Toktogul, Kyrgyzstan

University of Central Asia
Toktogul, Kyrgyzstan

The University of Central Asia was founded in 2000. The Presidents of Tajikistan, the Kyrgyz Republic and Kazakhstan and His Highness the Aga Khan signed the International Treaty and Charter establishing this secular, not-for-profit, private University, which was ratified by the respective parliaments and registered with the United Nations. UCA was established to offer an internationally recognised standard of higher education in Central Asia and prepare graduates to contribute leadership, ideas and innovation to the economies and communities of the region. UCA’s mission is to foster the socio-economic development of Central Asia, particularly its mountain societies, while helping the peoples of the region preserve and draw upon their rich cultural heritages as assets for the future. The University is advancing construction of three campuses located in Khorog, Tajikistan; Naryn, Kyrgyz Republic; and Tekeli, Kazakhstan.In the meantime, several UCA initiatives offer professional training and research opportunities and resources. These include: the School of Professional and Continuing Education, the Institute of Public Policy and Administration, the Mountain Societies Research Institute, the Cultural Heritage and Humanities Unit, the Central Asian Faculty Development Programme and the Aga Khan Humanities Project. The University brings with it the commitment and partnership of the Aga Khan Development Network. For more information on UCA, please visit: Official website.Currently, the Director General of UCA is in charge of operations and planning at the Central Administration office in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic. Wikipedia.

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Maselli D.,Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation | Maselli D.,University of Central Asia
Mountain Research and Development | Year: 2012

Sustainable Mountain Development (SMD) in the context of global warming, world population growth, increased water and energy consumption, persisting food insecurity and biodiversity loss, more frequent and intense natural calamities, and the depletion of vital natural resources is a key concern for humanity. It requires the attention and support of many stakeholders and shareholders, including development agencies. The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation has been a major promoter of SMD at the global policy and networking level. By supporting the Perth mountain conferences, it has also emphasized the role of research for SMD. With Rio 2012 fast approaching, it is important to understand past efforts to design what new support is needed for ensuring that SMD takes place effectively. © 2012 by the authors.

Kerven C.,Odessa Center | Steimann B.,HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation | Dear C.,University of Central Asia | Ashley L.,Aga Khan Foundation
Mountain Research and Development | Year: 2012

This paper synthesizes research findings on contemporary mountain pastoralism in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, based on a longer review characterizing mountain agropastoralism in Central Asia. We focus here on the principal issues that have been emphasized over the past two decades in policy, programs, and projects regarding pastoralism in Central Asia's mountains. We conclude that this emphasis has largely been driven by two unproven orthodoxies about The extent and causes of pasture degradation; and The need for decentralization and pasture land privatization. The paper proposes that new research should critically assess these orthodoxies through more empirical and long-term field research. This will yield practical applications to improve conditions for Central Asian mountain pastoralists and their environment. Pursuing measures for addressing pasture degradation will require determinations of whether, where, how, and why degradation and desertification are occurring. Detailed field research is also called for on the processes and effects of decentralizing the power to allocate and manage pasture resources from national and regional state authorities to local communities, as well as on the long-term effects of privatizing pasture land. © International Mountain Society.

Zhanbirov Z.,University of Central Asia | Kenzhegulova S.,University of Central Asia
Transport Problems | Year: 2012

The principle of quantity and the type of cargoes is based on the analysis of market characteristics which allows adjusting easily and raising the effectiveness of using and exploiting possibilities.

Smolak A.,University of Central Asia
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2010

Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Gullette D.,University of Central Asia | Rosenberg D.,Jaume I University
Development Policy Review | Year: 2015

Reflecting on the experience of conducting a conflict-sensitivity review during the 2010 political and social disturbances in Kyrgyzstan, the authors argue for the integration of conflict-sensitive methods across programme areas, close monitoring of conflict potential and an institutional commitment to detailed conflict research drawing on broader socio-economic research. Comparing their observations with the review findings of conflict sensitivity methods in Nepal, the authors offer recommendations for the application of 'do no harm' principles to development work in fragile environments. Ensuring the creation and systematic use of an adequate knowledge base is the critical first step to preventing the lessons that should be learnt from the Kyrgyz experience from being lost. © The Authors 2015. Development Policy Review © 2015 Overseas Development Institute.

