The University of Cincinnati is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, in the U.S. state of Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio.Founded in 1819 as Cincinnati College, it is the oldest institution of higher education in Cincinnati and has an annual enrollment of over 40,000 students, making it the second largest university in Ohio and one of the 50 largest universities in the United States. In the 2010 survey by Times Higher Education , the university was ranked in the top 100 universities in North America and as one of the top 200 in the world. Beginning with the 2011 edition of US News and World Report Best Colleges rankings, the University of Cincinnati has been ranked as a Tier One university, ranking as the 129th best overall university and 63rd best public university in the 2015 rankings. This includes being the number 3 ranked university in the nation in the "Up-and-Coming" National Universities section of the 2014 edition. In 2011-2012 academic year the Leiden University ranking put the University of Cincinnati at the 93rd place globally and at the 63rd place in North America by the proportion of top-cited publications. In 2014, US News and World Report ranked UC in the Top-200 of universities worldwide.The university garners nearly $500 million per annum in research funding, ranking 22nd among public universities in the US. Numerous programs across the university are nationally ranked, including: aerospace engineering, anthropology, architecture, classics, composition, conducting, cooperative education, criminal justice, design, environmental science, law, medicine, music, musical theater, neurology, opera, otolaryngology, paleontology, pediatrics, and pharmacy.The school offers over 100 bachelor degrees, over 300 degree granting programs, and over 600 total programs of study, ranging from certificates to doctoral and first professional education. With an economic impact of over $3.5 billion per year, it is the largest single employer in Greater Cincinnati. After extensive renovations through the implementation of the 1989 Master Plan, the university has been recognized by campus planners and architects as one of the most distinguished campus settings in the world. Wikipedia.
Ethicon Endo Surgery Inc. and University of Cincinnati | Date: 2016-10-20
Devices and methods are used to modify a metabolic pathway of a digestive system by creating a pathway within the intestinal tract through an anastomosis between a proximal location within the intestinal tract and a distal location within the intestinal tract. In some examples, the small intestine has a first initial length and the created pathway defines a second length of the intestinal tract that is approximately ten to seventy percent of the first initial length of the small intestine.
University of Cincinnati | Date: 2015-04-17
Disclosed are methods and compositions for treating Type I diabetes in a subject. Agents selected from a TLR4 agonist, a TLR4/MD-2 agonist, or a combination thereof may be used in the disclosed methods and compositions. Also disclosed are methods of restoring adaptive immune T cell tolerance, treating pernicious insulitis, improving immune tolerance, and treating autoimmune diseases using the disclosed methods and compositions.
University of Cincinnati | Date: 2015-03-03
A device (10) and method for analyzing blood coagulation in a blood sample. The device (10) includes a housing (12) having an analytical membrane (14) partially enclosed in a housing. The analytical membrane (14) includes a porous hydrophilic sample portion (34), a porous hydrophilic analytical portion (36), and a porous hydrophilic wicking portion (38). The porosity of the analytical portion (36) differs from the porosity of the sample portion (34). The method utilizes the device to analyze blood coagulation in a whole blood sample from the distance travelled by the red blood cell leading edge (50) in a predetermined period of time.
University of Cincinnati | Date: 2016-08-12
A method of electrolytic additive manufacturing provides 3-D parts. The method can be used to form parts from particulate material in an electrolytic bath. Metal is electrolytically deposited, binding the particles. Layers of the particles are built up to form the parts. The same process can be used to form parts without the particulate material. Layers of metal are electrolytically deposited in the electrolyte bath to form the parts.
Grossman A.W.,University of Cincinnati
Annals of neurology | Year: 2013
We review recent advances in the treatment and prevention of acute ischemic stroke, including the current state of endovascular therapy, in light of 5 randomized controlled trials published this past year. Although no benefit of endovascular therapy over intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) has been demonstrated, endovascular therapy is an appropriate treatment for acute ischemic stroke patients within the t-PA window who are ineligible for IV t-PA but have a large vascular occlusion. These trials reveal promises and current limitations of endovascular therapy, and comparison of reperfusion therapies remains an important area of research. One common theme is the strong association between a faster time to reperfusion, improved outcome, and reduced mortality. Primary and secondary stroke prevention trials emphasize the importance of aggressive management of medical risk factors as part of any preventative strategy. New oral anticoagulants, for example, offer cost-effective risk reduction in patients with atrial fibrillation, and may represent an opportunity for those with cryptogenic stroke. We highlight areas of unmet need and promising research in stroke, including the need to deliver proven therapies to more patients, and the need to recruit patients into clinical trials that better define the role of endovascular and other stroke therapies. Finally, improvement in strategies to recover speech, cognition, and motor function has the potential to benefit far more stroke patients than any acute stroke therapy, and represents the greatest opportunity for research in the coming century. Copyright © 2013 American Neurological Association.
