Cardiff University is a research university located in the Cathays Park area of Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom. It received its Royal charter in 1883 and is a member of the Russell Group of Universities. The university is consistently recognised as providing high quality research-based university education in Wales. Wikipedia.
University of Cardiff | Date: 2014-07-03
The present application relates to therapeutics and pharmaceutical compositions, their use and also methods for preventing post-traumatic osteoarthritis, early or late stage, using compounds which inhibit either, or both, AMPA and KA glutamate receptors (Glu Rs).
University of Cardiff | Date: 2017-04-05
A process for preparing phosphoramidates of nucleosides where a desired enantiomer, having regard to the asymmetric chiral centre of the phosphorus atom P, is provided in an enriched amount. The process comprises admixing a nucleoside with a phosphorochloridate in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal salt selected from the group consisting of salts of Ciu Fe, La and Yb.
Ioris A.A.R.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2017
From being a net food importer in recent decades, Brazil is now considered a successful case of agricultural production and export. However, this image of triumph and efficiency helps to conceal growing socio-ecological impacts and mounting uneasiness. The complex and contradictory landscape of contemporary Brazilian agribusiness represent a relevant example of the advance of agro-neoliberalism, which is both an economic and technological process of agriculture modernization and intensification, in accordance to liberalizing pressures, and also a politico-ecological phenomenon centred on market-based solutions to old and new production, innovation and justification questions. Based on qualitative research and three fieldwork campaigns, the article discusses recent politico-economic adjustments particularly in the State of Mato Grosso, in the Centre-West region, which is fast becoming the main area of agribusiness activity in the country. Empirical results demonstrate that agro-neoliberalism has been promoted through inventive public-private associations not for the purpose of domestic food security, but primarily for capital accumulation and to support sectoral interests and macro-economic strategies. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Millrine D.,University of Cardiff |
Kishimoto T.,Osaka University
Trends in Molecular Medicine | Year: 2017
Thalidomide and its derivatives are immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) known for their sedative, teratogenic, anti-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Commonly used in the treatment of cancers such as multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), IMiDs have also been used in the treatment of an inflammatory skin pathology associated with Hansen's disease/leprosy. They have also shown promise in the treatment of autoimmune disorders including systemic lupus erythmatosus (SLE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent structural and experimental observations have revolutionized our understanding of these properties by revealing the fundamental molecular events underpinning IMiD activity. We review these findings, their relevance to IMiD therapy in immunological disorders, and discuss how further research might unlock the vast clinical potential of these compounds. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Hopkinson J.B.,University of Cardiff
Cancer Nursing | Year: 2017
BACKGROUND:: Family carers of patients with advanced cancer living at home have an important role in providing the patient’s food and drink. Little attention has been paid to the support needs, particularly of the nutrition needs, of family carers. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to report support needs of family carers of patients with advanced cancer and eating problems. METHODS:: The research is an inductive secondary analysis of baseline interview data from an exploratory trial conducted in the south of England. The interviews explored the management of eating problems in the home. A sample of 31 patients was selected where the patient’s partner/spouse had also agreed to take part in the primary study. RESULTS:: The analysis and interpretation reveal family carers to have a nourishing role, which is taken for granted by the patient and the carer themselves. This role is typically seen as an extension of the normal role of wife, mother, or homemaker in the family and no more than what a family carer should do. This obscures a need for information and advice on the nutritional care of patients with cancer with fickle appetite and other eating problems that are difficult to manage. Family carers may also be at a nutritional risk because their own dietary intake was found to mirror the patient’s with some of them losing weight. CONCLUSIONS:: Family cancer carers have a nourishing role that requires knowledge and skill beyond the everyday. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: Cancer carers need education in how best to provide nutritional care. They also need support in managing their own nutritional risk. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved
Saunders S.,University of Cardiff
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Forensic Engineering | Year: 2016
This article considers the role of civil engineers as expert witnesses from the viewpoint of the courts. The primary duty of the expert witness is to the court, and this article explains some of the key legal and practical points that ensure civil engineer expert witnesses fulfil that duty to the best of their ability. © ICE Publishing. All rights reserved.
Wray A.,University of Cardiff
Topics in Cognitive Science | Year: 2017
This paper explores two questions central to understanding the nature of formulaic sequences: (1) What are they for? and (2) What determines how many there are? The "Communicative Impact" model draws into a single account how language is shaped by cognitive processing on the one hand and socio-interactional function on the other: Formulaic sequences play a range of coordinated roles in neutralizing unanticipated perturbations in the cognitive management of language, so the speaker's socio-interactional goals can still be achieved. One role involves compensatory actions to sustain fluency. However, these actions are themselves context-sensitive, so the balance of types of formulaic sequence will vary according to situation. The model applies equally to temporary cognitive pressure and chronic problems such as dementia and limited linguistic competency in a foreign language. © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Davis T.A.,University of Cardiff |
McDermid R.M.,Macquarie University |
McDermid R.M.,Australian Astronomical Observatory
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2017
We here present the first spatially resolved study of the initial mass function (IMF) in external galaxies derived using a dynamical tracer of the mass-to-light ratio (M/L). We use the kinematics of relaxed molecular gas discs in seven early-type galaxies (ETGs) selected from the ATLAS3D survey to dynamically determine M/L gradients. These M/L gradients are not very strong in the inner parts of these objects, and galaxies that do show variations are those with the highest specific star formation rates. Stellar population parameters derived from star formation histories are then used in order to estimate the stellar IMF mismatch parameter, and shed light on its variation within ETGs. Some of our target objects require a light IMF, otherwise their stellar population masses would be greater than their dynamical masses. In contrast, other systems seem to require heavier IMFs to explain their gas kinematics. Our analysis again confirms that IMF variation seems to be occurring within massive ETGs. We find good agreement between our IMF normalizations derived using molecular gas kinematics and those derived using other techniques. Despite this, we do not see find any correlation between the IMF normalization and galaxy dynamical properties or stellar population parameters, either locally or globally. In the future, larger studies which use molecules as tracers of galaxy dynamics can be used to help us disentangle the root cause of IMF variation. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Harris K.D.M.,University of Cardiff
Israel Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2017
This article describes a few selected areas of research within the field of structural chemistry, with emphasis on aspects that have been influenced and inspired by the seminal work of Jack Dunitz. The topics covered include the study of dynamic properties of crystalline materials, focusing on the use of solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy to unravel details of dynamic hydrogen-bonding arrangements in crystalline alcohols and amino acids, as well as the use of in situ Raman microspectrometry to explore molecular transport processes through porous crystals. A case study involving the determination of both structural properties and dynamic properties of a material (ammonium cyanate) that is not amenable to structural characterization by single-crystal X-ray diffraction is also presented. On the theme of exploring the time evolution of crystallization pathways, the recent development and application of in situ solid-state NMR techniques for mapping time-dependent changes that occur in the solid phase during crystallization processes are discussed. Finally, the article contemplates the prospects for deriving a fundamental physicochemical understanding of crystal nucleation processes, which is identified as perhaps the most significant challenge in structural chemistry in the next few decades. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Ranson A.,University of Cardiff
Cell Reports | Year: 2017
Activity of neurons in primary visual cortex is shaped by sensory and behavioral context. However, the long-term stability of the influence of contextual factors in the mature cortex remains poorly understood. To investigate this, we used two-photon calcium imaging to track the influence of surround suppression and locomotion on individual neurons over 14 days. We found that highly active excitatory neurons and parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons exhibited relatively stable modulation by visual context. Similarly, most neurons exhibited a stable yet distinct degree of modulation by locomotion. In contrast, less active excitatory neurons exhibited plasticity in visual context influence, resulting in increased suppression. These findings suggest that the mature visual cortex possesses stable subnetworks of neurons, differentiated by cell type and activity level, which have distinctive and stable interactions with sensory and behavioral contexts, as well as other less active and more labile neurons, which are sensitive to visual experience. © 2017 The Author
News Article | April 19, 2017
Scientific evidence of a 'higher' state of consciousness has been found in a study led by the University of Sussex. Neuroscientists observed a sustained increase in neural signal diversity - a measure of the complexity of brain activity - of people under the influence of psychedelic drugs, compared with when they were in a normal waking state. The diversity of brain signals provides a mathematical index of the level of consciousness. For example, people who are awake have been shown to have more diverse neural activity using this scale than those who are asleep. This, however, is the first study to show brain-signal diversity that is higher than baseline, that is higher than in someone who is simply 'awake and aware'. Previous studies have tended to focus on lowered states of consciousness, such as sleep, anaesthesia, or the so-called 'vegetative' state. The team say that more research is needed using more sophisticated and varied models to confirm the results but they are cautiously excited. Professor Anil Seth, Co-Director of the Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science at the University of Sussex, said: "This finding shows that the brain-on-psychedelics behaves very differently from normal. "During the psychedelic state, the electrical activity of the brain is less predictable and less 'integrated' than during normal conscious wakefulness - as measured by 'global signal diversity'. "Since this measure has already shown its value as a measure of 'conscious level', we can say that the psychedelic state appears as a higher 'level' of consciousness than normal - but only with respect to this specific mathematical measure." For the study, Michael Schartner, Adam Barrett and Professor Seth of the Sackler Centre reanalysed data that had previously been collected by Imperial College London and the University of Cardiff in which healthy volunteers were given one of three drugs known to induce a psychedelic state: psilocybin, ketamine and LSD. Using brain imaging technology, they measured the tiny magnetic fields produced in the brain and found that, across all three drugs, this measure of conscious level - the neural signal diversity - was reliably higher. This does not mean that the psychedelic state is a 'better' or more desirable state of consciousness, the researchers stress; instead, it shows that the psychedelic brain state is distinctive and can be related to other global changes in conscious level (e.g. sleep, anaesthesia) by application of a simple mathematical measure of signal diversity. Dr Muthukumaraswamy who was involved in all three initial studies commented: "That similar changes in signal diversity were found for all three drugs, despite their quite different pharmacology, is both very striking and also reassuring that the results are robust and repeatable." The findings could help inform discussions gathering momentum about the carefully-controlled medical use of such drugs, for example in treating severe depression. Dr Robin Cahart-Harris of Imperial College London said: "Rigorous research into psychedelics is gaining increasing attention, not least because of the therapeutic potential that these drugs may have when used sensibly and under medical supervision. "The present study's findings help us understand what happens in people's brains when they experience an expansion of their consciousness under psychedelics. People often say they experience insight under these drugs - and when this occurs in a therapeutic context, it can predict positive outcomes. The present findings may help us understand how this can happen." As well as helping to inform possible medical applications, the study adds to a growing scientific understanding of how conscious level (how conscious one is) and conscious content (what one is conscious of) are related to each other. Professor Seth said: "We found correlations between the intensity of the psychedelic experience, as reported by volunteers, and changes in signal diversity. This suggests that our measure has close links not only to global brain changes induced by the drugs, but to those aspects of brain dynamics that underlie specific aspects of conscious experience." The research team are now working hard to identify how specific changes in information flow in the brain underlie specific aspects of psychedelic experience, like hallucinations.
News Article | April 19, 2017
Scientific evidence of a 'higher' state of consciousness has been found in a study led by the University of Sussex. Neuroscientists observed a sustained increase in neural signal diversity - a measure of the complexity of brain activity - of people under the influence of psychedelic drugs, compared with when they were in a normal waking state. The diversity of brain signals provides a mathematical index of the level of consciousness. For example, people who are awake have been shown to have more diverse neural activity using this scale than those who are asleep. This, however, is the first study to show brain-signal diversity that is higher than baseline that is higher than in someone who is simply 'awake and aware'. Previous studies have tended to focus on lowered states of consciousness, such as sleep, anesthesia, or the so-called 'vegetative' state. The team say that more research is needed using more sophisticated and varied models to confirm the results but they are cautiously excited. Professor Anil Seth, Co-Director of the Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science at the University of Sussex, said: "This finding shows that the brain-on-psychedelics behaves very differently from normal. "During the psychedelic state, the electrical activity of the brain is less predictable and less 'integrated' than during normal conscious wakefulness - as measured by 'global signal diversity'. "Since this measure has already shown its value as a measure of 'conscious level', we can say that the psychedelic state appears as a higher 'level' of consciousness than normal - but only with respect to this specific mathematical measure." For the study, Michael Schartner, Adam Barrett and Professor Seth of the Sackler Centre reanalyzed data that had previously been collected by Imperial College London and the University of Cardiff in which healthy volunteers were given one of three drugs known to induce a psychedelic state: psilocybin, ketamine and LSD. Using brain imaging technology, they measured the tiny magnetic fields produced in the brain and found that, across all three drugs, this measure of conscious level - the neural signal diversity - was reliably higher. This does not mean that the psychedelic state is a 'better' or more desirable state of consciousness, the researchers stress; instead, it shows that the psychedelic brain state is distinctive and can be related to other global changes in conscious level (e.g. sleep, anesthesia) by application of a simple mathematical measure of signal diversity. Dr Muthukumaraswamy who was involved in all three initial studies commented: "That similar changes in signal diversity were found for all three drugs, despite their quite different pharmacology, is both very striking and also reassuring that the results are robust and repeatable." The findings could help inform discussions gathering momentum about the carefully-controlled medical use of such drugs, for example in treating severe depression. Dr. Robin Cahart-Harris of Imperial College London said: "Rigorous research into psychedelics is gaining increasing attention, not least because of the therapeutic potential that these drugs may have when used sensibly and under medical supervision. "The present study's findings help us understand what happens in people's brains when they experience an expansion of their consciousness under psychedelics. People often say they experience insight under these drugs - and when this occurs in a therapeutic context, it can predict positive outcomes. The present findings may help us understand how this can happen." As well as helping to inform possible medical applications, the study adds to a growing scientific understanding of how conscious level (how conscious one is) and conscious content (what one is conscious of) are related to each other. Professor Seth said: "We found correlations between the intensity of the psychedelic experience, as reported by volunteers, and changes in signal diversity. This suggests that our measure has close links not only to global brain changes induced by the drugs, but to those aspects of brain dynamics that underlie specific aspects of conscious experience." The research team are now working hard to identify how specific changes in information flow in the brain underlie specific aspects of psychedelic experience, like hallucinations. The findings were published in Scientific Reports.