This contribution examines the nationalist politics and international controversy surrounding the construction plans for Roghun dam and hydropower station in post-Soviet Tajikistan. Conceived in 1970s as part of the Soviet ‘hydraulic mission’, this project has taken on new meanings in the second decade after Central Asian states acquired their sovereignty. This grandiose undertaking has become the ‘symbol of the nation’ and a ‘national idea’ in Tajikistan, reflecting popular hopes for dignified living and bolstering the ruling regime’s claim to power. Meanwhile, the neighbouring Uzbekistan dismisses the project as ‘silly’ and objects to it on environmental, economic and safety grounds, water becomes simultaneously an economic, social, physical, metaphysical and cultural resource. While the clashing visions of the upstream and downstream state are deeply rooted in the local histories and political contexts, the competing doctrines of water use reflect the global trends and debates regarding proper use of transboundary water resources, commodification of water and fundamental human right to access to water including for food production. Both countries gained independence under the conditions of globalization. Tajikistani society experienced a civil war, which has been described as a ‘complex crisis of decolonization’ (Heathershaw, Post-conflict Tajikistan: the politics of peace building and the emergence of legitimate order, 2009) in the first decade of its existence as a sovereign state. The resurrection of Roghun project not only serves the economic and political interests of Tajik ruling elite, it has also become a popular anti-colonial undertaking—this time overcoming dependence on a more powerful neighbor—Uzbekistan. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Smolak A.,University of Central Asia | El-Bassel N.,University of Central Asia
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2013

Central Asia is experiencing one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world, with some areas' infection rates doubling yearly since 2000. This study examines the impact of multilevel stigma (individual, family, and community) on uptake of HIV testing and receipt of HIV testing results among women in Central Asia. The sample consists of 38,884 ever-married, Central Asian women between the ages of 15 and 49. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), HIV stigma variables at the individual, family, and community levels were used to assess the significance of differences in HIV testing and receipt of HIV test results among participants while adjusting for possible confounding factors, such as age, wealth, and education. MLM results indicate that HIV stigma is significantly associated with decreased HIV testing uptake at the individual, family, and community levels and with a decrease in receipt at the community level. A one standard deviation increase in individual, family, and community level composite stigma score was associated with a respective 49 %, 59 %, and 94 % (p < 0.001) decrease in the odds of having been tested for HIV. A one standard deviation increase in community composite stigma score was associated with a 99 % (p < 0.001) decrease in the odds of test receipt. HIV stigma operates on the individual, family, and community levels to hinder HIV testing uptake and at the community level to hinder receipt. These findings have important interventions implications to improve uptake of HIV testing and receipt of HIV test results. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

El-Bassel N.,University of Central Asia | Shaw S.A.,University of Central Asia | Dasgupta A.,University of California at San Diego | Dasgupta A.,San Diego State University | Strathdee S.A.,University of California at San Diego
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2014

We reviewed papers published during the past 18 months (2012-2013) focusing on micro-social contexts of gender and power inequalities as drivers of HIV risks among people who inject drugs (PWID) in intimate heterosexual relationships. Although there has been a proliferation of social and behavioral research on the micro-social contexts of drug injection in heterosexual intimate relationships, there is still a gap in knowledge of these issues, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Research has identified couple-based approaches for PWID in intimate relationships as an effective HIV prevention strategy to address micro-social contexts driving HIV risks. While HIV incidence has declined in many countries, prevalence remains at troubling levels among PWID and transmission from PWID to their sex partners is increasing in many parts of the world. HIV prevention among drug-using couples must address the importance of the relationship dyad and micro-social contexts. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

