic crust, as well as coeval intrusion of juvenile magmas. Crustal shortening was mainly accommodated by transpressive shear zones and by lateral crustal spreading rather than large-scale thrust systems. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Utzinger J.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Utzinger J.,University of Basel | N'Goran E.K.,University Of Cocody Abidjan | Caffrey C.R.,University of California at San Francisco | And 2 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2011

Compared to malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, schistosomiasis remains a truly neglected tropical disease. Schistosomiasis, perhaps more than any other disease, is entrenched in prevailing social-ecological systems, since transmission is governed by human behaviour (e.g. open defecation and patterns of unprotected surface water contacts) and ecological features (e.g. living in close proximity to suitable freshwater bodies in which intermediate host snails proliferate). Moreover, schistosomiasis is intimately linked with poverty and the disease has spread to previously non-endemic areas as a result of demographic, ecological and engineering transformations. Importantly though, thanks to increased advocacy there is growing awareness, financial and technical support to control and eventually eliminate schistosomiasis as a public health problem at local, regional and global scales. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent progress made in innovation, validation and application of new tools and strategies for research and integrated control of schistosomiasis. First, we explain that schistosomiasis is deeply embedded in social-ecological systems and explore linkages with poverty. We then summarize and challenge global statistics, risk maps and burden estimates of human schistosomiasis. Discovery and development research pertaining to novel diagnostics and drugs forms the centrepiece of our review. We discuss unresolved issues and emerging opportunities for integrated and sustainable control of schistosomiasis and conclude with a series of research needs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

This study was realiszed in Côte d'Ivoire at the children from 5 to 15 years old. The purpose of this study was to determine the alteration of immunity, inflammatory and nutritional proteins at 142 children (30 minor and 12 moderated malnutrition). The nutritional state or the state of malnutrition was to appreciate by Weight/height ratio which is the most usued by far. Immunity, inflammatory and nutritional proteins were measured by radical immunodiffusion according to Mancini. The results of this study showed that the Albumin was lowered (p<0.01) during the moderate and minor malnutrition in comparison to the children.On the other hand, it was observed an increased of CRP in both forms of malnutrition (p<0.05).Also, the index prognostic nutritional and inflammatory who, allows to appreciate simultaneously the inflammatory and nutritional state (PINI) was increased in the malnutrition moderated with regard to the minor malnutrition and to the children (p<0.05).Besides, immunity proteins remain unchanged in both forms of malnutrition in comparison to the healthy children (p<0.05). Finally, this study shows that the moderate and malnutrition are associated with an inflammatory process and of protein consumption notably the Albumin .These observations suggest that determination of the nutritional status requires the use of the clinical method coupled with the biological examinations.

Malan B.B.,University Of Cocody Abidjan
Agricultural Economics (Czech Republic) | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper was to study the coffee and cocoa price volatility in Côte d'Ivoire and to understand the mechanism of price stabilization. Thus, this paper shows that the international prices and the farm gate prices of these two products are strongly dispersed around their respective average, from one year to another and within each year. This paper proposes a model of partial stabilization which makes it possible to highlight an alternate mechanism of the coffee and cocoa price stabilization which is relatively efficient compared to the mechanism which currently exists. It shows that a marketing board in the Ivorian coffee and cocoa sector, which constitutes a buffer stock and uses it in a strategic way, has the advantage of reducing significantly the volatility of the international price and the farm gate price.

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