University of Cardiff | Date: 2017-01-11
The invention relates to a device for use in skin improvement or repair, including promoting hair growth, comprising the use of microneedles for the transplantation of cells and a method employing the use of same.
Boy F.,University of Swansea |
Sumner P.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General | Year: 2014
With resurgent interest in individual differences in perception, cognition and behavioral control as early indicators of disease, endophenotypes, or a means to relate brain structure to function, behavioral tasks are increasingly being transferred from within-subject settings to between-group or correlational designs. The assumption is that where we know the mechanisms underlying within-subject effects, these effects can be used to measure individual differences in those same mechanisms. However, between-subjects variability can arise from an entirely different source from that driving within-subject effects, and here we report a clear-cut demonstration of this. We examined the debated relationship between the visibility of a masked-prime stimulus and the direction of priming it causes (positive or reversed). Such reversal of priming has been hypothesized to reflect an automatic inhibitory mechanism that controls partially activated responses and allows behavioral flexibility. Within subjects, we found an unambiguous systematic transition from reversed priming to positive priming as prime visibility increased, replicated 7 times, and using different stimulus manipulations. However, across individuals there was never a relationship between prime discrimination ability and priming. Specifically, these data resolve the controversial debate on visibility and reversed priming, indicating that they arise from independent processes relying on partially shared stimulus signals. More generally, they stand as an exemplar case in which variance between individuals arises from a different source from that produced by stimulus manipulations. © 2013 American Psychological Association.
Agency: GTR | Branch: STFC | Program: | Phase: Fellowship | Award Amount: 394.48K | Year: 2014
My research focuses on understanding the biggest galaxies that exist around us in the local universe. These objects are interesting because they are thought to be the end point of galaxy evolution. They are made up of billions of old stars, have red optical colours, and are generally thought to be free of cold gas - the fuel for new stars. Thus they are often described as red and dead. Astronomers still dont fully know what caused these galaxies to die off, or if they can come back to life again. It is these processes that I am investigating. One of the ways astronomers think these massive galaxies become red and dead is due to the supermassive black-holes that lie at their cores. These enigmatic objects are clearly linked to galaxy formation, as they seem to grow in step with their galaxy host. In order to understand the role of black holes in the formation of galaxies, I developed a new technique to measure their masses, by tracing the motions of molecular gas clouds swirling around them. This technique is exciting, because it opens up the possibility of measuring black hole masses more accurately, and in more galaxies than ever before. As part of my Rutherford fellowship I aim to use this technique to reveal the dark monsters lurking at the hearts of nearby galaxies. When black holes swallow matter they emit large amounts of high energy light, and can accelerate large jets of particles. Both of these processes can affect gas clouds, throwing them out of galaxies. These outflows are one mechanism that can help form the gas-poor massive galaxies I study. A few years ago I helped identify one of the nearest examples of a black hole expelling large amounts of gas in this way. During my Rutherford fellowship I will use the chemistry of the gas in this outflow to determine whether it is the extremely strong light from the black hole, or the jet of particles that is causing the outflow we see. This will give us one more piece of the puzzle, helping to explain why most massive galaxies with big black holes are gas poor. Massive galaxies, like the ones I study, dont have to stay red and dead. The can come back to life if material from dying stars can cool and become fuel for a new generation of stars. They can also merge with other small galaxies and steal their fuel. Around 1/4 of the massive red and dead galaxies around us today are currently in the process of being reborn. Understanding which process causes this, and what effect surrounding galaxies have, will allow us to determine whether these galaxies are destined to fail and go back to being red and dead, or if they can eventually come back to life fully. I have discovered that these objects that have obtained fuel for star-formation, dont seem to be using it very effectively. They are very inefficient at forming stars when compared to galaxies like our own Milky Way. I aim to find out why this is happening, and what this can tell us about the physics controlling star formation in the universe.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.3.3-1 | Award Amount: 31.38M | Year: 2014
Far from receding, the threats posed by infections with epidemic potential grow ever greater. Although Europe has amongst the best healthcare systems in the world, and also the worlds supreme researchers in this field, we lack co-ordination and linkage between networks that is required to respond fast to new threats. This consortium of consortia will streamline our response, using primary and secondary healthcare to detect cases with pandemic potential and to activate dynamic rapid investigation teams that will deploy shared resources across Europe to mitigate the impact of future pandemics on European health, infrastructure and economic integrity. If funded, PREPARE will transform Europes response to future severe epidemics or pandemics by providing infrastructure, co-ordination and integration of existing clinical research networks, both in community and hospital settings. It represents a new model of collaboration and will provide a one-stop shop for policy makers, public health agencies, regulators and funders of research into pathogens with epidemic potential. It will do this by mounting interepidemic (peace time) patient oriented clinical trials in children and in adults, investigations of the pathogenesis of relevant infectious diseases and facilitate the development of sophisticated state-of-the-art near-patient diagnostics. We will develop pre-emptive solutions to ethical, administrative, regulatory and logistical bottlenecks that prevent a rapid response in the face of new threats. We will provide education and training not only to the members of the network, but also to external opinion leaders, funders and policy makers thereby streamlining our future response. By strengthening and integrating interepidemic research networks, PREPARE will enable the rapid coordinated deployment of Europes elite clinical investigators, resulting in a highly effective response to future outbreaks based on solid scientific advances.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2009-1-1-03 | Award Amount: 3.76M | Year: 2010
NEXTGEN proposes the bold step of using whole genome data to develop and optimise conservation genetic management of livestock diversity for the foreseeable future. The rationale for choosing whole genome data is to future-proof DNA-based analysis in livestock conservation against upcoming changes in technology and analysis. Thus, in the context of whole genome data availability, our global objective is to develop cost-effective optimized methodologies for preserving farm-animal biodiversity, using cattle, sheep, and goats as model species. More specifically, NEXTGEN will: - produce whole genome data in selected populations; - develop the necessary bioinformatics approaches, taking advantage of the 1000 human genomes project, and focusing on the identification of genomic regions under recent selection (adaptive / neutral variation); - develop the methods for optimizing breeding and biobanking, taking into account both neutral and adaptive variations; - develop innovative biobanking methods based on freeze-dried nuclei; - provide guidelines for studying disease resistance and genome/environment relationships in a spatial context; - assess the value of wild ancestors and breeds from domestication centres as genetic resources; - assess the performance of a surrogate marker system compared with whole genome sequence data for preserving biodiversity; - provide efficient training and a wide dissemination of the improved methodologies. The consortium has been designed to specifically reach these objectives, and encompasses skills in conservation genetics, bioinformatics, biobanking and breeding technologies, GIScience. The work plan has been established with great care. The sequencing task has been postponed to year 3 to take advantage of cost dynamics, while the two first years are dedicated to bioinformatics and to an innovative sampling strategy that fully integrates the spatial aspect and that offers more value at the data analysis stage.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-1.4-6 | Award Amount: 15.84M | Year: 2008
The NEuroStemCell consortium will foster collaboration between leading European experimental and clinical researchers in order to maximise the prospects for successful clinical trials of stem cell therapy for Parkinsons (PD) and Huntingtons (HD) Disease. The activities will be driven by a Clinical WorkPackage (WP), which will set the requirements, and monitor and guide advances in development of the most promising cells. The goal is to compare different stem cell sources with respect to their capcity to generate mesencephalic Dopaminergic and striatal GABAergic neurons suitable for neuronal cell replacement. The major sources will be neuralised Embryonic Stem (ES) cells, adherent Neural Stem (NS) cell lines and short term expanded Ventral Midbrain neural stem cells/progenitors grown as Neurospheres (VMN). Two exploratory WPs will use extrinsic cues to specify neuronal differentiation and compare rigorously the different human stem cell lines and their progeny in giving rise to authentic neurons. WP3 will integrate long-term assessements of functional (motor and cognitive) recovery in appropriate animal models of PD and HD, and WP4 will exploit non-invasive in vivo imaging to evaluate the survival, composition, integration and functional impact of the donor cells in host brain. These two WPs will also provide the elements necessary to standardise the extent of recovery as a function of cell replacement and integration. In WP5, three SMEs will generate the technologies for manufacturing and scale-up of safe, fully traceable, efficacious and banked stocks of cells ready for clinical use. Regulatory and ethical requirements will be considered in the Clinical WP which also incorporates training. Building on the successful experience of the FPVI EuroStemCell project, NEuroStemCell will provide a focal point for European researchers engaged in the translational aspects of stem cell-based strategies to develop cures for PD and HD
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 328.25K | Year: 2013
Vitiligo is a disease characterised by a long-term loss of skin pigmentation where areas of skin (commonly on the face and hands) lose their natural colour. Vitiligo affects 65 million people worldwide and around 600,000 in the UK. The contrast in skin colour at affected sites can be very obvious and patients suffer significant social and emotional consequences including low self-esteem, social anxiety, stigmatisation and depression. Current drug treatments for vitiligo are fairly ineffective and prone to side effects. Ultraviolet light therapy can improve the efficacy of the topical drugs but this requires a significant number costly hospital visits and the positive effects are reversible. Many vitiligo patients therefore chose surgical procedures such as grafting skin from healthy to diseased areas. These surgical methods can repigment the affected area but the invasive surgery often leads to scarring. In this project we adopt a new technology-inspired innovation to overcome many of the disadvantages of existing therapies and surgeries providing vitiligo patients with a new treatment option that is simple, safe and cost-effective.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENV.2008.1.2.1.3. | Award Amount: 1.14M | Year: 2009
This proposal puts forward plans to establish a research network of experts on noise and health in Europe. This network will establish future research directions and policy needs in Europe. The network will review the existing literature on environmental noise exposure and health focussing on the consolidation of existing state of the art knowledge and the identification of gaps in the evidence and future research needs and hypotheses to be tested. In the network we will train junior researchers in noise and health through setting up an exchange network across Europe. The network will focus on noise exposure assessment in health studies in order to build more complex analytical models of noise and health effects that take into account moderating factors including the joint effects of air pollution and noise. A specific function of the network will be to establish communication between researchers on noise and researchers on air pollution. We will improve the measurement of health outcomes relevant to noise research and strengthen the available methodologies for future research, by extending analyses on existing research taking advantage of the large EU-funded RANCH and HYENA studies and relevant national studies. We will develop novel designs for research on noise and health to provide to the EU a new strategy for the development of noise and health research in the future. We will disseminate the results to the EU, to national governments, to fellow researchers, and other stakeholders.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.90M | Year: 2013
Marine sponges harbour extremely diverse populations of microbes, and are world record holders for the production of a plethora of bioactive molecules. Previous studies, however, aiming at the growth of sponges or their associated microbes for the production of bioactive compounds to supply biological material for clinical trials, have been largely unsuccessful. BLUEPHARMTRAIN is a multi-disciplinary alliance of 20 academic and industrial partners that will excel in research and training through integration of complementary expertise in cell biology, microbiology, natural product chemistry, genomics & transcriptomics (omics) and socio-economics. We will adopt cutting-edge omics technologies to give a new boost to the more traditional disciplines: microbial isolation, cell culture and natural product chemistry to go beyond the current scientific frontiers. For example, metagenomic and transcriptomic data will be applied to identify the metabolic potential and restrictions of -yet- uncultured microbes and will serve for the design of tailor-made cultivation conditions. In addition, heterologous expression of bioactive gene clusters and enzymes able to perform unusual modifications will serve as an alternative strategy to unlock the bioactive potential of sponges. Thus we aim to develop an extensive technology platform that is applicable for obtaining a wide variety of bioactive compounds from distinct sponges and their microbes. BLUEPHARMTRAIN will provide a complementary set of experimental and conceptual local and network-wide training modules and workshops to 15 young researchers. The recruited fellows will work towards personalized training plans to meet individual needs and interests, generating a critical mass of young researchers in the emerging field of blue biotechnology. The presence of a large consortium of versatile biotechnology, pharmaceutical and consultancy firms ensures a good balance between academic and transferable skills acquired by the fellows.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.1.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.82M | Year: 2013
This project will tackle the huge complexity of taking stem cell therapies to clinical application for neurodegenerative disease by focusing on selective differentiation of a single neuronal phenotype (medium spiny striatal neuron: MSN) for a single well-defined disease (Huntingtons: HD). Our consortium contains expertise in all elements required to drive this technology to the point of clinical delivery, including expertise in stem cell differentiation and control of proliferation; in vitro genetic, molecular, cellular and functional characterisation; preclinical assessment in both rodents and primates models of HD; GMP knowledge, development and production; and clinical translation. Our clinical team includes world leaders in HD clinical trials, including fetal neural transplants and is well placed to design the translation process. We focus on human embryonic stem (hES) cells as our primary target for first-in-man proof-of-concept studies, as they are closest to clinical readiness. HD is the target disease as it provides both an excellent model relevant to a wide range of neurodegenerative conditions, and is a stringent test of the capacity of selectively differentiated stem cells to repair neural circuits. The starting point for the work is the existence within the consortium of three of the most advanced protocols to date for MSN differentiation, and a feature of our consortium is that the specificity of stem cell differentiation will be tested against primary fetal MSNs (current gold standard) at all stages of both in vitro and in vivo assessment. In order to maintain flexibility in an emerging ethical environment, we will develop induced pluripotent (hiPS) cells to the point of GMP validation as a second generation target to hESCs. This will build European infrastructure and capacity to deliver emergent stem cell therapies through the highest quality clinical trials into clinical practice in a broad range of human neurodegenerative diseases.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.2-1 | Award Amount: 11.66M | Year: 2014
