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Catania, Italy

The University of Catania is a university located in Catania, Italy, and founded in 1434. It is the oldest university in Sicily, the 13th oldest in Italy and the 29th oldest university in the world. With a population of over 60,000 students, it is the main university in Sicily. Wikipedia.

Sortino S.,University of Catania
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

The achievement of nanomaterials able to release therapeutic agents in a controlled fashion is a major challenge in the burgeoning field of nanomedicine. Light represents the most elegant and non-invasive trigger to deliver bio-active compounds on demand since it allows the accurate control of three key factors determining the therapeutic outcome including site, timing and dosage. Recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology offer the opportunity to characterize, manipulate and organize matter at the nanometre scale, controlling the size and shape of the resulting nanomaterials and greatly improving the biocompatibility and the cellular uptake efficiency. This feature article illustrates some recent advances in the fabrication of light-triggered nanomaterials for biomedical delivery, describing representative examples from our laboratory and others, underlying the logical design and highlighting the potential applications in some major areas such as drug and gene release, photodynamic and photothermal therapy. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Sortino S.,University of Catania
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

The multiple roles nitric oxide (NO) plays as a bioregulatory, anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant agent has triggered an explosive interest in recent years in compounds able to deliver this diatomic radical for therapeutic purposes. A major issue associated with NO donors is the precise control of the NO release, which effect is highly concentration and flux dependent. Light represents a convenient non-invasive on/off trigger to deliver NO on demand since it allows the accurate control of site, timing and dosage. The assembling of NO photodonors through different approaches may lead to intriguing light-responsive molecular constructs including nanostructured films, polymers, gels, nanoparticles and molecular conjugates which exhibit promising potential in view of practical applications. This tutorial review illustrates the recent research from our and other laboratories towards the fabrication of these molecular assemblies, highlighting the logical design and the relevance in the biomedical field. Therefore, this review is aimed to be a source of inspiration for a wide range of scientists belonging to the chemical, materials science and biochemical communities, facing the common challenge of fabricating controllable NO dispensers. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Malaguarnera M.,University of Catania
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Carnitine and its derivatives are natural substances involved in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. This review summarizes the recent progress in the field in relation to the molecular mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: The pool of different carnitine derivatives is formed by acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), and isovaleryl-carnitine. ALC may have a preferential effect on the brain tissue. ALC represents a compound of great interest for its wide clinical application in various neurological disorders: it may be of benefit in treating Alzheimer's dementia, depression in the elderly, HIV infection, chronic fatigue syndrome, peripheral neuropathies, ischemia and reperfusion of the brain, and cognitive impairment associated with various conditions. PLC has been demonstrated to replenish the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle by the propionyl-CoA moiety, a greater affinity for the sarcolemmal carrier, peripheral vasodilator activity, a greater positive inotropism, and more rapid entry into myocytes. Most studies of the therapeutic use of PLC are focused on the prevention and treatment of ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertrophic heart disease, and peripheral arterial disease. ALC and PLC are considered well tolerated without significant side-effects. SUMMARY: A number of therapeutic effects possibly come from the interaction of carnitine and its derivatives with the elements of cellular membranes. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Siringo F.,University of Catania
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2016

Pure Yang-Mills SU(N) theory is studied in the Landau gauge and four dimensional space. While leaving the original Lagrangian unmodified, a double perturbative expansion is devised, based on a massive free-particle propagator. In dimensional regularization, all diverging mass terms cancel exactly in the double expansion, without the need to include mass counterterms that would spoil the symmetry of the Lagrangian. No free parameters are included that were not in the original theory, yielding a fully analytical approach from first principles. The expansion is safe in the infrared and is equivalent to the standard perturbation theory in the UV. At one-loop, explicit analytical expressions are given for the propagators and the running coupling and are found in excellent agreement with the data of lattice simulations. A universal scaling property is predicted for the inverse propagators and shown to be satisfied by the lattice data. Higher loops are found to be negligible in the infrared below 300 MeV where the coupling becomes small and the one-loop approximation is under full control. © 2016 The Author. Source

Vancheri C.,University of Catania
Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society | Year: 2012

The fibrotic process that characterizes idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is commonly considered the result of a recurrent injury to the alveolar epithelium followed by an uncontrolled proliferation of fibroblasts. However, based on considerable scientific evidence, it has been recently hypothesized that IPF might be considered a neo-proliferative disorder of the lung because this disease exhibits several pathogenic features similar to cancer. Indeed, epigenetic and genetic abnormalities, altered cell-to-cell communications, uncontrolled proliferation, and abnormal activation of specific signal transduction pathways are biological hallmarks that characterize the pathogenesis of IPF and cancer. IPF remains a disease marked by a survival of 3 years, and little therapeutic progress has been made in the last few years, underlining the urgent need to improve research and to change our approach to the comprehension of this disease. The concept of IPF as a cancer-like disease may be helpful in identifying new pathogenic mechanisms that can be borrowed from cancer biology, potentially leading to different and more effective therapeutic approaches. Such vision will hopefully increase the awareness of this disease among the public and the scientific community. Copyright © 2012 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

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