South East, United Kingdom

University of Chichester

www.chi.ac.uk
South East, United Kingdom

The University of Chichester is a university located in West Sussex, England. Campuses are based in the city of Chichester and the nearby coastal resort of Bognor Regis. Today its many teaching and research specialisms include: Humanities ; Social science ; Music and Performing Arts; and Sports Studies and Education. As is outlined below its heritage stretches back into the nineteenth century. It has a significant history when, during the planning for D-Day, the Chichester campus was home to RAF flight operations supporting the liberation of Western Europe. Wikipedia.

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Brown N.,University of Chichester
European Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2017

Adolescent girls are an important target group for breast cancer education and promoting breast awareness. However, research has not established schoolgirls’ perceived importance of breast cancer education or explored factors that may impact engagement. This study aimed to identify schoolgirls’ concerns about breast cancer, desire to know more and perceived importance of breast cancer education, and explored associations with demographic factors. Of 2089 schoolgirls (11–18 years) surveyed, 1958 completed all relevant breast cancer questions and demographic factors (ethnicity, school type, breast size, physical activity level and age). χ-Tests assessed associations between demographics, desire to know more and perceived importance of breast cancer. Overall, 44% of schoolgirls reported concerns about breast cancer, 72% wanted to know more and 77% rated the topic as extremely important. Breast size was not associated with wanting to know more about breast cancer. Schoolgirls who wanted to know more about breast cancer were White, from single-sex schools with boys at sixth form, more physically active and older. However, among other ethnic groups, school types and physical activity levels, the proportion of girls who wanted to know more about breast cancer was still high (≥61%). This study provides evidence of the need for breast cancer education for schoolgirls across all school types, irrespective of breast size or physical activity levels. The results highlight the need to be inclusive and engage schoolgirls from all ethnic groups and to promote breast awareness at a young age to ensure effective breast cancer education. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


McMorris T.,University of Chichester | Hale B.J.,University of Chichester
Brain and Cognition | Year: 2012

The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical techniques, the differential effects of differing intensities of acute exercise on speed and accuracy of cognition. Overall, exercise demonstrated a small, significant mean effect size (g=0.14, p<0.01) on cognition. Examination of the comparison between speed and accuracy dependent variables showed that speed accounted for most of the effect. For speed, moderate intensity exercise demonstrated a significantly larger mean effect size than those for low and high intensities. For speed of processing during moderate intensity exercise, central executive tasks showed a larger effect size than recall and alertness/attention tasks; and mean effect size for counterbalanced or randomized studies was significantly greater than for studies in which a pre-exercise followed by during or post-exercise protocol was used. There was no significant difference between mean effect sizes when testing took place post-exercise compared to during exercise for speed but accuracy studies demonstrated a significantly larger mean effect size post-exercise. It was concluded that increased arousal during moderate intensity exercise resulted in faster speed of processing. The very limited effect on accuracy may be due to the failure to choose tests which are complex enough to measure exercise-induced changes in accuracy of performance. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


McMorris T.,University of Chichester | McMorris T.,Northumbria University
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2016

The catecholamines hypothesis for the acute exercise-cognition interaction in humans fails to adequately explain the interaction between peripherally circulating catecholamines and brain concentrations; how different exercise intensities × durations affect different cognitive tasks; and how brain catecholamines, glucocorticoids, BDNF and 5-hydroxytryptamine interact. A review of the animal literature was able to clarify many of the issues. Rodent studies showed that facilitation of cognition during short to moderate duration (SMD), moderate exercise could be accounted for by activation of the locus coeruleus via feedback from stretch reflexes, baroreceptors and, post-catecholamines threshold, β-adrenoceptors on the vagus nerve. SMD, moderate exercise facilitates all types of task by stimulation of the reticular system by norepinephrine (NE) but central executive tasks are further facilitated by activation of α2A-adrenoceptors and D1-dopaminergic receptors in the prefrontal cortex, which increases the signal to ‘noise’ ratio. During long-duration, moderate exercise and heavy exercise, brain concentrations of glucocorticoids and 5-hydroxytryptamine, the latter in moderate exercise only, also increase. This further increases catecholamines release. This results in increased activation of D1-receptors and α1-adrenoceptors, in the prefrontal cortex, which dampens all neural activity, thus inhibiting central executive performance. However, activation of β- and α1-adrenoceptors can positively affect signal detection in the sensory cortices, hence performance of perception/attention and autonomous tasks can be facilitated. Animal studies also show that during long-duration, moderate exercise and heavy exercise, NE activation of β-adrenoceptors releases cAMP, which modulates the signaling and trafficking of the BDNF receptor Trk B, which facilitates long-term potentiation. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Purpose: To explore Paralympic athletes' lived experiences of becoming physically active after disability, and the role that this may have played in the development of posttraumatic growth. Methods: Life history interviews were conducted with 7 individuals with an acquired and traumatic disability, who were aiming to take part in the London 2012 Paralympic Games. This was also informed by observation of sport participation. Data were analysed using a holistic content analysis. Results: Three main themes were identified that reflected participants' initial physical activity experiences and which were linked to posttraumatic growth. These were recognizing possibility by acknowledging limitations, responsibility for choice and consequences, and re-establishing and enhancing meaning. Conclusions: Posttraumatic growth is a process and consequently, part of this process may include experiencing both positive and negative trauma symptoms. Participation in physical activity may assist an individual in achieving posttraumatic growth by facilitating meaning making, providing an environment where risks and responsibilities can be taken, and allowing an individual to understand their limitations and future possibilities.Implications for RehabilitationWhile posttraumatic growth is often associated with positive psychological outcomes, it is important to consider that this can occur alongside the experience of negative trauma symptoms.Participation in physical activity may induce both positive and negative responses following trauma.In order to foster posttraumatic growth, physical activity should be meaningful to the activity and allow a sense of control and personal responsibility. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd.