MARS will support managers and policy makers in the practical implementation of the WFD, of related legislation and of the Blueprint to Safeguard Europes Water Resources by conducting new research and synthesising existing knowledge concerning effects and management of multiple stressors in surface water and groundwater bodies; by advising the 3rd RMBP cycle and the revision of the WFD; and by developing new integrated tools for diagnosing and predicting multiple stressors in water resource management. The consortium includes 19 research institutes and five water boards and environment agencies. MARS will engage with ongoing and finalised European initiatives addressing related topics, thus acting as an integrating project. Work will be organised at the scales of water bodies, river basins and Europe; at each scale there is a direct link to water managers and decision makers. Nested within the scale structure, we will employ a suite of methods: flume and mesocosm experiments to better understand the effects of selected stressor combinations with a focus on extremes and hydrological stress; linkage of abiotic and biotic models to predict effects of stressor combinations at a river basin scale; large-scale data analysis employing existing databases, but including additional variables, to gain a Europe-wide overview of stress, status and ecosystem services. MARS will be composed of eight workpackages (WPs). While WP1 will be responsible for overall coordination, WP2 will provide tools, concepts and scenarios for the other WPs. WPs 3-5 will analyse and predict multiple stressor-impact relationships on three scales: water bodies (WP3), river basins (WP4) and Europe (WP5); the results will be synthesised across scales by WP6. WP7 will generate a wiki information system and produce or improve tools addressing the three scales. WP8 will communicate with river basin districts and Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) groups and will advise the WFD revision.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 2.81M | Year: 2016
PANDORA (Probing safety of nano-objects by defining immune responses of environmental organisms) shall assess the global impact of engineered nanoparticles (NP) on the immune responses of representative organisms covering all evolutionary stages and hierarchical levels from plants to invertebrates and vertebrates. Immunity is a major determinant of the survival and fitness of all living organisms, therefore immunosafety of engineered NP is a key element of environmental nanosafety. PANDORA will tackle the issue of global immunological nanosafety by comparing the impact of widely-used NP (e.g., iron, titanium and cerium oxide) on the human immune response with their effects in representative terrestrial and marine organisms. This comparison will focus on the conserved system of innate immunity/stress response/inflammation, aiming to identify common mechanisms and markers across immune defence evolution shared by plants (Arabidopsis), invertebrate (bivalves, echinoderms, earthworms), and vertebrate (human) species. PANDORAs objectives are: 1. To identify immunological mechanisms triggered by nano-objects, and predictive markers of risk vs. safety; 2. To do so by a collaborative cross-species comparison, from plants to human, of innate immune defence capacity, using selected, industrially-relevant NP; 3. To design predictive in vitro assays to measure the immuno-risk of NP to the environment and human health, as new approaches to industrial and environmental nanosafety testing. PANDORA will train 11 PhD students in an overarching training programme involving training-by-research, joint courses of technical, scientific and transferrable skills, participation to public scientific events, and an intense intersectoral networking exchange plan. The PANDORA consortium encompasses academic institutions, research centres, and SMEs, all with proven experience in higher education and training, and state-of-the art scientific and technical expertise and infrastructures.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2011.1.2-2 | Award Amount: 11.03M | Year: 2012
The objective of the ALEXANDER project is the identification of novel strategies (e.g., proteolytic enzyme strategy, thiomer strategy, zeta potential changing systems, SNEDDS strategy) and the optimization of existing strategies (e.g., disulfide breaking strategy and slippery surface strategy) for the efficient transport of nanocarriers through the mucus gel layer (e.g., intestinal, nasal, ocular, vaginal, buccal, pulmonary). In particular, R&D activities will be focused on the synthesis of functionalized nanocarriers capable of permeating the mucus gel layer and delivering their therapeutic payload to the epithelium. The nanocarriers will be characterized with respect to their physicochemical properties, ability to cross the mucus gel layer, in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity. The potential of the developed nanocarriers as delivery systems for mucosal administration of macromolecules will be demonstrated via the oral delivery of peptides, oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides and the nasal delivery of a plasmid encoding for an antigen.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.2.2 | Award Amount: 3.70M | Year: 2009
A coherent classification and species checklist of the worlds plants, animals, fungi and microbes is fundamental for accessing information about biodiversity. The Catalogue of Life provides the world with a unique service: a dynamically updated global index of validated scientific names, synonyms and common names integrated within a single taxonomic hierarchy.The Catalogue of Life was initiated as a European Scientific Infrastructure under FP5 and has a distributed knowledge architecture. Its federated e-compendium of the worlds organisms grows rapidly (now covering well over one million species), and has established a formidable user base, including major global biodiversity portals as well as national biodiversity resources and individual users worldwide.Joint Research Activities in this 4D4Life Project will establish the Catalogue of Life as a state of the art e-science facility based on an enhanced service-based distributed architecture. This will make it available for integration into analytical and synthetic distributed networks such as those developing in conservation, climate change, invasive species, molecular biodiversity and regulatory domains. User-driven enhancements in the presentation of distribution data and bio-data will be made.In its Networking Activities 4D4Life will strengthen the development of Global Species Databases that provide the core of the service, and extend the geographical reach of the programme beyond Europe by realizing a Multi-Hub Network integrating data from China, New Zealand, Australia, N. America and Brazil.Service Activities, the largest part of 4D4Life, will create new electronic taxonomy services, including synonymy server, taxon name-change, and download services, plus new educational and popular services, for instance for hand-held devices.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016
Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses ICT to integrate neuroscience data from around the world, to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and diseases, and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The goal is to catalyze a global collaborative effort. During the HBPs first Specific Grant Agreement (SGA1), the HBP Core Project will outline the basis for building and operating a tightly integrated Research Infrastructure, providing HBP researchers and the scientific Community with unique resources and capabilities. Partnering Projects will enable independent research groups to expand the capabilities of the HBP Platforms, in order to use them to address otherwise intractable problems in neuroscience, computing and medicine in the future. In addition, collaborations with other national, European and international initiatives will create synergies, maximizing returns on research investment. SGA1 covers the detailed steps that will be taken to move the HBP closer to achieving its ambitious Flagship Objectives.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: FoF.NMP.2010-3 | Award Amount: 7.04M | Year: 2010
IMPRESS targets the development of a technological injection moulding platform for serial production of plastic components incorporating micro or nano scale functional features. The platform will be based on the gathering of up to date and most advanced facilities based on three main modules, each of them being a tool box including several building blocks: - a tool manufacturing module involving different technologies of micro- nano direct manufacturing, from top-down to bottom-up such as self-assembling, - an injection moulding module including equipments fitted with up to date hardware to improve replication quality and capability, - an intelligence module dedicated to advanced process control and online metrology integration. Beside this large panel of facilities, three case studies have been selected (biology, health and energy), each of them requiring a specific and well defined surface micro-nano texturation. These case studies cover a very large range of nano-feature (from 100nm up to 1 m) and component size (from 1 cm2 up to 1000 cm2). They will serve to qualify the capabilities of the different building blocks and will allow (i) to select the most suitable building blocks as of application requirements (ii) to learn about the platform working and (iii) to anticipate the technological future of the platform. Finally, a technico-economic tool for decision making will be developed based on the IMPRESS case studies and thus to allow end-users to select the most appropriate configuration regarding the end product manufacturing requirements. Further to the IMPRESS case studies, the performances of the platform will be validated through a satellite group. IMPRESS technological platform will accelerate the production and the time to market of micro nano-scale functional feature on multi-component devices in order to obtain an important reduction of needed supply chain space, technological risk and manufacturing costs of next generation plastic part products.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2007-3.5-2 | Award Amount: 8.47M | Year: 2008
The objective of the project COTECH is to investigate new approaches of -manufacturing based on advanced technology convergence processes and to propose hybrid solutions for high added value cost effective -manufacturing emerging applications. The main goals of COTECH are to develop: (1) -replication technologies underpinned by emerging tool-making technologies for processing multi-material components and creating: a) 3D -components using high throughput multi-material -injection moulding with sub-m resolution; b) 2D -components using direct multi-material hot or UV embossing with a sub-200nm resolution. (2) Radically new replication convergent technologies combining the capabilities of -injection or embossing to a complementary activation step to create intelligent devices in a single process step: a) Hybrid processes based on -injection moulding using modules of e.g coating and compression injection moulding, to provide functionality to -devices, such as active coatings and combination of micro and nano features in a single step; b) Ultimately the hybrid processes based on -injection with embossing will be validated. This will offer a very high throughput multimaterial -injection that will enable the fabrication of 3D high aspect ratio -parts, complemented by an embossing step to allow ultra precise 2D features. (3) Global process chains with increased MTBF (50%) and fabrication of high quality products. This requires innovative non-destructive inspection solutions and simulation models. (4) High added value -devices with advanced functionalities. COTECH proposes to validate industrially the new technology convergence processes with 8 demonstrators representing the most emergent industrial sectors (transport, biomedical, energy). The expected market for the industry exceeds 1 Billion . COTECH will also address the problem of knowledge fragmentation by activating a polymer -manufacturing sub-platform as support to MINAM.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 4.98M | Year: 2011
Virus infections remain a major cause of disease, with dramatic costs in mortality, morbidity, and economic loss worldwide. There is an unmet need for potent antiviral drugs, in particular against viruses with a (\)RNA genome which include many important pathogens of humans and animals. Antiviral drug development requires a detailed understanding of virus replication and effective translation of this knowledge into drug discovery. Europe needs well-trained experts with multidisciplinary skills to advance this field. However, few, if any, European training institutes have the broad know-how required to provide such a comprehensive training programme. The EUVIRNA partnership aims to fill this gap with the proposed EUVIRNA training programme. The EUVIRNA partnership consists of six outstanding European academic partners and four industrial partners (one pharmaceutical R&D company and three SMEs), and an associated partner (SME specialized in education). All EUVIRNA partners are recognized leaders in their field, ensuring state-of-the-art training possibilities, and their skills are highly complementary. Three Visiting Researchers will complement the expertise of the partners. EUVIRNA aims to introduce 18 ESRs and 2 ERs to state-of-the-art knowledge and technology applied in molecular virology and antiviral therapy, with both local and network-wide training activities. Individual research projects, research training workshops and intersectoral secondments will be supplemented with complementary skills courses to improve career development and perspectives. The industrial partners are actively involved in the entire programme, and will furthermore organize a 1-week industry-oriented conference aimed at further bridging the gap between academia and industry. Thus, EUVIRNA offers talented researchers a multidisciplinary and intersectoral training programme and prepares them for a future leading role in European molecular virology research and antiviral dru
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.2.2 | Award Amount: 2.10M | Year: 2010
Researchers of all disciplines, from Life Sciences and Astronomy to Computational Chemistry, create and use ever-increasing amounts of complex data, and rely more and more on compute-intensive modelling, simulation and analysis. Scientific workflows have become a key paradigm for managing complex tasks and have emerged as a unifying mechanism for handling scientific data. Workflows capture the essence of the scientific process, providing a means to describe it via logical data- or work-flows. Workflows are mapped onto concrete Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs) to perform large-scale experiments. The learning curve for reusing workflows, however, is still steep because workflows typically have their own user interfaces/APIs, description languages, provenance strategies, and enactment engines, which are not standard and do not interoperable. Workflow integration or reuse therefore is currently impractical, thereby inhibiting the growth in uptake and proliferation of workflows in scientific practice.\n\nThe SHIWA project aims to leverage existing solutions and enable cross-workflow and inter-workflow exploitation of DCIs by applying both coarse- and fine-grained strategies. The coarse-grained approach treats workflow engines as distributed black box systems, where complete sub-workflows are sent to pre-existing enactment engines. The fine-grained approach addresses language interoperability by defining an intermediate representation to be used for translation of workflows across systems (currently selected: ASKALON, Pegasus, P-Grade, MOTEUR, Triana). SHIWA will develop, deploy and operate the SHIWA Simulation Platform to offer users production-level services supporting workflow interoperability following both approaches. A Repository will facilitate publishing and sharing of workflows, and a Portal will enable their actual enactment. Three use cases based on medical imaging applications will serve to drive and evaluate this platform from a users perspective
University of Mondragon, Ideko and University of Cardiff | Date: 2010-03-24
System of monitoring and control of the tool and head of a machine tool, wherein is an electrical circuit (1), a section of which comprises a material which in normal circumstances is not an electric conductor, is established between the head (5) bearing the work tool (6) and the work piece (7), with incorporated in said circuit a generator of signals (2) which affect a variation of voltage in an impedance (3).
