The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois.Founded by the American Baptist Education Society with a donation from oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, the University of Chicago was incorporated in 1890; William Rainey Harper became the university's first president in 1891, and the first classes were held in 1892. Both Harper and future president Robert Maynard Hutchins advocated for Chicago's curriculum to be based upon theoretical and perennial issues rather than applied science and commercial utility.The university consists of the College of the University of Chicago, various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into four divisions, six professional schools, and a school of continuing education. Chicago is particularly well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, and the Divinity School. The university enrolls approximately 5,000 students in the College and about 15,000 students overall.University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of various academic disciplines, including: the Chicago school of economics, the Chicago school of sociology, the law and economics movement in legal analysis, the Chicago school of literary criticism, the Chicago school of religion, the school of political science known as behavioralism, and in the physics leading to the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction. The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States.The University of Chicago is home to many prominent alumni. 89 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as visiting professors, students, faculty, or staff, the fourth most of any institution in the world. When its affiliate, the Marine Biological Laboratory, is included, Chicago has produced more Nobel prize winners than any other university in the world. In addition, Chicago's alumni include 49 Rhodes Scholars, 9 Fields Medalists, 20 National Humanities Medalists and 13 billionaire graduates. Wikipedia.
University of Chicago | Date: 2016-11-16
Embodiments of the invention provide methods of treating a disorder or disease characterized by cellular proliferation and migration by co-administering a synergistically effective amount of an mTOR inhibitor and a -opioid receptor antagonist.
California Institute of Technology and University of Chicago | Date: 2014-02-10
Provided are devices comprising multivolume analysis regions, the devices being capable of supporting amplification, detection, and other processes. Also provided are related methods of detecting or estimating the presence nucleic acids, viral levels, and other biological markers of interest.
University of Chicago | Date: 2016-08-26
A computing device determines a contrast medium uptake time using magnetic resonance imaging data. Image data constructed from data generated by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine of a subject is read. A representation computed from the read image data is presented on a display device. Baseline artery locations identified within the presented representation that are associated with a baseline artery are received. A first time-of-arrival (TOA) of contrast medium into the baseline artery is determined using the received baseline artery locations and the read image data. For a plurality of locations within the read image data excluding the baseline artery locations, a second TOA of the contrast medium into a respective location relative to the determined first TOA is determined using the read image data, and the determined second TOA is stored in association with the respective location to assist in lesion identification for the subject.
University of Chicago and Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation | Date: 2016-07-20
Provided herein are methods of directed self-assembly (DSA) on atomic layer chemical patterns and related compositions. The atomic layer chemical patterns may be formed from two-dimensional materials such as graphene. The atomic layer chemical patterns provide high resolution, low defect directed self-assembly. For example, DSA on a graphene pattern can be used achieve ten times the resolution of DSA that is achievable on a three-dimensional pattern such as a polymer brush. Assembly of block copolymers on the atomic layer chemical patterns may also facilitate subsequent etch, as the atomic layer chemical patterns are easier to etch than conventional pattern materials.
University of Chicago | Date: 2017-01-04
Embodiments of the invention are directed to the treatment of subjects with prostate cancer, in particular those with castration resistant prostate cancer, with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist and an androgen receptor antagonist. The prostate cancer may be one that has become resistant to androgen deprivation therapy, for example, by increase in glucocorticoid receptor expression and/or activity.
Dauphas N.,University of Chicago
Nature | Year: 2017
The Earth formed by accretion of Moon-to Mars-size embryos coming from various heliocentric distances. The isotopic nature of these bodies is unknown. However, taking meteorites as a guide, most models assume that the Earth must have formed from a heterogeneous assortment of embryos with distinct isotopic compositions. High-precision measurements, however, show that the Earth, the Moon and enstatite meteorites have almost indistinguishable isotopic compositions. Models have been proposed that reconcile the Earth-Moon similarity with the inferred heterogeneous nature of Earth-forming material, but these models either require specific geometries for the Moon-forming impact or can explain only one aspect of the Earth-Moon similarity (that is, 17 O). Here I show that elements with distinct affinities for metal can be used to decipher the isotopic nature of the Earth's accreting material through time. I find that the mantle signatures of lithophile O, Ca, Ti and Nd, moderately siderophile Cr, Ni and Mo, and highly siderophile Ru record different stages of the Earth's accretion; yet all those elements point to material that was isotopically most similar to enstatite meteorites. This isotopic similarity indicates that the material accreted by the Earth always comprised a large fraction of enstatite-type impactors (about half were E-type in the first 60 per cent of the accretion and all of the impactors were E-type after that). Accordingly, the giant impactor that formed the Moon probably had an isotopic composition similar to that of the Earth, hence relaxing the constraints on models of lunar formation. Enstatite meteorites and the Earth were formed from the same isotopic reservoir but they diverged in their chemical evolution owing to subsequent fractionation by nebular and planetary processes. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
University of Chicago | Date: 2016-11-02
Methods and compositions are disclosed to target tumor cells with embodiments of the LIGHT proteins linked fused or conjugated to a targeting agent. These compositions bind to both human and mouse receptors with affinity sufficient to conduct preclinical and clinical trials, and with increased affinity as compared to the wild type human LIGHT protein. The targeting of embodiments of LIGHT to tumor cells reduces tumor growth and reduces metastases.
Pan T.,University of Chicago
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2013
N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modification in mammalian mRNA and long non-coding RNA. First discovered in the 1970s, m6A modification has been proposed to function in mRNA splicing, export, stability, and immune tolerance. Interest and excitement in m6A modification has recently been revived based on the discovery of a mammalian enzyme that removes m6A and the application of deep sequencing to localize modification sites. The m6A demethylase fat mass and obesity associated protein (FTO) controls cellular energy homeostasis and is the first enzyme discovered that reverses an RNA modification. m6A Sequencing demonstrates cell-type- and cell-state-dependent m6A patterns, indicating that m6A modifications are highly regulated. This review describes the current knowledge of mammalian m6A modifications and future perspectives on how to push the field forward. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Pan T.,University of Chicago
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2013
The composition of the cellular proteome is commonly thought to strictly adhere to the genetic code. However, accumulating evidence indicates that cells also regulate the synthesis of mutant protein molecules that deviate from the genetic code. Production of mutant proteins generally occurs when cells are stressed or when they undergo environmental adaptation, but production varies in amounts and specificity. The deliberate synthesis of mutant proteins suggests that some of these proteins can be useful in cellular stress response and adaptation. This review describes the occurrence of, the translation mechanisms for, and the functional hypotheses on regulated synthesis of mutant proteins. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Schickel R.,University of Chicago
Molecular cell | Year: 2010
Tumor progression shares many characteristics with the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cells that have undergone an EMT are known to have an increased resistance to apoptosis. CD95/Fas is an apoptosis-inducing receptor expressed on many tissues and tumor cells. During tumor progression CD95 is frequently downregulated, and tumor cells lose apoptosis sensitivity. miR-200 microRNAs repress both the EMT-inducing ZEB1 and ZEB2 transcription factors. We now demonstrate that miR-200c sensitizes cells to apoptosis mediated by CD95. We have identified the apoptosis inhibitor FAP-1 as a target for miR-200c. FAP-1 was demonstrated to be responsible for the reduced sensitivity to CD95-mediated apoptosis in cells with inhibited miR-200. The identification of FAP-1 as an miR-200c target provides a molecular mechanism to explain both the downregulation of CD95 expression and the reduction in sensitivity of cells to CD95-mediated apoptosis that is observed in the context of reduced miR-200 expression during tumor progression. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.