McKinley E.,University of Chichester | Fletcher S.,University of Plymouth
Marine Policy | Year: 2012

This paper presents an evaluation of the role of marine citizenship in improving marine environmental health and marine governance. Marine citizenship describes the rights and responsibilities of an individual towards the marine environment, which support the achievement of marine policy objectives at the national level. It is argued that marine citizenship requires an enhanced awareness of marine environmental issues, an understanding of the role of personal behaviour in creating and resolving marine environmental issues, and a shift in values to promote marine pro-environmental behavioural choices. It is concluded that the value shift is likely to be produced by the development of an altered relationship between the state and the individual, in which the expectations placed on citizens by the state are extended to include marine pro-environmental behaviour. The paper is intended to stimulate debate and the authors invite and encourage replies to the ideas contained within the paper. © 2011.


Hansez I.,University of Liège | Chmiel N.,University of Chichester
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology | Year: 2010

The job demands-resources model posits that job demands and resources influence outcomes through job strain and work engagement processes. We test whether the model can be extended to effort-related " routine" safety violations and " situational" safety violations provoked by the organization. In addition we test more directly the involvement of job strain than previous studies which have used burnout measures. Structural equation modeling provided, for the first time, evidence of predicted relationships between job strain and " routine" violations and work engagement with " routine" and " situational" violations, thereby supporting the extension of the job demands-resources model to safety behaviors. In addition our results showed that a key safety-specific construct 'perceived management commitment to safety' added to the explanatory power of the job demands-resources model. A predicted path from job resources to perceived management commitment to safety was highly significant, supporting the view that job resources can influence safety behavior through both general motivational involvement in work (work engagement) and through safety-specific processes. © 2010 American Psychological Association.


Malcolm D.,Loughborough University | Scott A.,University of Chichester
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2011

This article examines the impact of organisational changes in UK elite sport on the professional relations among and between different healthcare providers. The article describes the processes by which demand for elite sport healthcare has increased in the UK. It further charts the subsequent response within medicine and physiotherapy and, in particular, the institutionalisation of sport-specific sub-disciplines through the introduction of specialist qualifications. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 14 doctors and 14 physiotherapists, the article argues that organisational changes have led to intra-professional tensions within both professional groups but in qualitatively different forms reflecting the organisational traditions and professional identities of the respective disciplines. Organisational changes promoting multi-disciplinary healthcare teams have also fostered an environment conducive to high levels of inter-professional cooperation though significant elements of inter-professional conflict remain. This study illustrates how intra-professional relations are affected by specialisation, how legitimation discourses are used by different professions, and how intra- and inter-professional conflict and cooperation should be seen as highly interdependent processes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Gault M.L.,University of Chichester | Willems M.E.T.,University of Chichester
Aging and Disease | Year: 2013