The Uab Research Foundation, Morehouse School of Medicine, University of Cardiff and University of Oregon | Date: 2012-10-08
The Uab Research Foundation, University of Oregon, University of Cardiff and Morehouse School of Medicine | Date: 2016-02-10
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2011-1 | Award Amount: 1.51M | Year: 2011
Currently the identification and quantification of pollutants in water are mostly carried out manually through sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis (off-line analysis), with methodologies of work that involve some significant costs in terms of displacement to sampling points, reagents and specialized personnel dedicated to the operation, leading to time consuming and economically challenging approaches, causing the number of analyses performed to be kept at the bare minimum. The industry therefore is calling for novel, cost-effective solutions to meet these new challenges: we propose to develop an online water monitoring device for microbiological contamination analysis, that allows industries and environmental protection agencies to replace the routine activities of sampling and laboratory testing of pathogens. The new system, which will be produced in two versions, both for online and for offline measurements, will be able to real time monitor the quality of industrial process water and effluents basing on an opto-ultrasonic device and on a lipid-based diagnostic kit. The novelty of our approach is the use of engineered liposomes for detecting bacteria in water: these are nanoparticles formed by a lipid bilayer enclosing an aqueous compartment displaying features that can be different (pH, ionic strength, composition) with respect to the bulk. We will load liposomes with a chromophore and will engineer them in order to make them specifically react with one target bacteria; this is the simple operating system of the AQUALITY system, which is completed by an ultrasonic unit to concentrate bacteria and an optical unit for detecting the sample colour change following to the interaction between liposomes and bacteria.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SEAC-1-2014 | Award Amount: 1.63M | Year: 2015
Many children lose their natural curiosity for how things function and interrelate to each other along the way into their lives as young adults. The Educational Robotics for STEM (ER4STEM) project aims to turn curious young children into young adults passionate about science and technology with a hands-on use case: robotics. The domain of robotics represents a multidisciplinary and highly innovative field encompassing physics, maths, informatics and even industrial design as well as social sciences. Moreover, due to various application domains, teamwork, creativity and entrepreneurial skills are required for the design, programming and innovative exploitation of robots and robotic services. Children are fascinated by such autonomous machines. This fascination and the variety of fields and topics covered make robotics a powerful idea to engage with. Young girls as well as boys can easily connect robots to their personal interests and share their ideas through these tangible artefacts. ER4STEM will refine, unify and enhance current European approaches to STEM education through robotics in one open operational and conceptual framework. The concept is founded on three important pillars of constructionism: 1. engaging with powerful ideas, 2. building on personal interests, and 3. learning through making (or presenting ideas with tangible artefacts). The ER4STEM framework will coherently offer students aged 7 to 18 as well as their educators different perspectives and approaches to find their interests and strengths in robotics to pursue STEM careers through robotics and semi-autonomous smart devices. At the same time students will learn about technology (e.g. circuits), about a domain (e.g. math) and acquire skills (e.g. collaborating, coding). Innovative approaches will be developed to achieve an integrated and consistent concept that picks children up at different ages, beginning in primary school and accompany them until graduation from secondary school.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.66M | Year: 2016
The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a class C Gprotein-coupled receptor that plays a pivotal role in systemic calcium metabolism by regulating parathyroid hormone secretion and urinary Ca excretion. Abnormal CaSR function is implicated in calciotropic disorders, and in non-calciotropic disorders such as Alzheimers disease (AD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes (DM), sarcopenia and cancer, which account for >25% of the global disease burden. The CaSR is a unique GPCR whose principal physiological ligand is the Ca2\ ion; it is expressed almost ubiquitously; interacts with multiple G subtypes regulating highly divergent downstream signalling pathways, depending on the cellular context. The CaSR Biomedicine is a fully translational project that utilises the concept of a single molecule, the CaSR, influencing a range of physiological and disease processes, to develop a unique, strong multidisciplinary and intersectoral scientific training programme preparing 14 young scientists to become specialists in GPCR biology and signalling. The objectives of CaSR Biomedicine are: 1. Educate and train Early Stage Researchers to become highly innovative scientists to enhance their career perspective. 2. Elucidate ligand- and tissue-dependent differences in CaSR physiology by examining its functions at cellular level and thus to contribute to the understanding of GPCR signalling in general. 3. Assess how CaSR function is altered in AD, CVD, DM, sarcopenia, and cancer, and to find innovative CaSR-based therapeutic approaches for these major, age-related disorders. 4. Establish long-lasting interdisciplinary and intersectoral cooperation among researchers and between researchers and industry, to strengthen the European Research Area. Therefore the CaSR Biomedicine will investigate the complexity of CaSR signalling and function to identify CaSR-based therapeutic approaches to diseases linked to changes in CaSR expression or function (AD, CVD, DM, sarcopenia, and cancer).
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.9.1 | Award Amount: 486.75K | Year: 2012
We seek to bring together all major European and Israeli research centres in Optimal Control of Quantum Information Processing. This project will coordinate ongoing research activities, best practice dissemination, personnel training and public engagement as well as interaction with public stakeholders and policymakers for 17 established research groups from 15 universities in 6 countries a total of about 60 scientists and 30 PhD students, spanning a variety of nationalities, races, cultures, social backgrounds, genders and career stages.The proposed Consortium will join the forces of multiple EU and Israeli research groups to explore a radical alternative to the currently established information processing technologies quantum information processing, where bits are carried by atoms or elementary particles and dramatic acceleration is believed to be possible for several types of computational tasks. Our specific research area within Quantum Information Processing is optimal control of quantum bits a set of technologies that enable extremely accurate manipulation of quantum bits with minimal expenditure of energy.Within this Coordination Action, we aim to create a vibrant, productive and efficient European research community, to deliver value to the society and to grow a new generation of young European physicists.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 2.89M | Year: 2010
Increasing urban food-related health and environmental problems are raising an urgent need for action. Current agrifood studies tend to neglect the broader societal and spatial impacts of food. PUREFOOD will reduce the high knowledge and skills deficit that negatively affects the capacity to deliver political and developmental solutions related to food security, public procurement, health and sustainable regional development. Through its innovative methodology, the interdisciplinary courses, private and public sector involvement, the holistic conceptualization of sustainable food and the formation of Communities of Practice (CoPs) that include actors at all stages of the food chain, PUREFOOD contributes to Commissions aim to deal with economic, social and environmental policies in mutually reinforcing ways. We study an alternative geography of food, based upon three emerging trends; sustainable food supply chains, public sector food procurement practices and (peri-)urban food strategies. Each is topic of a scientific WP with 4 ESRs in individual research projects using case study methodology. The related training aims to transfer disciplinary scientific knowledge and skills between complementary groups, leading to a coherent frame of basic and advanced scientific, professional and host institute training modules, and to interactively develop scientific and professional knowledge and skills through learning-by-doing in CoPs for each WP. PUREFOOD consists of 7 full academic partners and 8 associated partners (private sector and socio-economic partners). PUREFOODs coordinator has ample experience in managing international interdisciplinary research and training projects. The commitment of private and public organisations and NGOs as associated partners illustrate the timeliness of our proposal and impact to the career perspectives of the ESRs. Completed CDPs give access to a PhD degree at every partner university.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: NMP.2012.2.2-6 | Award Amount: 5.15M | Year: 2013
The project brings together a consortium of EU and ASEAN researchers with the aim of developing a solar powered photocatalytic waste-water treatment system capable of mineralising the recalcitrant organic matter that is not removed by current biological methods. With an emphasis on generating novel materials and new understandings of photocatalytic materials and processes, the interdisciplinary team aims to develop cost effective prototype photocatalytic reactors capable of deployment in remote areas and of treating contaminated water from small scale industrial producers at rates of up to 500 m3 of a day.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2008-5.1.1 | Award Amount: 1.71M | Year: 2009
The aim of this proposal is to enable present and future professionals on radioactive waste management in Europe, whatever their initial disciplinary background, to follow a training programme on geological disposal which would be widely recognized across Europe. This ambitious aim will only be achieved over a close collaboration between all stakeholders and through an effective and flexible use of academic and non-academic resources and competences. In addressing the needs of the end-users that will be identified through updating the CETRAD outcomes, access to a combination of education (formal), continuous learning and professional development (non-formal), and in-job learning (informal) will be offered and developed within the project. Under the FP6, PETRUS group has developed within the ENEN II project, a structure for addressing education. The new proposal seeks to extend the outcomes of the former study to the training activities that together with other measures like the establishment of an adequate quality assurance framework, will address the challenge of the non-formal sector. Besides, the project targets the development of a qualification framework (training passport) that is in the interest of different end-users and trainees. The qualification system should be transparent, based on the fair assessment of skills learned. The feasibility study on European recognition of non-formal learning through the comparison of different national recognition systems will allow proposing an adequate scheme applicable to competences in geological disposal. Finally, the project aims at networking all the training actors in order to form and foster the geological disposal training market. This will be achieved by developing Knowledge Management Strategy and implementing communication tools notably the face to face remote teaching infrastructure, which has been developed during the ENENII project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES | Award Amount: 201.10K | Year: 2011
This program aims to increase our knowledge about the biology and biodiversity of blue diatoms, unique among microalgae by their ability to produce specific water-soluble bluish pigments. Up to now the terms blue diatoms have referred exclusively to the pennate marine diatom Haslea ostrearia, and to its blue pigment, the so-called marennine, a polyphenolic molecule with biological activities, which is produced during algal growth and ageing. In oyster ponds of western France, H. ostrearia may year on year become dominant, and marennine released in the seawater is responsible for the greening of oysters, a phenomenon which has a noticeable local economical impact. The diatom H. ostrearia has long been considered the only microalga ever known, worldwide in distribution, to produce marennine. Indeed in the literature, diatoms with blue tips described as H. ostrearia were reported in almost all seas and oceans in northern and southern hemispheres. Their presence was deduced either directly from the observation of living cells, or indirectly from a greening effect of bivalves. In most cases, a careful identification of the blue diatoms at the species level did not rely on detailed studies of morphology and morphometrics. This paradigm has been recently questioned following the discovery, in phytoplanktonic samples taken on rocky shores of Crimea (Ukraine), of diatoms presenting similarities with H. ostrearia, with bluish apices, but in which the pigment seemed different from marennine. Preliminary results indicate that these diatoms could be two different species, which raises a concern about occurrences of blue diatoms and their identification as H. ostrearia in all other marine environments. Hence the present project is aiming to deepen our knowledge of the biology, physiology and pigments of blue diatoms, to study their biodiversity, and to unravel their taxonomy, especially regarding the genus Haslea.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-4-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 15.00M | Year: 2015
ENVRIPLUS is a cluster of research infrastructures (RIs) for Environmental and Earth System sciences, built around ESFRI roadmap and associating leading e-infrastructures and Integrating Activities together with technical specialist partners. ENVRIPLUS is driven by 3 overarching goals: 1) favoring cross-fertilization between infrastructures, 2) implementing innovative concepts and devices across RIs, and 3) facilitating research and innovation in the field of environment to an increasing number of users outside the RIs. ENVRIPLUS organizes its activities along a main strategic plan where sharing multi-disciplinary expertise will be most effective. It aims to improve Earth observation monitoring systems and strategies, including actions towards harmonization and innovation, to generate common solutions to many shared information technology and data related challenges, to harmonize policies for access and provide strategies for knowledge transfer amongst RIs. ENVRIPLUS develops guidelines to enhance trans-disciplinary use of data and data-products supported by applied use-cases involving RIs from different domains. ENVRIPLUS coordinates actions to improve communication and cooperation, addressing Environmental RIs at all levels, from management to end-users, implementing RI-staff exchange programs, generating material for RI personnel, and proposing common strategic developments and actions for enhancing services to users and evaluating the socio-economic impacts. ENVRIPLUS is expected to facilitate structuration and improve quality of services offered both within single RIs and at pan-RI level. It promotes efficient and multi-disciplinary research offering new opportunities to users, new tools to RI managers and new communication strategies for environmental RI communities. The produced solutions, services and other project results are made available to all environmental RI initiatives, thus contributing to the development of a consistent European RI ecosystem.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 169.32K | Year: 2015
Advances in fit for use manufacturing of biopharmaceutical drug delivery and pharmaceutical systems are now required to fit Quality by Design (QbD) models. These current regulations require excellence to be built into the preparation of emerging products (both material and process) thereby leading to product robustness and quality. In addition, industrial needs (economical and reproducible quality enhancement) are driving manufacturing towards continuous processes over batch type processes which also rely on QbD (for integrity and quality). EHDA technology is a robust process that has been utilised in various formats (e.g. electrospinning, electrospraying, bubbling and even 3D printing) and is favourable due to applicability with the development of stable nanomedicines and biopharmaceuticals, the emergence of this technology is clearly evident in the UK and on the global scale. Attempts in scaling up (for suitable pharmaceutical scale) and in tandem with continuous processes (including controlled manufacturing) have been very limited. There also, now, remains a huge void in the adaptation of sensible QbD (multi-variate) for the current methods developed and also those required by industry. While lab scale research continues with the ongoing development of such processes (e.g. nanomedicines, smart and controlled delivery), the transition to industry or the clinic will have to meet these regulations (and scales) for there to be a real impact, which is now, also, an important aspect of grass root research in the UK. The EHDA network brings together specialists from academia and industry to advance this technology through several means. Firstly, initiating developments towards a real-viable scale for Pharmaceutical production. Secondly, to incorporate developments in lean manufacturing and legislation (e.g. continuous manufacturing, online diagnostics, QbD and adaptable scale). Thirdly, to marry optimised lean technologies with novel and emerging macromolecular therapies and actives. The network has a wide range of activities and initiatives which will lead to significant developments (and collaborations) in an area of increasing global interest (EHDA processes) - but currently only on a viable lab scale to date. This network will be the first of its kind and will serve as the central and pioneering hub in this remit.
