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Ciudad Real, Spain

The University of Castile–La Mancha is a Spanish university. It offers courses in the cities of Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Toledo, Almadén and Talavera de la Reina. This university was recognised by law on 30 June 1982, and began to operate three years later. Wikipedia.

Tapiador F.J.,University of Castilla - La Mancha
Journal of Climate | Year: 2010

This paper presents an analysis of the precipitation climate signal in Europe emerging from a simulation of heterogeneous regional climate models (RCMs) using five observational datasets as the reference for present day climate conditions. Current climate simulations, as well as those from the A2 family of scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES-A2), from eight RCMs involved in the Prediction of Regional Scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining European Climate Change Risks and Effects (PRUDENCE) project have been cross-compared with data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU), the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), the Climate Prediction Center (CPC), and the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) databases for Europe. The RCMs used areHIRHAM, the ClimateHigh ResolutionModel (CHRM), the Rossby Centre Atmosphere-Ocean (RCAO) model, the GKSS Climate Version of the Local Model (CLM), the Hadley Center RCM (HadRM3H), the Atmospheric Hydrostatic Regional Model (REMO), the Prognostic Model at the Mesoscale (PROMES), and the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice model (RACMO). The comparison shows that the climate signal has to be interpreted depending on the reference data used. Although each validation dataset has its own relative merits and shortcomings, it is known that all of the datasets present variable uncertainties and error sources, which impedes consideration of a single dataset as the only valid representation of actual precipitation.Hence, it is suggested that a robust joint estimate of changes in future precipitation might include the uncertainties of both the RCMs and those of the observational datasets. After accounting for the difference between observed and simulated precipitation in the present climate, the analysis of such joint estimates reveals significant agreement in the climate signal formost of Europe. This lends confidence to the idea that the RCMs are able to correctly simulate future changes in precipitation. © 2010 American Meteorological Society. Source

Mora-Rodriguez R.,University of Castilla - La Mancha
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews | Year: 2012

It is believed that the adaptations induced by aerobic training would prevent athletes from overheating while retaining body electrolytes during exercise in the heat. Data from our laboratory suggest that aerobic training is not enough to induce these adaptations. This review considers the factors that can lead to hyperthermia in trained and untrained populations when exercising in the heat. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source

Quintana M.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi | Vazquez E.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Prato M.,University of Trieste
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

Graphene is considered a promising material for a range of new applications from flexible electronics to functional nanodevices, such as biosensors or intelligent coatings. Therefore researchers need to develop protocols for the mass production of graphene. One possible method is the exfoliation of graphite to form stable dispersions in organic solvents or even water. In addition, researchers need to find effective ways to control defects and locally induced chemical changes. We expect that traditional organic chemistry can provide solutions to many of these challenges. In this Account, we describe our efforts toward the production of stable dispersions of graphene in a variety of solvents at relatively high concentrations and summarize representative examples of the organic reactions that we have carried out using these stable dispersions.The sonication procedures used to solubilize graphene can often damage these materials. To mitigate these effects, we developed a new methodology that uses mechanochemical activation by ball-milling to exfoliate graphite through interactions with melamine (2,4,6-triamine-1,3,5-triazine) under solid conditions. Alternatively, the addition of reducing agents during sonication leads to larger graphene layers in DMF. Interestingly, the treatment with ferrocene aldehyde, used as a radical trap, induces the formation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The resulting graphene sheets, stabilized by the interactions with the solvent, are suitable materials for performing organic reactions.Relatively few organic reactions have been performed in stable dispersions of graphene, but organic functionalization of these materials offers the opportunity to tune their properties. In addition, thermal treatments can remove the appended organic moieties, restoring the intrinsic properties of pristine graphene. We describe a few examples of organic functionalization reactions of graphene, including 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions, amide condensations, nitrene additions, and radical reactions. The design of novel protocols for further organic functionalization should increase our knowledge of the fundamental chemistry of graphene and spur the further development and application of these materials. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Martinez-Huitle C.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Rodrigo M.A.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Sires I.,University of Barcelona | Scialdone O.,University of Palermo
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2015

Traditional physicochemical and biological techniques, as well as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), are often inadequate, ineffective, or expensive for industrial water reclamation. Within this context, the electrochemical technologies have found a niche where they can become dominant in the near future, especially for the abatement of biorefractory substances. In this critical review, some of the most promising electrochemical tools for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants are discussed in detail with the following goals: (1) to present the fundamental aspects of the selected processes; (2) to discuss the effect of both the main operating parameters and the reactor design on their performance; (3) to critically evaluate their advantages and disadvantages; and (4) to forecast the prospect of their utilization on an applicable scale by identifying the key points to be further investigated. The review is focused on the direct electrochemical oxidation, the indirect electrochemical oxidation mediated by electrogenerated active chlorine, and the coupling between anodic and cathodic processes. The last part of the review is devoted to the critical assessment of the reactors that can be used to put these technologies into practice. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Garcia-Bertrand R.,University of Castilla - La Mancha
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2013

Retailers face the problem of meeting instantaneous and variable loads using two strategies: i) purchasing electricity from the pool market, and ii) signing bilateral contracts with producers. Since pool prices are highly volatile, retailers sign bilateral contracts with generators reducing the exposure to pool prices risks. Ideally, retailers would like to match sold energy to customers with energy from bilateral contracts. However, unpredictable variations in customers' loads force retailers to buy or sell energy in the pool market. This paper analyzes and proposes, from the retailers perspective, a model to set price changes which encourage customers to shift their loads considering time-of-use tariffs. This load redistribution will produce savings for the retailers, reducing the energy bought in the pool market during periods with high prices. On the other hand, customers redistributing their loads will get savings according to the new prices. Uncertainty on pool prices and customer elasticities are accounted for via stochastic programming. Risk is properly quantified using the conditional value-at-risk measure. A case study is solved to illustrate the efficient performance of the proposed methodology. © 2013 IEEE. Source

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