Aging is a multi-factorial process that ultimately induces a decline in our physiological functioning, causing a decreased health-span, quality of life and independence for older adults. Exercise participation is seen as a way to reduce the impact of aging through maintenance of physiological parameters. Eccentric exercise is a model that can be employed with older adults, due to the muscle's ability to combine high muscle force production with a low energy cost. There may however be a risk of muscle damage before the muscle is able to adapt. The first part of this review describes the process of aging and how it reduces aerobic capacity, muscle strength and therefore functional mobility. The second part highlights eccentric exercise and the associated muscle damage, in addition to the repeated bout effect. The final section reviews eccentric exercise interventions that have been completed by older adults with a focus on the changes in functional mobility. In conclusion, eccentric endurance exercise is a potential training modality that can be applied to older adults for improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity and functional ability. However, further research is needed to assess the effects on aerobic capacity and the ideal prescription for eccentric endurance exercise.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: AHRC | Program: | Phase: Fellowship | Award Amount: 174.05K | Year: 2014

The ideas that particular groups, nations and societies choose to remember or forget can reveal a great deal about their vision of themselves, their past, present and future. Evidence of these cultural memories, or cultural blind spots, can be found not just in texts, objects or monuments created for that purpose, but in traces of the practices people have chosen to repeat, transmit and record, or to modify, transform and discontinue. In particular, popular cultural practices offer an insight into what those at all levels of society found important or exciting enough to pass on, and irrelevant or shocking enough to abandon. Popular film and popular music have recently been studied from this perspective, but this is the first large-scale research project to consider the capacity of popular dance to embody and communicate cultural memories. The project focuses on the cancan as a prime example of a dance form laden with cultural memory and amnesia. The familiar stereotype of a line of women kicking in unison conceals a nearly two-hundred-year history of dramatic change from early improvisations by working-class male dancers, to contemporary film and street art. Dancers, choreographers, writers and artists have reshaped the cancan in response to contexts such as the French and Haitian Revolutions, the Revolution of 1830, the rise of first wave feminism, the emergence of post-impressionist and modernist art, mass culture in the inter-war years, and Franco-American tensions in the early Cold War, leaving residues of cultural memory in the dances movement, form and meanings. Some of these memories remain highly visible in contemporary versions of the cancan, whereas others have been forgotten, underplayed or repressed, such as its early male performers, influences from Spanish and Afro-Haitian dance forms, and repeated imagery of the black cancan dancer. Contemporary representations of the cancan in European street art draw on these manifest and latent memories to comment on issues such as the French veiling controversy, and American military interventions justified in the name of liberty. Performances and representations of the cancan, therefore, invoke, filter and reshape the past, aligning it towards particular visions of the present and future. The project will uncover this culturally and historically significant process that has previously been overlooked by scholars. The first stage of the project will involve archival research in London and Paris. Important primary sources written in French will then be translated into English by the projects Research Assistant. These sources will be interpreted by the Principal Investigator, Dr Clare Parfitt-Brown, and will form the basis for a book publication titled Revealed Flesh, Forgotten Histories: the cancan, popular dance and cultural memory. The book will make translations of many little-known French sources and early illustrations of the cancan accessible to scholars and the public for the first time, and will be the first academic book focused on this dance form. The process of developing connections between the cancan, cultural memory, and other popular dance forms will also be made public through a series of seminars hosted by the Centre for the Study of Cultural Memory, University of London. Each seminar will bring research on a particular popular dance form/context into dialogue with research in cultural memory, and will be accompanied by live performances and film screenings. In these ways, the project intends to explore and vividly demonstrate to scholars, policy-makers, and the public, the capacity of popular dance to bring the past to bear on the issues, concerns and anxieties of the present by embodying cultural memories.


BRITISH sports performance research is revealing how blackcurrants may offer a next-generation breakthrough for sports and diet supplements. The program of gold-standard, peer-reviewed science is revealing how blackcurrants deliver an unusual combination of performance, fat burning and recovery actions. A range of University studies have shown athletes supplemented with a New Zealand blackcurrant extract could train harder, run further, cycle faster and burn more fat to an unprecedented level. For dieters, blackcurrant extract can help by losing fat almost 30% more efficiently while undertaking exercise - with fast recovery and reduced muscle soreness. The world-first studies were conducted on a capsule supplement called CurraNZ, made from New Zealand blackcurrant extract and sold in the UK. The four-year program of sports performance research from the University of Chichester has found: Ability to run further before reaching exhaustion The findings on this highly nutritious berryfruit are a key development for active people, who can exercise for longer at a higher intensity, lose more fat and recover faster. As a result of this research, premiership rugby and football teams and world-class athletes are now turning to blackcurrant extract for a competitive edge. Blackcurrant fruit pigments, called anthocyanins, have been shown to increase blood flow up to 20% and act as powerful antioxidants and anti-inflammatories. CurraNZ is retailed by Health Currancy Ltd, Surrey. 30 x 300mg CurraNZ capsules (the equivalent of 2,500 berries) retail for £21.75.

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