Agency: GTR | Branch: AHRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.14M | Year: 2012
Every day millions of citizens do something creative, from knitting and genealogy to photography and choirs. These creative citizens, some organised in groups and networks, some not, are the bedrock of the creative economy. As such, they underpin the intangible assets of the knowledge economy upon which the UK depends for its prosperity. At present, there is much that we do not know about our creative citizens. Why do they do what they do? What is the value of their creativity, to them as individuals and to their communities? How is their potential changed by the emergence of communications technologies which permit on-line social networking? Does inequality of digital access undermine this new creative citizenship? Are todays creative citizens capable of providing more local and flexible services, previously delivered by more remote public and private sector organisations? If their work is valued, what interventions and policies would facilitate their growth? This research seeks to answer these questions by examining three manifestations of creative citizenship: - hyperlocal publishing groups, writing neighbourhood news most often as a blog site have started to emerge in scores of communities around the UK, sometimes in response to the scaling back of traditional media; - community-led design, which is increasingly deployed as a means of ensuring that new buildings and other products reflect the needs, creativity and aspirations of the people who will use them; - creative practitioner communities, which take many forms: here we explore the value-creation that arises between relatively formal communities of this kind and the growing highly informal networks of individual creative citizens, many built around online communications platforms. Our aim in studying these cases is to generate data and insight about each case, but also to answer the more general questions set out above: what is the value of their work, to these citizens as individuals, to their communities and to wider civic goals? The background to our interest in creative citizenship arises from the way that on-line communications have enabled inviduals and small groups of individuals to engage more frequently, deftly and in greater depth with many types of organisation. Today, many companies design their products and services in close dialogue with users: this is routine for, say, video games developers, but it is also increasingly true of smart manufacturers of cars, toys and other consumer-focused industrial products, using Web2.0 technology. This shift from a user pays to a user makes approach supports the possibility of a growth in smaller-scale, more flexible and voluntary community services. Nesta, one of our partners in this project, has a laboratory for public service design based upon these principles. Glass-House Community Led Design, another partner, specialises in connecting designers and the widest possible range of stakeholders. The research will produce:- - improved data on the value, scale and potential of UK hyperlocal publishers and how they interact with traditional media; plus working with our partner (Talk About Local) sharp insights into the conditions likeliest to support the development of successful hyperlocals and the tools needed to achieve this; - understanding the value, potential and practicalities of community-led design, with a particular focus upon understanding the potential and limitations of digital media; - an evaluation of everyday, at home creative citizenship which provides an indication of its scale and potential, along with insight into the most effective ways of providing gateways between the work of these lone or loosely networked creative citizens and more formal organisations and structures. Our findings will be of value to policy-makers concerned with the development of the UK creative economy, along with strong communities of place and interest.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EINFRA-22-2016 | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2017
The goal of AARC2 is to design an AAI framework to develop interoperable AAI, to enable researchers to access the whole research and infrastructure service portfolio with one login. AARC2s objectives are: 1. enable federated access in research communities participating in AARC2 2. assist research communities to map their requirements to concrete service offerings 3. support research (e-)infrastructures to implement the integrated architecture and policies frameworks developed by AARC project 4. offer different trainings to adopt AARC/AARC2 results 5. enhance the integrated architecture AARC2 objectives will be achieved by: - Piloting selected research community use-cases (SA1) - Showcasing ready-to-use AAI solutions and pilot results to infrastructures (SA1-NA2) - Developing a virtual Competence Centre where infrastructure representatives and AARC2 team discuss AARC2 results deployment and approaches to use-cases (all WPs) - Promoting federated access and adoption of AARC2 results via training and outreach (NA2) - Expand support for new technologies and policies (JRA1 and NA3). - Follow a user-driven approach: development driven by use-cases and continuous community feedback on AARC2 work. Relevance to the work programme: - AARC2 will work with existing e-infrastructures and ESFRI projects to deploy and enhance (JRA1) the integrated AAI (built on eduIGAIN and federated access) delivered by AARC (obj1Development of a pan-European identity federation) - Use-cases that meet integration (accessing services offered by multiple e-infrastructures) and data-rich aspects included in AARC2 (SA1). AARC2 will work to enable federated access and to map the use-cases to existing AAI services and policy frameworks (obj2Stimulate AAI services supporting communities in the data-rich era) - AARC2 will liaise with security groups, NRENs and infrastructures to address best practices in cybersecurity and assurance (see NA3). (obj3Deliver an integrated infrastructure)
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 1.60M | Year: 2017
The GHaNA project aims to explore and characterize a new marine bioresource, for blue biotechnology applications in aquaculture, cosmetics and possibly food and health industry. The project will determine the biological and chemical diversity of Haslea diatoms to develop mass-scale production for viable industrial applications by maximising biomass production and associated high-value compound production, including terpenoids, marennine-like pigments, lipids and silica skeletons. The genus Haslea species type H. ostrearia, produces marennine, a water-soluble blue pigment used for greening oysters in Western France, which is also a bioactive molecule. Haslea diatoms have thus a high potential for use in (1) existing oyster farming, (2) production of pigments and bioactive compounds with natural antibacterial properties, (3) application as a colouring agent within industry, and (4) use of silica skeletons as inorganic biocharges in the formulation of new elastomeric materials. This will be achieved through fundamental and applied-oriented research to isolate fast- growing strains of Haslea, optimising their growth environment to increase marennine and other high-value compound productivity; to develop blue biotechnology specifically applied to benthic microalgae (biorefinery approach, processes); and to develop industrial exploitation of colouring and bioactive compounds through commercial activities of aquaculture, food, cosmetics and health.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 274.50K | Year: 2017
TALK is a communication tool which aims to guide multi-professional clinical teams learning and improving quality of patient care and patient safety together. It is a simple and practical approach to multi-professional structured feedback and debriefing, to be used after unplanned learning events in clinical environments. Debriefing is the process of an individual or team formally reflecting on their performance after a particular task, a shift or a critical event (World Health Organisation 2009). TALK proposes an easy way to guide a constructive conversation between team members whenever new insights might be learnt from clinical experience. This includes cases or sessions in which things went well but also near misses and untoward events. Patient safety is far too often threatened by unidentified system flaws, poor practices, weaknesses in team communication and lack of appropriate action after critical events. The relevance of a culture of safety and communication is emphasized by WHO advocating debriefing in its Human Factors review, 2009. This RISE project will consist of three phases; firstly secondees will contribute to parallel implementation processes in specified units across the 3 participating countries and will undertake research to better understand the benefits of structured debriefing, communication and organisational culture. Secondly, using the data generated from the research study, further training materials will be developed and translated to support the wider deployment of the TALK tool. Thirdly, the TALK tool will be widely disseminated as a structured debriefing tool and implemented across and beyond all participating partners and its impact will be assessed.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2011.1.6 | Award Amount: 5.99M | Year: 2011
The goal of EINS is coordinating and integrating European research aimed at achieving a deeper multidisciplinary understanding of the development of the Internet as a societal and technological artefact, whose evolution is increasingly interwined with that of human societies. Its main objective is to allow an open and productive dialogue between all the disciplines which study Internet systems under any technological or humanistic perspective, and which in turn are being transformed by the continuous advances in Internet functionalities and applications. EINS will bring together research institutions focusing on network engineering, computation, complexity, security, trust, mathematics, physics, sociology, game theory, economics, political sciences, humanities, law, energy, transport, artistic expression, and any other relevant social and life sciences.\nThis multidisciplinary bridging of the different disciplines may also be seen as the starting point for a new Internet Science, the theoretical and empirical foundation for an holistic understanding of the complex techno-social interactions related to the Internet. It is supposed to inform the future technological, social, political choices concerning Internet technologies, infrastructures and policies made by the various public and private stakeholders, for example as for the far-ended possible consequences of architectural choices on social, economic, environmental or political aspects, and ultimately on quality of life at large.\nThe individual contributing disciplines will themselves benefit from a more holistic understanding of the Internet principles and in particular of the network effect. The unprecedented connectivity offered by the Internet plays a role often underappreciated in most of them; whereas the Internet provides both an operational development platform and a concrete empirical and experimental model. These multi- and inter-disciplinary investigations will improve the design of elements of Future Internet, enhance the understanding of its evolving and emerging implications at societal level, and possibly identify universal principles for understanding the Internet-based world that will be fed back to the participating disciplines. EINS will:\nCoordinate the investigation, from a multi-disciplinary perspective, of specific topics at the intersection between humanistic and technological sciences, such as privacy & identity, reputation, virtual communities, security & resilience, network neutrality\nLay the foundations for an Internet Science, based i.a. on Network Science and Web Science, aiming at understanding the impact of the network effect on human societies & organisations, as for technological, economic, social & environmental aspects\nProvide concrete incentives for academic institutions and individual researchers to conduct studies across multiple disciplines, in the form of online journals, conferences, workshops, PhD courses, schools, contests, and open calls
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2007-2.2-01 | Award Amount: 7.16M | Year: 2008
The Preparatory Phase for a pan-European Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI) will focus on technical, legal, governance, and financial issues to prepare to construct BBMRI, building on existing biobanks, resources and technologies, specifically complemented with innovative components and properly embedded into European scientific, ethical, legal and societal frameworks, provide the concept for a key resource to increase excellence and efficacy in biomedical sciences, drug development and public health, expand and secure competitiveness of European research and industry in a global context, develop a sustainable financial framework. Biomedical quality-assessed samples and data as well as biomolecular resources and molecular analysis tools are essential for academic and industry-driven research to treat and prevent human diseases. Although currently established national biobanks and biomolecular resources are a unique European strength, valuable collections typically suffer from fragmentation of the European biobanking-related research community. This hampers the collation of biological samples and data from different biobanks required to achieve sufficient statistical power. Moreover, it results in duplication of effort and jeopardises sustainability due to the lack of long-term funding. BBMRI will comprise: biobanks of different formats (collections of blood, DNA, tissue, etc., together with medical, environmental, life-style and follow-up data), biomolecular resources (antibody and affinity binder collections, ORF clone collections, siRNA libraries, proteins, cellular resources etc.), enabling technologies and high-throughput analysis platforms and molecular tools to decipher gene, protein and metabolite functions and their interactions, harmonized standards for sample collection, storage, preanalytics and analysis harmonized databases and biocomputing infrastructure, ethical, legal and societal
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.2.1. | Award Amount: 6.01M | Year: 2011
Biodiversity Virtual e-Laboratory (BioVeL) meets the needs of Europes Biodiversity Science research community with tools for pipelining data and analysis into efficient workflows, urgently needed to understand biodiversity in a rapidly changing environment. BioVeL customises, deploys and supports the Taverna / myExperiment / BioCatalogue family of software to achieve this.Close user involvement is crucial to successful design and implementation of virtual laboratories. Close support and guidance makes all the difference in uptake of tools and their continued success. BioVeL places particular emphasis on targeted networking activities with specific sub-communities and tailored service activities that deliver training, helpdesk and consultancy assistance to solve specific problems.Using agile processes, BioVeL defines and deploys (web) service sets and workflow packs catering for sub-communities within the domain. The project focuses on pilot topic areas:i) DNA sequence-based phylogeny and metagenomics services that help link knowledge of model organisms to a broad range of species, that provide a measure of genetic diversity used in conservation planning and that help to understand adaptation in relation to climate change;ii) Taxonomy services to provide the underpinning checklist of diversity in Europe, identification aids to native, invasive and economic species;iii) Niche and population modelling for species, to better understand the processes of conservation and invasive species management; and,iv) Ecosystem functionality and valuation services, to improve modelling capabilities to ecosystem services and CO2 sequestration.Through use of gateways, workflows composed in the BioVeL environment can be executed on a wide range of computing resources, including European e-Infrastructures (EGI, PRACE, etc.).Joint research activities will investigate improvements to ease of use of workflows by exploring new middleware approaches to easier user interfaces.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008.2.2.1.2. | Award Amount: 10.98M | Year: 2009
The HERMIONE project is designed to make a major advance in our knowledge of the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems and their contribution to the production of goods and services. This will be achieved through a highly interdisciplinary approach (including biologists, ecologists, microbiologists, biogeochemists, sedimentologists, physical oceanographers, modelers and socio-economists) that will integrate biodiversity, specific adaptions and biological capacity in the context of a wide range of highly vulnerable deep-sea habitats. Gaining this understanding is crucial, because these ecosystems are now being affected by climate change and impacted by man through fishing, resource extraction, seabed installations and pollution. To design and implement effective governance strategies and management plans we must understand the extent, natural dynamics and interconnection of ocean ecosystems and integrate socio-economic research with natural science. The study sites include the Arctic, North Atlantic and Mediterranean and cover a range of ecosystems including cold-water corals, canyons, cold and hot seeps, seamounts and open slopes and deep-basins. The project will make strong connections between deep-sea science and user needs. HERMIONE will enhance the education and public perception of the deep-ocean issues also through some of the major EU aquaria. These actions, together with GEOSS databases that will be made available, will create a platform for discussion between a range of stakeholders, and contribute to EU environmental policies.
EMEREEG - A portable device for Early detection and treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury based on advanced qEEG and HD-TES to prevent major Health problems and specially for use in emergencies and telemedicine
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2013-1 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2013
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is recognized as a major public health concern, especially for teenagers and young adults, since it can lead to significant disruption in education, working ability, and quality-of-life in general. It is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. 1.2 million EU citizens are hospitalized with TBI each year and of which 50.000 die. The total economic burden in Europe for TBI of all known severities is estimated EUR 33 billion annually. Currently, there is no objective method for diagnosing TBI in an early stage or in emergency, which is a premise to prevent serious health impact. Our idea is to develop a portable medical device for objective and reliable emergency diagnosis of TBI and a monitored personalized treatment based on qEEG (quantitative electroencephalography) and HD-TES (High-Definition Transcranial Electric Stimulation). We propose to create innovative technology for the early detection and treatment of one of the most severe cognitive diseases for the use in emergency, telemedicine, hospitals, and rehabilitation centers. We will achieve this by 1) developing a novel vacuum based helmet device that will enable an accurate positioning system of up to 32 electrodes, 2) developing an instrumentation system that will combine qEEG recording and HD -TES treatment, 3) developing a data processing system that will control all measurements and data analysis including the algorithm for early detection and treatment of TBI. Our innovation will increase quality-of-life, improve first-aid care, and healthcare in remote and rural areas. Moreover, the society will benefit from sustainable savings in costs for healthcare and for work disability. We, the SMEs, will benefit from increased revenue and sales of the developed technologies and expect 5 year post-project an accumulated revenue of 125 million and creating and estimated 833 jobs.
