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Cardiff, United Kingdom

Cardiff University is a research university located in the Cathays Park area of Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom. It received its Royal charter in 1883 and is a member of the Russell Group of Universities. The university is consistently recognised as providing high quality research-based university education in Wales. Wikipedia.

Owen M.J.,University of Cardiff
Neuron | Year: 2014

Recent findings in psychiatric genetics have crystallized concerns that diagnostic categories used in the clinic map poorly onto the underlying biology. If we are to harness developments in genetics and neuroscience to understand disease mechanisms and develop new treatments, we need new approaches to patient stratification that recognize the complexity and continuous nature of psychiatric traits and that are not constrained by current categorical approaches. Recognizing this, the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH) has developed a novel framework to encourage more research of this kind. The implications of these recent findings and funding policy developments for neuroscience research are considerable. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Better treatment is required for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) not considered fit for intensive chemotherapy. We report a randomized comparison of low-dose Ara-C (LDAC) vs the novel nucleoside, clofarabine, in untreated older patients with AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). A total of 406 patients with de novo (62%), secondary disease (24%), or high-risk MDS (>10% marrow blasts) (15%), median age 74 years, were randomized to LDAC 20 mg twice daily for 10 days every 6 weeks or clofarabine 20 mg/m(2) on days 1 to 5, both for up to 4 courses. These patients had more adverse demographics than contemporaneous intensively treated patients. The overall remission rate was 28%, and 2-year survival was 13%. Clofarabine significantly improved complete remission (22% vs 12%; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.47 [0.28-0.79]; P = .005) and overall response (38% vs 19%; HR = 0.41 [0.26-0.62]; P < .0001), but there was no difference in overall survival, explained by poorer survival in the clofarabine patients who did not gain complete remission and also following relapse. Clofarabine was more myelosuppressive and required more supportive care. Although clofarabine doubled remission rates, overall survival was not improved overall or in any subgroup. The treatment of patients of the type treated here remains a major unmet need. Source

Carpenter B.K.,University of Cardiff
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Neglect of the excess internal energy, which all nascent reactive intermediates possess in some measure, can lead to serious misinterpretations of their behavior. Most thermal reactions of organic molecules are treated as if they occur on one PE surface, corresponding to the electronic ground states of all species involved. The implication of drawing a PE surface at all is that the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is valid everywhere, that is, that nuclear and electronic coordinates are always separable. However, once a reaction approaches a region on the groundstate PE surface corresponding to a reactive intermediate, this approximation might no longer be safe. In several instances the potential energy surfaces for reactions are actually simplified because ad hoc reaction pathways that may have been added to explain deviations from statistical behavior of reactive intermediates may no longer be necessary. Source

Hunter C.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Jones S.A.,University of Cardiff
Nature Immunology | Year: 2015

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has a broad effect on cells of the immune system and those not of the immune system and often displays hormone-like characteristics that affect homeostatic processes. IL-6 has context-dependent pro- and anti-inflammatory properties and is now regarded as a prominent target for clinical intervention. However, the signaling cassette that controls the activity of IL-6 is complicated, and distinct intervention strategies can inhibit this pathway. Clinical experience with antagonists of IL-6 has raised new questions about how and when to block this cytokine to improve disease outcome and patient wellbeing. Here we discuss the effect of IL-6 on innate and adaptive immunity and the possible advantages of various antagonists of IL-6 and consider how the immunobiology of IL-6 may inform clinical decisions. Source

University of Cardiff and Catholic University of Leuven | Date: 2014-09-10

A compound for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of viral infections such, for example as chicken pox or shingles caused by the Varicella Zoster virus, said compound having the general formula (II): wherein X is O, S, NH or CH

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