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Chicago, IL, United States

The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois.Founded by the American Baptist Education Society with a donation from oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, the University of Chicago was incorporated in 1890; William Rainey Harper became the university's first president in 1891, and the first classes were held in 1892. Both Harper and future president Robert Maynard Hutchins advocated for Chicago's curriculum to be based upon theoretical and perennial issues rather than applied science and commercial utility.The university consists of the College of the University of Chicago, various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into four divisions, six professional schools, and a school of continuing education. Chicago is particularly well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, and the Divinity School. The university enrolls approximately 5,000 students in the College and about 15,000 students overall.University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of various academic disciplines, including: the Chicago school of economics, the Chicago school of sociology, the law and economics movement in legal analysis, the Chicago school of literary criticism, the Chicago school of religion, the school of political science known as behavioralism, and in the physics leading to the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction. The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States.The University of Chicago is home to many prominent alumni. 89 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as visiting professors, students, faculty, or staff, the fourth most of any institution in the world. When its affiliate, the Marine Biological Laboratory, is included, Chicago has produced more Nobel prize winners than any other university in the world. In addition, Chicago's alumni include 49 Rhodes Scholars, 9 Fields Medalists, 20 National Humanities Medalists and 13 billionaire graduates. Wikipedia.

Favus M.J.,University of Chicago
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

A 67-year-old woman was referred by her primary care physician for treatment of osteoporosis and progressive bone loss. One year before the visit, the patient had discontinued hormone-replacement therapy. She had subsequently begun to experience midback pain and lost 3.8 cm (1.5 in.) in height. A dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan showed bone mineral density T scores of -3.1 at the lumbar spine and -2.8 at the femoral neck, which are consistent with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. One year later, a second scan showed a further decrease of 5.4% in bone mineral density at the lumbar spine (Fig. 1), as well as a compression fracture of the 11th thoracic vertebra (Fig. 2). Results of blood and urine tests ruled out the common secondary causes of osteoporosis. To prevent additional vertebral fractures, oral bisphosphonate therapy was recommended. Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Pan T.,University of Chicago
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2013

The composition of the cellular proteome is commonly thought to strictly adhere to the genetic code. However, accumulating evidence indicates that cells also regulate the synthesis of mutant protein molecules that deviate from the genetic code. Production of mutant proteins generally occurs when cells are stressed or when they undergo environmental adaptation, but production varies in amounts and specificity. The deliberate synthesis of mutant proteins suggests that some of these proteins can be useful in cellular stress response and adaptation. This review describes the occurrence of, the translation mechanisms for, and the functional hypotheses on regulated synthesis of mutant proteins. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Pan T.,University of Chicago
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2013

N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modification in mammalian mRNA and long non-coding RNA. First discovered in the 1970s, m6A modification has been proposed to function in mRNA splicing, export, stability, and immune tolerance. Interest and excitement in m6A modification has recently been revived based on the discovery of a mammalian enzyme that removes m6A and the application of deep sequencing to localize modification sites. The m6A demethylase fat mass and obesity associated protein (FTO) controls cellular energy homeostasis and is the first enzyme discovered that reverses an RNA modification. m6A Sequencing demonstrates cell-type- and cell-state-dependent m6A patterns, indicating that m6A modifications are highly regulated. This review describes the current knowledge of mammalian m6A modifications and future perspectives on how to push the field forward. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Grant J.E.,University of Chicago
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

A 19-year-old man is brought to his primary physician by his father, who explains that his son washes his hands a hundred times a day, will not touch anything that has been touched by someone else without scrubbing it first, and has a fear of germs that has left him isolated in his bedroom, unable to eat, and wishing he were dead. Although the father reports that his son has always been finicky, this problem started approximately 2 years ago and has gradually become completely disabling. How should this patient be evaluated and treated? Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Son D.T.,University of Chicago
Physical Review X | Year: 2015

We propose a particle-hole symmetric theory of the Fermi-liquid ground state of a half-filled Landau level. This theory should be applicable for a Dirac fermion in the magnetic field at charge neutrality, as well as for the ν=1/2 quantum Hall ground state of nonrelativistic fermions in the limit of negligible inter- Landau-level mixing. We argue that when particle-hole symmetry is exact, the composite fermion is a massless Dirac fermion, characterized by a Berry phase of p around the Fermi circle. We write down a tentative effective field theory of such a fermion and discuss the discrete symmetries, in particular, CP. The Dirac composite fermions interact through a gauge, but non-Chern-Simons, interaction. The particle-hole conjugate pair of Jain-sequence states at filling factors n/(2n + 1) and (n + 1)/(2n + 1), which in the conventional composite fermion picture corresponds to integer quantum Hall states with different filling factors, n and n + 1, is now mapped to the same half-integer filling factor n + 1/2 of the Dirac composite fermion. The Pfaffian and anti-Pfaffian states are interpreted as d-wave Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer paired states of the Dirac fermion with orbital angular momentum of opposite signs, while s-wave pairing would give rise to a particle-hole symmetric non-Abelian gapped phase. When particle-hole symmetry is not exact, the Dirac fermion has a CP-breaking mass. The conventional fermionic Chern-Simons theory is shown to emerge in the nonrelativistic limit of the massive theory. Source

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