The Uab Research Foundation, University of Oregon, University of Cardiff and Morehouse School of Medicine | Date: 2015-03-04
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.3.1-3 | Award Amount: 15.65M | Year: 2011
Antibiotics are a mainstay of public health, but their use has increased exponentially leading to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The R-GNOSIS (Resistance in Gram-Negative Organisms: Studying Intervention Strategies) project combines 5 international clinical studies, all supported by highly innovative microbiology, mathematical modelling and data-management, to determine - in the most relevant patient populations - the efficacy and effectiveness of cutting-edge interventions to reduce carriage, infection and spread of Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-negative Bacteria (MDR-GNB). All work-packages will progress science beyond the state-of-the-art in generating new and translational clinically relevant knowledge, through hypothesis-driven studies focussed on patient-centred outcomes. The 5 clinical studies will investigate the following interventions: A Point-Of-Care-Testing guided management strategy to improve appropriate antibiotic prescription for uncomplicated UTI in primary care. Gut decolonization in outpatients with intestinal carriage of MDR-GNB. A test and prescribe strategy, based on rapid diagnostic testing of faeces for MDR-GNB to optimize antibiotic prophylaxis in colo-rectal surgery. Contact Isolation of patients with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in general hospital wards. Three Decolonization strategies in ICUs. Seven laboratories across Europe will perform microbiological analyses, as well as unique quantitative experiments. All information will be integrated by 3 groups of mathematical modellers into highly innovative models to better understand and predict future trends and effects of interventions. The studies and analyses proposed in R-GNOSIS will generate a step-change in identifying evidence-based preventive measures and clinical guidance for primary care and hospital-based physicians and health-care authorities, to combat the spread and impact of infections caused by MDR-GNB in Europe.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2011.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 7.99M | Year: 2011
Treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) is the most disabling of all psychiatric illnesses, affecting about 1/3 of patients (~1 million Europeans), a considerable economic and social burden. First-line treatments include atypical (e.g. olanzapine) and typical (e.g. haloperidol) antipsychotics. The original atypical, clozapine, is a final option, and although it is the only antipsychotic shown to be effective in TRS, about half of TRS patients are also resistant to clozapine. CRESTAR is an SME-driven projected, focusing on the development of pharmacogenomic biomarkers for schizophrenia. It aims to develop tools to predict i) who will NOT respond to usual antipsychotics, indicating treatment with clozapine as early as possible, ii) the 1% of patients who will develop potentially fatal side effects, agranulocytosis, which is the main factor limiting clozapine use, and diabetic ketoacidosis, occurring in up to 2% of patients, and often fatal. We will also predict patients likely to be non-responders to all antipsychotics, i.e. extreme TRS, so that they can be stratified in clinical trials. CRESTAR will address these questions by examining genome-wide association data, genome sequence, epigenetic biomarkers and epidemiological data in European patient cohorts characterized for treatment response, and adverse drug reaction using data from clozapine therapeutic drug monitoring and linked National population medical and pharmacy databases, alongside existing European projects (e.g. PSYCNVs and EU-GEI) national initiatives (e.g. UK10K genome sequencing) to identify predictive factors. In parallel CRESTAR will perform health economic research on potential benefits, and ethics and patient-centered research with stakeholders. The outcome of CRESTAR will be a genomic test and associated clinical decision making tools, designed to improve pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia in both efficacy and safety, piloted with existing and new clinical trials such as OPTiMiSE.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-09-2014 | Award Amount: 2.92M | Year: 2015
The SWITCH project (Software Workbench for Interactive, Time Critical and Highly self-adaptive Cloud applications) addresses the urgent industrial need for developing and executing time critical applications in Clouds. Time critical applications such as disaster early warning, collaborative communication and live event broadcasting can only realise their expected business value when they meet critical requirements for performance and user experience. The very high requirements on network and computing services, particularly for well-tuned software architecture with sophisticated data communication optimisation, mean that development of such time critical applications is often customised to dedicated infrastructure, and system performance is difficult to maintain when infrastructure changes. This fatal weakness in the existing architecture and software tools yields very high development cost, and makes it difficult fully to utilize the virtualised, programmable services provided by networked Clouds to improve system productivity. SWITCH aims at improving the existing development and execution model of time critical applications by introducing a novel conceptual model (application-infrastructure co-programming and control model), in which application QoS/QoE, together with the programmability and controllability of the Cloud environments, can all be included in the complete lifecycle of applications. Based on this conceptual model, SWITCH provides an interactive environment for developing applications and controlling their execution, a real-time infrastructure planner for deploying applications in Clouds, and an autonomous system adaptation platform for monitoring and adapting system behaviour. The SWITCH consortium has well-balanced partners with complementary expertise from both academic and industrial backgrounds. By demonstrating the software using diverse use cases, the consortium specifically aims at exploitation of the business potential of the SWITCH results.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2009-1.3-1;ENV.2009.3.1.3.2 | Award Amount: 3.25M | Year: 2010
Concept: NanoFATE has been conceived to fill knowledge and methodological gaps currently impeding sound assessment of environmental risks posed by engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Our vision is to assess environmental fate and risk of ENPs from high-volume products for which recycling is not an option; namely; fuel additive, personal care and antibacterial products. Two market ENPs from each product (CeO2, ZnO, Ag of varying size, surface and core chemistries) will be followed through their post-production life cycles i.e. from environmental entry as spent product, through waste treatment to their final fates and potential toxic effects. This will test the applicability of current fate and risk assessment methods and identify improvements required for a scientific assessment of ENPs at an early stage. Objectives: Such systematic study of the environmental fate and toxicity of selected ENPs will entail addressing 9 S&T objectives: 1: Design, tagging and manufacture of ENPs 2: Analysis of ENP interactions with abiotic and biotic entities 3: Generating predictive models for ENP exposure in waters and sludge-amended soils 4: Studying the fate and behaviour of ENPs through wastewater treatment 5: Determining acute and chronic ecotoxicity 6: Assessing effects of physico-chemical properties on ENP bioavailability 7: Defining mechanisms of uptake, internal trafficking, and toxicity 8: Developing spatial RA model(s) 9: Improving understanding of ENP risks Methodology: The work plan is designed to progress beyond the state-of-the-art through focused workpackages. While some objectives are delivered in single WPs, good cross WP integration will secure the key objectives of delivering new methods for quantifying ENP risks. Impact: NanoFATE will provide robust tools, techniques and knowledge needed by stakeholders to understand and communicate risks associated with different ENPs, including their environmental interactions and toxicity.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.30M | Year: 2016
One of the major current scientific and technological challenges concerns the conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels and useful products in effective and economically viable manner. This proposal responds to the major challenge of developing low energy routes to convert carbon dioxide to fuels and useful chemicals. The project has the following four main strands: (i) The use of electricity generated by renewable technologies to reduce CO2 electrocatalytically, where we will develop new approaches involving the use of ionic liquid solvents to activate the CO2 (ii) The use of hydrogen in the catalytic reduction of CO2, where we will apply computational procedures to predict new materials for this key catalytic process and subsequently test them experimentally (iii) The development of new materials for use in the efficient solar generation of hydrogen which will provide the reductant for the catalytic CO2 reduction (iv) A detailed life cycle analysis which will assess the extent to which the new technology achieves the overall objective of developing low carbon fuels. Our approach aims, therefore, to exploit renewably generated energy directly via the electrocatalytic route or indirectly via the solar generated hydrogen in CO2 utilisation for the formation of fuels and/or chemicals. The different components of the approach will be fully integrated to achieve coherent, new low energy technologies for this key process, while the rigorous life-cycle analysis will ensure that it satisfies the need for a low energy technology.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2010-4.0-3 | Award Amount: 22.10M | Year: 2011
The core concept of Accelerated Metallurgy is to deliver an integrated pilot-scale facility for the combinatorial synthesis and testing of many thousands of unexplored alloy formulations. This facility would be the first of its kind in the world and would represent a significant advance for metallurgy. The novel technology that enables this HTT facility is based on automated, direct laser deposition (DLD). The key feature of this technology is the way in which a mixture of elemental powders is accurately and directly fed into the lasers focal point, heated by the laser beam, and deposited on a substrate in the form of a melt pool, which finally solidifies to create a unique fully-dense alloy button with precise stoichiometry. This robotic alloy synthesis is 1000 times faster than conventional manual methods. Once produced, these discrete mm-sized samples are submitted to a range of automated, standardised tests that will measure chemical, physical and mechanical properties. The vast amount of information will be recorded in a Virtual Alloy Library and coupled with computer codes such as neural network models, in order to extract and map out the key trends linking process, composition, structure and properties. The most promising alloy formulations will be further tested, patented and exploited by the 20 end-users. Industrial interests include: (i) new lightweight fuel-saving alloys (<4.5 g/cm3) for aerospace and automotive applications; (ii) new higher-temperature alloys (stable>1000C) for rockets, gas turbines, jet-engines, nuclear fusion; (iii) new high-Tc superconductor alloys (>30K) that can be wire-drawn for electrical applications; (iv) new high-ZT thermoelectric alloys for converting waste heat directly into electricity; (v) new magnetic and magnetocaloric alloys for motors and refrigeration; and (vi) new phase-change alloys for high-density memory storage. The accelerated discovery of these alloy formulations will have a very high impact on society.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2011-2.3.3. | Award Amount: 5.08M | Year: 2011
Frontier environmental research increasingly depends on a wide range of data and advanced capabilities to process and analyse them. The ENVRI project, Common Operations of Environmental Research infrastructures is a collaboration in the ESFRI Environment Cluster, with support from ICT experts, to develop common e-science components and services for their facilities. The results will speed up the construction of these infrastructures and will allow scientists to use the data and software from each facility to enable multi-disciplinary science. The target is on developing common capabilities including software and services of the environmental and e-infrastructure communities. While the ENVRI infrastructures are very diverse, they face common challenges including data capture from distributed sensors, metadata standardisation, management of high volume data, workflow execution and data visualisation. The common standards, deployable services and tools developed will be adopted by each infrastructure as it progresses through its construction phase. Two use cases, led by the most mature infrastructures, will focus the development work on separate requirements and solutions for data pre-processing of primary data and post-processing toward publishing. The project will be based on a common reference model created by capturing the semantic resources of each ESFRI-ENV infrastructure. This model and the development driven by the testbed deployments result in ready-to-use systems which can be integrated into the environmental research infrastructures. The project puts emphasis on synergy between advanced developments, not only among the infrastructure facilities, but also with ICT providers and related e-science initiatives. These links will facilitate system deployment and the training of future researchers, and ensure that the inter-disciplinary capabilities established here remain sustainable beyond the lifetime of the project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-01b-2014 | Award Amount: 10.52M | Year: 2015
SAPHIR aims to develop vaccine strategies effective against endemic pathogens responsible for high economic losses in livestock in order to strengthen the profitability of food animal systems, improve animal welfare and reduce xenobiotic usage in farming with a One Health perspective. SAPHIR will bring novel vaccine strategies to the market i) at short term, with several promising vaccines brought to demonstration (RTL6), ii) at long term, with cutting edge strategies brought at proof of concept (RTL3) and iii) in line with socio-economic requirements. SAPHIR has selected two representative pathogens of pigs (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae), chickens (Eimeria and Clostridium perfringens) and cattle (Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Mycoplasma bovis) to develop generic vaccine approaches applicable to other pathogens. SAPHIR will issue i) knowledge of immune mechanisms of protection, ii) affordable, safe and multivalent vaccines with DIVA properties, iii) efficient adjuvants targeting dendritic cells, optimal formulations, new mucosal and skin delivery systems, a new generation of DNA vectors and viral replicon platforms for fostering an earlier and longer duration of immunity including the perinatal period, and iv) basal biomarkers of individual immuno-competence for future breeding strategies. The SAPHIR dissemination and training programme includes creation of an integrated health management website, launch of a Global Alliance for Veterinary Vaccines and organization of workshops directed at food animal system stakeholders. This will ensure optimal research translation of SAPHIR outputs to market and field applications. SAPHIR brings together interdisciplinary expertise from fourteen academic institutes including a Chinese partner, five SMEs and two pharmaceutical companies.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.4.2-4 | Award Amount: 15.96M | Year: 2011
More than 50% of heart failure (HF) patients present without a major deficit of left ventricular (LV) systolic function and are presumed to suffer from diastolic HF (DHF) because diastolic LV distensibility is usually impaired in these patients. The vast majority (~80%) of DHF patients is exposed to metabolic risk factors. The MEDIA consortium therefore investigates:1) how metabolic derangements contribute to DHF; 2) how diagnostic algorithms for DHF can be improved by assessing metabolic risk; 3) how correction of metabolic risk can open new therapeutic perspectives for DHF.Hereto MEDIA will: 1) Expose animal models of DHF to intense metabolic risk in order to accelerate DHF development. 2) Perform mechanistic studies in cardiomyocytes derived from DHF animal models or from DHF patients. Because of the acquired nature of metabolic risk, these studies will focus on posttranslational modifications of proteins and on epigenetic control of hypertrophy development. Their relevance for global LV function will also be appraised; 3) Perform mechanistic studies on myocardial collagen synthesis, which is enhanced by metabolic risk, and execute a phase II trial in DHF with cardiac specific antifibrotic therapy; 4) Explore the use of biomarkers as premorbid identifiers of DHF in existing cohorts of patients exposed to metabolic risk; 5) Prospectively test biomarkers and arterial stiffening, which is accelerated by metabolic risk, for their diagnostic potential in a large DHF cohort; 6) Assess myocardial metabolic substrate preference with modern imaging techniques and improve diastolic LV dysfunction through modified substrate utilization in a phase II trial. Expected results of MEDIA are: 1) Identification of metabolic risk-related mechanisms as therapeutic targets; 2) Improved diagnostic algorithms through inclusion of biomarkers and arterial stiffness tests. 3) Novel treatments consisting of modified myocardial substrate utilization and myocardial antifibrotic therapy.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2010.4.2.3-3 | Award Amount: 1.88M | Year: 2011
The policy issue central to this project is food as many of todays sustainability problems (e.g. water shortage, GHG emissions, pollution of soil and water, decrease of biodiversity, urban waste) are related to the prevailing pattern of food production and consumption (including processing and distribution). Hence, developing more sustainable food production and consumption patterns will have a significant impact on sustainable development in general. This project aims to develop and experiment with new integrative modalities of linking research to policy-making in the field of sustainable food consumption and production, thereby contributing to the establishment of new policy-relevant communities of researchers, policy makers & CSOs and enhancing the use of research insights in policies to promote sustainable food systems. Three different Communities of Practice will be developed, focusing on different dimensions of a newly emerging integrated territorial food geography: a) short food supply chains, b) sustainable public food procurement, and c) urban food strategies. Like the FOODLINKS consortium, each CoP will consist of researchers, policymakers and CSO representatives. In this project we will monitor and evaluate the knowledge brokerage activities in the CoPs, in order to propose new ways of linking research and policymaking in the food domain as well as in other public domains.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2008.6.1.4 | Award Amount: 17.19M | Year: 2009