Lam C.K.,University of Cincinnati
Circulation research | Year: 2013
Ischemic heart disease is characterized by contractile dysfunction and increased cardiomyocyte death, induced by necrosis and apoptosis. Increased cell survival after an ischemic insult is critical and depends on several cellular pathways, which have not been fully elucidated. To test the hypothesis that the anti-apoptotic hematopoietic lineage substrate-1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1), recently identified as regulator of cardiac Ca cycling, also may ameliorate cellular injury with an ischemic insult. We report that cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury is associated with significant decreases in HAX-1 levels ex vivo and in vivo. Accordingly, overexpression of HAX-1 improved contractile recovery, coupled with reduced infarct size, plasma troponin I level, and apoptosis. The beneficial effects were associated with decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response through specific inhibition of the inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE-1) signaling pathway, including its downstream effectors caspase-12 and the transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein. Conversely, HAX-1 heterozygous-deficient hearts exhibited increases in infarct size and IRE-1 activity. The inhibitory effects of HAX-1 were mediated by its binding to the N-terminal fragment of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Moreover, HAX-1 sequestered Hsp90 from IRE-1 to the phospholamban-sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase complex. The HAX-1 regulation was further supported by loss of IRE-1 inhibition in presence of the Hsp90 inhibitor, 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin. Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with decreases in HAX-1 levels. Consequently, overexpression of HAX-1 promotes cardiomyocyte survival, mediated by its interaction with Hsp90 and specific inhibition of IRE-1 signaling at the ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Guo P.,University of Cincinnati
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2010
Like DNA, RNA can be designed and manipulated to produce a variety of different nanostructures. Moreover, RNA has a flexible structure and possesses catalytic functions that are similar to proteins. Although RNA nanotechnology resembles DNA nanotechnology in many ways, the base-pairing rules for constructing nanoparticles are different. The large variety of loops and motifs found in RNA allows it to fold into numerous complicated structures, and this diversity provides a platform for identifying viable building blocks for various applications. The thermal stability of RNA also allows the production of multivalent nanostructures with defined stoichiometry. Here we review techniques for constructing RNA nanoparticles from different building blocks, we describe the distinct attributes of RNA inside the body, and discuss potential applications of RNA nanostructures in medicine. We also offer some perspectives on the yield and cost of RNA production. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Whitsett J.A.,University of Cincinnati |
Alenghat T.,University of Cincinnati
Nature Immunology | Year: 2015
The epithelial surfaces of the lungs are in direct contact with the environment and are subjected to dynamic physical forces as airway tubes and alveoli are stretched and compressed during ventilation. Mucociliary clearance in conducting airways, reduction of surface tension in the alveoli, and maintenance of near sterility have been accommodated by the evolution of a multi-tiered innate host-defense system. The biophysical nature of pulmonary host defenses are integrated with the ability of respiratory epithelial cells to respond to and 'instruct' the professional immune system to protect the lungs from infection and injury. © 2015 Nature America, Inc.
Wunderlich M.,University of Cincinnati
Blood | Year: 2013
As acute myeloid leukemia (AML) xenograft models improve, the potential for using them to evaluate novel therapeutic strategies becomes more appealing. Currently, there is little information on using standard chemotherapy regimens in AML xenografts. Here we have characterized the immunodeficient mouse response to combined Ara-C (cytarabine) and doxorubicin treatment. We observed significant toxicity associated with doxorubicin that required optimization of the route of injection as well as the maximum-tolerated dose for immunodeficient strains. Mice treated with an optimized 5-day induction protocol showed transient weight loss, short-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and platelet counts, and slight anemia. Considerable cytotoxicity was observed in the bone marrow (BM), with primitive LSK cells having a significant survival advantage relative to more mature cells, consistent with the idea of chemotherapy targeting actively growing cells. Treated leukemic mice demonstrated reduced disease burden and increased survival, demonstrating efficacy. AML cells showed significantly increased sensitivity to doxorubicin-containing therapy compared with murine BM cells. Although early treatment could result in some cures, mice with significant leukemia grafts were not cured by using induction therapy alone. Overall, the data show that this model system is useful for the evaluation of novel chemotherapies in combination with standard induction therapy.
Cullen F.T.,University of Cincinnati
Criminology | Year: 2011
For over a half century, criminology has been dominated by a paradigm-adolescence-limited criminology (ALC)-that has privileged the use of self-report surveys of adolescents to test sociological theories of criminal behavior and has embraced the view that "nothing works" to control crime. Although ALC has created knowledge, opposed injustice, and advanced scholars' careers, it has outlived its utility. The time has come for criminologists to choose a different future. Thus, a new paradigm is needed that is rooted in life-course criminology, brings criminologists closer to offenders and to the crime event, prioritizes the organization of knowledge, and produces scientific knowledge that is capable of improving offenders' lives and reducing crime. © 2011 American Society of Criminology.