Ahmed J.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Shahzad A.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Khan M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ali R.,TU Dortmund | Ali R.,University of Central Asia
AIP Advances | Year: 2015

This article focuses on the exact solution regarding convective heat transfer of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Jeffrey fluid over a stretching sheet. The effects of joule and viscous dissipation, internal heat source/sink and thermal radiation on the heat transfer characteristics are taken in account in the presence of a transverse magnetic field for two types of boundary heating process namely prescribed power law surface temperature (PST) and prescribed heat flux (PHF). Similarity transformations are used to reduce the governing non-linear momentum and thermal boundary layer equations into a set of ordinary differential equations. The exact solutions of the reduced ordinary differential equations are developed in the form of confluent hypergeometric function. The influence of the pertinent parameters on the temperature profile is examined. In addition the results for the wall temperature gradient are also discussed in detail. © 2015 Author(s).

Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 227.23K | Year: 2013

The worlds mountains host some of the most complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems. But these environments are under severe threats, ranging from local deforestation and soil degradation to global climate change. Global climate models project stronger warming at high elevations, with potentially disastrous consequences for its ecosystems services (ESS). For instance, melting glaciers alone will affect the water supply of millions people, while soil degradation and erosion put local agricultural practices in danger, but also cause water quality degradation and siltation of downstream reservoirs. At the same time, the complexity of mountains also makes predicting the direction of future changes in ecosystem services extremely difficult. For instance, global climate models do not capture the local weather patterns, and traditional models of the natural and physical processes may not represent the extreme and region specific behaviour. This leads to large uncertainties in future predictions about mountain ESS. Under such conditions, the value of day-to-day information about how local ecosystems behave increases sharply. Continuous monitoring of crucial ecosystem processes becomes paramount. It allows local decision-makers to flexibly change course in response to unexpected behaviour and large uncertainties. However, because of their remote location and difficult access, monitoring ESS in mountain regions tends the lag behind the rest of the world. The same remoteness and lack of access are also responsible for the propensity of mountain regions to host poor and underdeveloped communities compared to the surrounding lowlands. Lastly, mountain regions tend to be more prone to conflict, which further inhibits human development. This project will analyse how monitoring and knowledge generation of ESS in mountain regions can be improved, and used to support a process of adaptive, polycentric governance focused on poverty alleviation. For this, we will blend cutting-edge concepts of adaptive governance with technological breakthroughs. The availability of cheap and robust sensors and communication technologies provides great opportunities for citizen science: bottom-up, user oriented data collection focused on local concerns. We will take citizen science to a next level, by integrating it in a broader framework of participatory data processing, knowledge generation and sharing. We do this by adopting the concept of Environmental Virtual Observatories (EVOs) and leverage it for poverty alleviation. We see the potential of EVOs to be decentralised and open technology platforms for knowledge generation and exchange that enable participation of marginalised and vulnerable communities bypassed by the traditional mechanisms. Therefore, in this project we will analyse how EVOs can be used to generate knowledge and to alleviate poverty in 4 remote and poor mountain regions: the Ethiopian highlands around lake Tana, the Central Tien Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan, the Kaligandaki watershed in Northern Nepal, and the Andes of central Peru. In each location, we will collect evidence on the local decision-making processes on ESS and their local socio-economic context. At the same time, we will develop a technology toolset to enable EVO development for each case. Subsequently, the results of both processes will be brought together to implement tailored EVOs to support citizen science and local knowledge generation. We will create novel ways to interact with EVOs beyond the traditional Internet focussing on leaflets in the national language, community radios, and mobile phone applications. We will evaluate how the improved access to local observations fosters cross-scale linkages between the poor and external actors, as well as linkages between communities and marginal groups. Lastly, we will investigate how this can lead to better community awareness of environmental change and identification of pathways for poverty alleviation.

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