The overall objective of this project is to provide and demonstrate technical solutions which will allow the use of state-of-the-art highly efficient, reliable gas turbines in the next generation of IGCC plants, suitable for combusting undiluted hydrogen-rich syngas derived from a pre-combustion CO2 capture process, with high fuel flexibility. The recognised challenge is to operate a stable and controllable gas turbine on hydrogen-rich syngas with emissions and process parameters similar to current state-of-the-art natural gas turbine engines. This objective will have severe implications on the combustion technology, hot gas path materials, the aerodynamic performance of turbomachinery components, and the system as a whole. The project will address these issues in Subprojects: SP1: Combustion; SP2: Materials; SP3: Turbomachinery and SP4: System analysis. In addition, the project will also look into gas turbine fuel flexibility, which will be demonstrated in order to allow the burning of back-up fuels, such as natural gas, without adversely affecting the reliability and availability. This is an important operational requirement to ensure optimum use of the gas turbine. The H2-IGCC project coordinated by the European Turbine Network - gathers the whole value chain of gas turbine power plant technology, including Original Equipment Manufacturers, GT users/operators and research institutes with diverse key expertise needed to fulfil the objectives. Successful dissemination and implementation of the results will open up the market for IGCC with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), as it will improve the commercial competitiveness of IGCC technology. In particular, the integrated approach used in the project will enhance confidence and significantly reduce deployment times for the new technologies and concepts developed in this project. The vision is that this will allow for the deployment of high efficiency gas turbines in competitive IGCC plants with CCS technology by 2020.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2012.1.1-3 | Award Amount: 2.75M | Year: 2013
The aim of SmartSpec is to provide substance, guidance and practical support to the EU Smart Specialisation Platform, based on the combination of leading academic and practical expertise present in the consortium. The goal is directed at operationalising the concept of smart specialisation in a manner which will be useful to actors in different regional contexts. It will do this by strengthening the analytical underpinnings of the smart specialisation concept, providing methodological guidance for practice and generating strategic intelligence for policy-makers. Through an integrated, multi-dimensional and place-based approach focused on 8 Work Packages, SmartSpec develops robust practical and analytical findings to strengthen the implementation of smart specialisation strategies. With a strong emphasis on knowledge exchange and facilitated learning, SmartSpec will deliver useful results to inform practitioners and policymakers in the development and assessment of smart specialisation strategies, whilst extending the state of the art.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: Health | Award Amount: 2.25M | Year: 2015
The European Consortium for Communicating Stem Cell Research (EuroStemCell) unites 33 partner institutions, that collectively represent >400 stem cell research groupings across Europe. Our common goal is to provide trusted high quality information on stem cells accessible to citizens and stakeholders across Europe, through support and further development of the multi-lingual European Stem Cell Information Portal www.eurostemcell.org. To achieve our aims, EuroStemCell will adopt the highly structured system for coordinated information management established by the FP7 Coordination and Support Action (CSA) also called EuroStemCell. From this, we will implement an ambitious programme of online and direct stakeholder engagement with stem cell research and regenerative medicine, aimed at European citizens at all educational levels. This will include provision of resources tailored specifically for decision-making on stem cell-related questions and an extensive programme of dissemination and capacity building in science communications and public engagement. The proposed work centres on an information hub team, which will link to all project partners and to stakeholders in the stem cell and regenerative medicine arenas and wider society, working with these groupings to implement the project. All outputs will be delivered in 6 European languages, to ensure broad accessibility, and will be rigorously evaluated against measurable objectives throughout the project duration. The proposed consortium comprises leading stem cell labs across Europe, including new member states, together with experts in ethical and societal concerns and evaluating clinical outcomes. It thus provides unparalleled European expertise across the fields of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine and is uniquely placed to maintain and further develop www.eurostemcell.org as a world-leading stem cell information resource, thus meeting the challenge outlined in Topic HOA-6-2014.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.7.2.3 | Award Amount: 62.80M | Year: 2014
A group of eight Transmission System Operators with a generator company, manufacturers and research organisations, propose 5 demonstration projects to remove, in 4 years, several barriers which prevent large-scale penetration of renewable electricity production in the European transmission network. The full scale demonstrations led by industry aim at proving the benefits of novel technologies coupled with innovative system integration approaches: - A scaled down model of generators connected to a HVDC link is used within a new testing facility to validate novel control strategies to improve the interaction between HVDC links and wind turbine generators - The implementation of a full scale, hardware-in-the-loop test setup in collaboration with worldwide market leaders of HVDC-VSC technology explores the interactions of HVDC VSC multiterminal control systems to validate their interoperable operations - Strategies to upgrade existing HVDC interconnectors are validated with the help of innovative components, architecture and system integration performances, to ensure higher RES penetration and more efficient cross border exchanges. - Full scale experiments and pilot projects at real life scale of both installation and operation of AC overhead line repowering technologies are carried out to show how existing corridors can see their existing capacity increase within affordable investments. - The technical feasibility of integrating DC superconducting links within an AC meshed network (using MgB2 as the critical material) will be tested at prototype scale, thus proving that significant performance improvements have been reached to enable commercialization before 2030 The experimental results will be integrated into European impact analyses to show the scalability of the solutions: routes for replication will be provided with benefits for the pan European transmission network and the European electricity market as soon as 2018, in line with the SET plan objectives
Jones I.,University of Cardiff |
Chandra P.S.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences |
Dazzan P.,King's College London |
Howard L.M.,King's College London
The Lancet | Year: 2014
The perinatal period is associated with an increased risk of severe mental disorders. We summarise the evidence regarding the epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment of severe mental illness in relation to childbirth, focusing on bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia. We discuss women with ongoing chronic conditions and those with the onset of new episodes of post-partum psychosis. Despite the importance of perinatal episodes, with suicide a leading cause of maternal death, few studies are available to guide the management of women with severe mental disorders in pregnancy and the post-partum period. However, general principles of management are discussed, including the need for an individual risk-benefit analysis for each woman. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Chen X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Anstey A.V.,Royal Gwent Hospital |
Anstey A.V.,University of Cardiff |
Bugert J.J.,University of Cardiff
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013
Molluscum contagiosum virus is an important human skin pathogen: it can cause disfigurement and suffering in children, in adults it is less common and often sexually transmitted. Extensive and persistent skin infection with the virus can indicate underlying immunodeficiency. Traditional ablative therapies have not been compared directly with newer immune-modulating and specific antiviral therapies. Advances in research raise the prospect of new approaches to treatment informed by the biology of the virus; in human skin, the infection is localised in the epidermal layers, where it induces a typical, complex hyperproliferative lesion with an abundance of virus particles but a conspicuous absence of immune effectors. Functional studies of the viral genome have revealed effects on cellular pathways involved in the cell cycle, innate immunity, inflammation, and cell death. Extensive lesions caused by molluscum contagiosum can occur in patients with DOCK8 deficiency-a genetic disorder affecting migration of dendritic and specialised T cells in skin. Sudden disappearance of lesions is the consequence of a vigorous immune response in healthy people. Further study of the unique features of infection with molluscum contagiosum virus could give fundamental insight into the nature of skin immunity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Holmans P.A.,University of Cardiff |
Breen G.,King's College London |
Breen G.,National Health Research Institute
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2015
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric disorders have identified multiple genetic associations with such disorders, but better methods are needed to derive the underlying biological mechanisms that these signals indicate. We sought to identify biological pathways in GWAS data from over 60,000 participants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. We developed an analysis framework to rank pathways that requires only summary statistics. We combined this score across disorders to find common pathways across three adult psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder. Histone methylation processes showed the strongest association, and we also found statistically significant evidence for associations with multiple immune and neuronal signaling pathways and with the postsynaptic density. Our study indicates that risk variants for psychiatric disorders aggregate in particular biological pathways and that these pathways are frequently shared between disorders. Our results confirm known mechanisms and suggest several novel insights into the etiology of psychiatric disorders. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.93M | Year: 2013
A DC grid based on multi-terminal voltage-source converter is a newly emerging technology, which is particularly suitable for the connection of offshore wind farms. Multi-terminal DC grids will be the key technology for the European offshore SuperGrid. In this proposal, DC power flow, DC relaying protection, steady state operation, dynamic stability, fault-ride through capability, and impacts of DC grids on the operation of AC grids and power market will be studied. Systematic comparison of DC grid topologies and stability control strategies will be carried out. DC grids for offshore wind power transmission and onshore AC grid interconnection will be investigated. Operation and control will be evaluated using various simulation platforms and experimental test rigs. The achievements from the project will greatly contribute to integrating offshore wind power into the onshore AC grids in European countries and for the European Super Grid. The MEDOW consortium involves 11 partners (5 universities and 6 industrial organisations). Each institution in the consortium contributes various expertise on the manufacturing, design, operation, and control of multi-terminal DC grids. Three visiting scientists of outstanding international stature will be appointed to further strengthen the training capacity and quality of MEDOW. This project will recruit 12 early-stage researchers (ESRs) and 5 experienced researchers (ERs). These researchers will receive interdisciplinary and intersectoral trainings in different countries to improve career opportunities. Research results will be disseminated through publications, intellectual properties, and direct application in the industries. MEDOW offers a development path to researchers across Europe in the area of DC grids, in addition to fostering greater ties between industry and academia in this key development area.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IAPP | Award Amount: 838.36K | Year: 2011
The HIPODERM application seeks support under the Marie Curie Industry-Academia Partnerships and Pathways scheme to facilitate the growth of a dynamic research team for the development of novel dermal-translocation, high-potency drug delivery systems. Our aim is to develop a core scientific platform from which novel non-invasive drug delivery systems can be developed and clinically assessed. At the core of this project lies the hypothesis that microneedle assisted topical drug delivery has failed to fulfil expectations because researchers have routinely over estimated the scale of permeation enhancement possible using passive microneedle treatment and also, in general, have targeted unsuitable therapeutic molecules. This project aims to address both of these issues by developing new formulation and fabrication approaches. Combining physical disruption of the stratum corneum barrier with microneedle arrays and a number of active permeation enhancement techniques (such as iontophoresis and phonophoresis) will produce a range of novel hybrid permeation enhancement systems (HPES). The project will focus on high potency therapeutics possessing low therapeutic concentrations that make only realistic demands on delivery systems. Such high potency materials are of increasing importance in therapeutics but are inherently difficult to work with because of the health and safety implications of their high activity. The project pools the expertise of a number of international partners with particular expertise in specific aspects of the approach. Three clinically interesting target areas have been identified for evaluation: 1. Locally delivered chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancers of the skin and underlying tissues 2. Enhanced localised delivery of potent photosensitisers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) 3. Local and systemic delivery of therapeutic peptides
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2012.2.2-01 | Award Amount: 2.59M | Year: 2013
For knowledge to progress in many aspects of astrophysics it is clear that we need to make observations at all wavelengths that at least match the spatial resolution achieved in the optical by the Hubble Space Telescope. This is especially true in the Far Infra-Red waveband (FIR - 30-300 micron - where our atmosphere is opaque) where the necessity of space borne experiments combined with long wavelengths makes achieving high spatial resolution particularly difficult. At present FIR observations lie in a resolution gap of 2 orders of magnitude represented by the James-Webb Space telescope in the mid-infrared on one side and the ALMA interferometer, in the sub-mm, on the other. Only with the development of space borne interferometers can we hope to bridge this divide. This project brings together the leading international experts on FIR space instrumentation and experienced astronomers in a unique collaborative effort to address the development needs of a high resolution FIR observatory through two major activities. Firstly to identify the scientific questions which require high spatial resolution observations in the FIR. We will translate these into the definition of an ambitious space mission and its associated key technologies. At the same time we will study a number of technologies relevant to space interferometers which are at a low Technology Readiness Level. These include free-space beam combination with cryogenic delay lines, deployable low-mass telescopes, accurate satellite position measurement techniques and advanced ground calibration scenarios. We will develop these technologies through a consortium of universities, research establishments and industry which combine the best academic and industrial expertise. The outcome of this work will advance the knowledge and technology required for a future FIR mission, consolidate the scientific community and bring world-wide expertise to the EU consortium. We will promote the results to a wider scientific community through a number of international workshops centred on the definition of a future FIR space mission.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRASUPP-6-2014 | Award Amount: 1.01M | Year: 2015
Biodiversity and ecosystem research is addressing the grand societal challenge to predict the biosphere under global environmental change. To advance scientific progress in understanding the complexity of natural systems it is required that supporting research infrastructures cooperate globally to serve the essential data at different temporal and spatial scales. This includes providing the capabilities to process big and massive datasets. GLOBIS-B is a global cooperation of world-class research infrastructures with a focus on targeted services to support frontier research that deals with predicting the biosphere and measuring the indicators of biodiversity change. The project brings key scientists together with global research infrastructure operators and legal interoperability experts to address research needs and infrastructure services underpinning the concept of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs). EBVs were proposed by the GEO Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) and are a prerequisite for understanding biodiversity and ecosystem change. Integrated scientific and technical workshops will identify the required primary data, analysis tools, methodologies etc. to develop an infrastructure development agenda for computing EBVs and to explore the discovery of required and interoperable data at larger spatial and temporal scales. Applications of common standards and workflows that are self-documenting and openly shared facilitate international cooperation, and realistic and pragmatic solutions are explored to streamline the legal bottlenecks for the reciprocal use of data and software tools from different origins. Solutions should be workable for both the scientific communities and the cooperating research infrastructures, especially in regard to achieving direct machine-machine interactions. The interaction with national, supra-national and global policy bodies contributes to potential refinements of general policies supporting legal interoperability.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EE-12-2014 | Award Amount: 1.03M | Year: 2015
Investments in energy efficiency in the residential sector (27% of EU final energy demand) may also provide economic benefits at different levels of the economy. These benefits may not be realized because of barriers, which are typically reflected in implied discount rates. BRISKEE (Behavioural Response to Investment Risks in Energy Efficiency) provides evidence-based input to energy efficiency policy design and evaluation, thereby supporting the market uptake of energy efficiency technologies in the EU residential sector. It contributes to the work programme by addressing the interrelations between microeconomic factors, sectoral energy demand and macroeconomic effects, relying on a consistent methodological framework implemented in 5 work packages: Provide empirical evidence for the magnitudes of discount rates accounting for differences across households, technologies and countries, and assess their effects on the diffusion of efficiency technologies in the EU (micro-level). A multi-country survey (1000 interviews per country) will be carried out and analyzed econometrically. Explore the impact of time discounting and risk preferences (and of policies affecting those factors) on the diffusion of energy efficient technology and energy demand in the EU residential sector until 2030 (meso-level). Established bottom-up vintage stock models will be employed for appliances (FORECAST-Residential) and for buildings (Invert/EE-Lab). Explore the macro-level impacts of changes in microeconomic decision-making and of energy efficiency policy on employment, GDP and exports in the EU until 2030. This involves simulations with an established macro-economic model for the EU (ASTRA). Provide evidence-based recommendations for key energy efficiency policies and input for impact assessments and policy analysis at the three levels of analysis. Communicate and disseminate empirical findings to policy makers, national experts, the research community and the general public.
