Chicago, IL, United States

University of Chicago
Chicago, IL, United States

The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois.Founded by the American Baptist Education Society with a donation from oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, the University of Chicago was incorporated in 1890; William Rainey Harper became the university's first president in 1891, and the first classes were held in 1892. Both Harper and future president Robert Maynard Hutchins advocated for Chicago's curriculum to be based upon theoretical and perennial issues rather than applied science and commercial utility.The university consists of the College of the University of Chicago, various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into four divisions, six professional schools, and a school of continuing education. Chicago is particularly well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, and the Divinity School. The university enrolls approximately 5,000 students in the College and about 15,000 students overall.University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of various academic disciplines, including: the Chicago school of economics, the Chicago school of sociology, the law and economics movement in legal analysis, the Chicago school of literary criticism, the Chicago school of religion, the school of political science known as behavioralism, and in the physics leading to the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction. The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States.The University of Chicago is home to many prominent alumni. 89 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as visiting professors, students, faculty, or staff, the fourth most of any institution in the world. When its affiliate, the Marine Biological Laboratory, is included, Chicago has produced more Nobel prize winners than any other university in the world. In addition, Chicago's alumni include 49 Rhodes Scholars, 9 Fields Medalists, 20 National Humanities Medalists and 13 billionaire graduates. Wikipedia.

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Salix Pharmaceuticals and University of Chicago | Date: 2017-04-03

Presented herein are methods for preventing or treating tumor growth, tumor metastasis and/or abnormal proliferation of tumor cells in a subject, wherein the methods involve administration of a pharmaceutical composition comprising methylnaltrexone. Also presented herein are methods for inhibiting or slowing the growth of a tumor in a subject, wherein the methods include selecting a subject who is a suitable candidate for treatment with methylnaltrexone, and administering a composition comprising methylnaltrexone to the subject.

Embodiments of the invention are directed to the treatment of subjects with prostate cancer, in particular those with castration resistant prostate cancer, with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist and an androgen receptor antagonist. The prostate cancer may be one that has become resistant to androgen deprivation therapy, for example, by increase in glucocorticoid receptor expression and/or activity.

Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods of determining the prognosis of a breast cancer patient by evaluating the activity of the glucocorticoid receptor in tumor cells. Other embodiment include methods of treating breast cancer cells, particularly, chemo-resistant cells, with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist and an anticancer agent or compound.

University of Chicago | Date: 2017-08-23

Methods and compositions are provided concerning polypeptides with modifications that increase its binding affinity for the Fab region of an antibody. Methods include using the polypeptides for isolating, detecting, purifying, measuring and quantifying Fab polypeptides. Other embodiments concern kits, compositions, and solid supports containing the polypeptides and for using the polypeptides for isolating, detecting, purifying, measuring and quantifying Fab polypeptide.

The present disclosure provides novel compounds, including compounds that bind to potassium channels, methods for their manufacture, and methods for their use, including their use to diagnose and/or assess traumatic brain injury and use to treat dymeylinating diseases, and/or in vivo imaging of the central neverous system, and to diagnose and/or assess the progression of MS or other diseases.

Novartis and University of Chicago | Date: 2017-09-27

The here described invention discloses a combination of a top and bottom loop binder library using the CD and the FG loops of a number of FnIII domains (FnIII) (e.g., FnIII7, FnIII10 and FnIII14) together with the surface exposed residues of the beta-sheet. The invention also pertains to a method of forming a library of FnIII domain polypeptides useful in screening for the presence of one or more polypeptides having a selected binding or enzymatic activity.

Schilsky R.L.,University of Chicago
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery | Year: 2010

Cancer chemotherapy is in evolution from non-specific cytotoxic drugs that damage both tumour and normal cells to more specific agents and immunotherapy approaches. Targeted agents are directed at unique molecular features of cancer cells, and immunotherapeutics modulate the tumour immune response; both approaches aim to produce greater effectiveness with less toxicity. The development and use of such agents in biomarker-defined populations enables a more personalized approach to cancer treatment than previously possible and has the potential to reduce the cost of cancer care. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Bensmaia S.J.,University of Chicago | Miller L.E.,Northwestern University
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2014

The loss of a limb or paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury has devastating consequences on quality of life. One approach to restoring lost sensory and motor abilities in amputees and patients with tetraplegia is to supply them with implants that provide a direct interface with the CNS. Such brain-machine interfaces might enable a patient to exert voluntary control over a prosthetic or robotic limb or over the electrically induced contractions of paralysed muscles. A parallel interface could convey sensory information about the consequences of these movements back to the patient. Recent developments in the algorithms that decode motor intention from neuronal activity and in approaches to convey sensory feedback by electrically stimulating neurons, using biomimetic and adaptation-based approaches, have shown the promise of invasive interfaces with sensorimotor cortices, although substantial challenges remain. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Brunel N.,University of Chicago
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Cortical networks are thought to be shaped by experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. Theoretical studies have shown that synaptic plasticity allows a network to store a memory of patterns of activity such that they become attractors of the dynamics of the network. Here we study the properties of the excitatory synaptic connectivity in a network that maximizes the number of stored patterns of activity in a robust fashion. We show that the resulting synaptic connectivity matrix has the following properties: it is sparse, with a large fraction of zero synaptic weights ('potential' synapses); bidirectionally coupled pairs of neurons are over-represented in comparison to a random network; and bidirectionally connected pairs have stronger synapses on average than unidirectionally connected pairs. All these features reproduce quantitatively available data on connectivity in cortex. This suggests synaptic connectivity in cortex is optimized to store a large number of attractor states in a robust fashion. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sherman S.M.,University of Chicago
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2012

Glutamatergic pathways dominate information processing in the brain, but these are not homogeneous. They include two distinct types: Class 1, which carries the main information for processing, and Class 2, which serves a modulatory role. Identifying the Class 1 inputs in a circuit can lead to a better understanding of its function. Also, identifying Class 1 inputs to a thalamic nucleus tells us its main function (e.g. the lateral geniculate nucleus, or LGN, is the relay of retinal Class 1 input), and such identification leads to a division of thalamic relays into first and higher order: the former receives Class 1 inputs from subcortical sources; the latter, from layer 5 of cortex, which it then relays to another cortical area. When a cortical area directly connects with another, it often has a parallel, transthalamic connection through these higher order relays. This leads to a novel appreciation of cortical functioning and raises many new questions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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