University of Cardiff and Rega Foundation | Date: 2013-09-09
A compound of formula (I) wherein Ar can be one six-membered or two fused six-membered aromatic rings; R_(8 )and R_(9 )can be hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, halogen, amino, alkylamino, dialkylamino, nitro, cyano, alkyoxy, aryloxy, thiol, alkylthiol, arythiol, or aryl; Q can be O, S or CY_(2), where Y may be H, alkyl or halogen; X can be O, NH, S, N-alkyl, (CHR_(2))_(m )where m is 1 to 10, and CY_(2); Z can be O, S, NH, or N-alkyl; U is H and U can be H or CH_(2; )wherein: T can be OH, H, halogen, O-alkyl, O-acyl, O-aryl, CN, NH_(2 )or N_(3); T and T can be H or halogen; and W can be H or a phosphate group. Compounds show anti-viral activity, for example with respect to varicella zoster virus.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2013-1 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2014
Histology is the microscopic examination of cell tissue samples and is routinely performed in research labs and, more widely, in hospitals for the early detection of diseases (histopathology). Histology is a complex process requiring several steps for the tissue sample preparation. The most demanding and time-consuming step is the microtomy, where the tissue sample, now dehydrated and placed inside a piece of paraffin wax, is cut into slices 4-micrometre thick. This step is further complicated by the fact that the thin slices become wrinkled with the cutting and are normally put on warm water in order to smooth out (the with the aggravated problems of rehydrating the cells and increasing the risk of cross-contamination). Microtomy is a labour-intensive procedure carried out by highly-skilled clinical/scientific staff. A skilled operator can perform up to 80 samples a day, but will cost well over 100,000 p.a. The MicroLean project proposes a low-cost automation of the microtomy process by a contactless manipulation of the samples. The MicroLean system will be retrofittable to existing microtomes.
University of Cardiff and King's College London | Date: 2013-09-25
A calcium/cation-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonist to treat an inflammatory lung disorder is described. Methods of treatment including the antagonist, combination therapeutics including the antagonist and at least one other agent, and nebulisers or inhalers including the antagonist are also described.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENV.2009.5.1.0.2 | Award Amount: 1.14M | Year: 2010
Genetic biodiversity is recognised by the Convention on Biological Diversity and the EC Biodiversity Strategy as one of three essential elements of living diversity, yet it is poorly represented at the policy level, compared to the two other components, species and ecosystems. The CONGRESS consortium aims to rectify this situation by delivering dissemination tools which policy makers and conservation managers can conveniently use to incorporate genetic biodiversity into their policy framework. The six work packages of this project fall into two components. The first component comprises WPs 1 5 which will provide a one-stop, community-enabled web portal, including the following components. WP1 concerns web portal design and construction. WP2 will provide databases on academics and professional end-users, publications and genetic data for key European species of conservation concern. WP3 will provide a simulation tool for biodiversity managers to assess the power of genetic data to reveal processes which may result in genetic erosion. WP4 will provide a decision matrix module to allow end-users to establish optimal policy and management options given the genetic data which have been produced. WP5 will provide a knowledge pack and information leaflets, translated into the main European languages, which can be assembled into a manual. The second component is WP6, which comprises a series of dissemination and exchange workshops carried out across the European Union, including a transborder workshop and hands-on demonstration meeting in Eastern Europe. CONGRESS will integrate and enhance these work packages by using the workshops as forums to discuss the contents of the portal and will be guided by an end-user advisory group, who will oversee the development of these tools and ensure their utility for the community who will benefit from them.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.10.1.5 | Award Amount: 1.25M | Year: 2011
The main goal of EUBrazilOpenBio is to deploy an e-Infrastructure of open access resources (data, tools, services), to make significant strides towards supporting the needs and requirements of the biodiversity scientific community.\nThis data e-Infrastructure will result from the federation and integration of substantial individual existing data, cloud, and grid EU and Brazilian infrastructures and resources across the biodiversity & taxonomy domain namely Catalogue of Life, OpenModeller, D4Science-II and Venus-C. The breadth & depth of the resulting data infrastructure & the openness of its resources will enable a large variety of new cost-effective, cross-disciplinary virtual research environment applications thus opening the way to its widespread adoption and exploitation by the worldwide biodiversity scientific community.\nAccelerating the creation of a data e-Infrastructure of open access resources pursues interoperability with end-user technologies, & contributes to social, environmental agendas. Europe through international cooperation can facilitate the exploitation of European excellence & results in data infrastructure & cloud computing to enhance European competitiveness & job opportunities. Project goals are two Use Cases: 1. Integration between Regional & Global Taxonomies; 2. Data usability & use of ecological niche modelling. The interoperation runs through all infrastructures: hardware & computing facilities, portals & platforms, scientific data knowledge infrastructures\nPrincipal Outputs: 2 user scenarios, a software platform with a specific Software Development Cooperation Environment, computational e-Infrastructure, at least 50 seed resources (dataset, services, platforms, computational & storage resources) offered to the biodiversity community, a consolidated community of biodiversity scientists, socio-economic impact report, an EUBrazil joint action plan on recommendations & future co-operation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-03-2015 | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2016
COSYN integrates outstanding European academic and three large Pharma to exploit genomic findings for intellectual disability (ID), autism, and schizophrenia. We capitalise on comorbidity, from clinic to cells and synapses, and have access to large existing samples. We focus on rare genetic variants of strong effect in patients with clinical comorbidity. Our aims are: (1) Understand comorbidity by comparing symptom and syndrome overlap with novel neurobiological criteria; (2) Elucidate mechanisms of comorbidity using neurobiology for the major genomic clue of synaptic dysfunction to unravel the cellular mechanisms of comorbidity; (3) Generate novel neuronal cell models by using advanced technologies to make neurons from carefully selected patients, and use genome editing to create or correct genetic variants. Multiple advanced neuroscience platforms are in place to evaluate an extensive set of molecular and cellular parameters, and to identify alterations in synaptic biology characteristic of ID, autism, and schizophrenia. These cellular models will, with Pharma partners, be up-scaled to provide industry-standard cellular assays for compound screening; (4) Refine diagnostic tools, use novel genomic and cellular features to improve disease classification and discriminate specific patient subtypes; and (5) Case studies in precision medicine: with Pharma partners, identify patients with a genetic change whose consequences can be reproducibly ameliorated in vitro by an approved medication. Recommend to the patient and clinician a double-blinded, N-of-one crossover case study to evaluate the clinical utility of a medication precisely indicated for that person. COSYN is an integrated, state-of-art, bench-to-bedside programme focused on personalised therapeutics. COSYN is a crucial next step in decoding the genetic findings via intensive focus on the clinical and molecular comorbidities of ID, autism, and schizophrenia.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: EE-16-2015 | Award Amount: 1.78M | Year: 2016
The improvement of energy efficiency across European industry is crucial for competitiveness. So far, the measures for improvement of energy efficiency have been directed at primary production processes. In this project, we will address the improvement of energy efficiency in industrial water circuits: auxiliary electric motor driven systems with high optimisation potential. The European manufacturing industry consumes about 37 000 million m/y freshwater recycling it up to 10 times with the specific electrical energy consumption >0.2 kWh/m. By the according energy consumption of 74 000 GWh/a the potential 10% savings amount to 7 400 GWh/a. Currently, there is neither a benchmark on the energy consumption in industrial water circuits, nor tools for its systematic reduction, nor awareness of the saving potential. The WaterWatt project aims to remove market barriers for energy efficient solutions, in particular the lack of expertise and information on energy management and saving potential in industrial water circuits. The aims will be achieved through: i) case studies in relevant industries, ii) development of improvement measures for energy efficiency in industrial water circuits, iii) market studies, iv) capacity building activities and v) dissemination in workshops and by e-learning. An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Platform (E3 Platform) will be developed to disseminate knowledge/know-how on energy efficiency improvements using gaming approach. The tools of E Platform will be used by SMEs and large industrial producers for self-assessment and improvement of the energy efficiency in their circuits. WaterWatt will reach more than 2000 relevant persons, organisations and policy makers triggering investments of 7-12 million resulting in primary energy saving of 100-180 GWh/a during the project life-time. The planned spin-off company will ensure further investments and savings after the project has finished.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.2.1-2 | Award Amount: 15.03M | Year: 2010
The aim of EU-GEI is to identify the interactive genetic, clinical and environmental determinants involved in the development, severity and outcome of schizophrenia (EU-GEI, Schiz. Res. 2008; 102: 21-6). In order to identify these interactive determinants, EU-GEI will employ family-based, multidisciplinary research paradigms, which allow for the efficient assessment of gene-environment interactions. In order to go beyond old findings from historical convenience cohorts with crude measures of environmental factors and clinical outcomes, the focus in EU-GEI will be on recruitment of new, family-based clinical samples with state-of-the-art assessments of environmental, clinical and genetic determinants as well as their underlying neural and behavioural mechanisms. New statistical tools will be developed to combine the latest multilevel epidemiological with the latest genome-wide genetic approaches to analysis. Translation of results to clinical practice will be facilitated by additional experimental research and risk assessment bioinformatics approaches. This will result in the identification of modifiable biological and cognitive mechanisms underlying gene-environment interactions and the construction of Risk Assessment Charts and Momentary Assessment Technology tools which can be used for (i) early prediction of transition to psychotic disorder in help-seeking individuals with an at-risk mental state and (ii) early prediction of course and outcome after illness onset. In order to reach these goals, EU-GEI has assembled a multidisciplinary team of top schizophrenia researchers who have the range of skills required to deliver a program of research that meets all the calls requirements and who have access to / will collect a number of unique European samples. The partners in EU-GEI represent the nationally funded schizophrenia / mental health networks of the UK, Netherlands, France, Spain, Turkey and Germany as well as other partners.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.4.3-1 | Award Amount: 7.81M | Year: 2012
Current approaches to improving glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes are centered on increasingly complex insulin delivery systems. However, less than 30% of patients can achieve target levels of glucose control with this approach even in a clinical trial setting and many patients are either unable or unwilling to make the personal commitment required. By contrast, preservation of even small amounts of endogenous insulin production, has been shown to improve glycaemic control, reduce hypoglycaemia, improve quality of life and reduce long-term complications. Importantly, glycemic control in the presence of endogenous beta cell function is not demanding and hence would be effective across the full spectrum of individuals. Antigen specific immunotherapy (ASI) is the preferred approach to beta cell preservation since this avoids the risks of immunosuppression. Attempts at ASI to date although successful in preclinical models have had limited efficacy in humans. There is therefore an urgent need for the development of novel approaches to deliver effective ASI. Our Enhanced Epidermal Antigen Specific Immunotherapy (EE-ASI) system represents an innovative approach to ASI created by combining technologies brought by our academic and 2 SME partners. A beta cell target T cell epitope (proinsulin C19-A3) will be combined with the tolerogenic cytokine IL-10 and targeted to antigen presenting cells via gold nanoparticles and delivery into the very superficial layers of the skin using microneedles. Validation of manufacture, in vitro and in vivo preclinical efficacy will be demonstrated followed by a phase 1 clinical trial to confirm safety in humans. We anticipate that the EE-ASI system will be less costly, more effective and more acceptable to patients in improving glycaemic control than exogenous insulin replacement. Intellectual property, regulatory and ethical issues will be carefully addressed in order to maximise exploitation of this integrated system for the benefit of the SMEs.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2009.7.3.3 | Award Amount: 4.43M | Year: 2010
Electric power systems are facing a major new challenge (and hence opportunity): future massive integration in the electric grid of electric plug-in vehicles (EV). Distribution and transmission grids and power system architectures still follow planning rules and procedures defined for the traditional operational paradigm. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and prepare solutions for the operational problems that will be caused on the electric grid, to the generation sub-system and to its commercial operation as a result of progressively increasing deployment of EV. The conceptual approach in this project involves the development of a methodology consisting of two synergetic pathways: - Development of a management and control concept that will facilitate the actual transition the MERGE concept; - Development of an evaluation suite that consists of methods and programs of modeling, analysis, and optimization of electric networks into which electric vehicles and their charging infrastructure is integrated. The MERGE concept is inspired from consideration of DER deployment but differs in that we consider now the resources to be mobile in terms of their connection to the grid. Analogies will be derived and adapted to the case of mobile resources, which can be either consumers (when in charging mode) or injectors of power (if batteries are delivering power back to the grid). By exploiting a specific computational evaluation suite that is capable of simulating real world power systems (generation, transmission and distribution) for either steady state or dynamic behavior it will be possible to test the adequacy of EV preliminary smart control interfaces that will be developed in the project. It will address comprehensively the impact of EV presence regarding steady state operation, intermittent RES integration, system stability and dynamic behavior, system restoration, regulatory aspects and market arrangements.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2012.10.2.1 | Award Amount: 3.97M | Year: 2013
GLOBASOL will develop new concepts, materials and devices for advanced light harvesting and light management for a panchromatic collection of the solar energy and an unprecedented power conversion efficiency. This will be accomplished by integrating in a single device three light-to-electricity converters, exploiting different regions of the solar spectrum based on sensitized mesoscopic solar cells (SMSC), photonic crystals, thermoelectric (TE) cells. The key elements of the project are: 1) new absorbers for SMSC, with a very high conversion efficiency in the UV-vis region; 2) novel photonic materials for the collection/split of the IR spectrum; 3) advanced nanostructured materials for TE conversion of the IR part of the spectrum; 4) radically new architectures for the integrated devices, to increase the total efficiency. The innovative materials will include organometallics, organic dyes and quantum dots as sensitizers, quasi-solid electrolytes, nanostructures and nanowires alloys as well as quantum dots for TE. The devices will be engineered either in tandem arrangements or with optical splitting of the incident radiation, and concentration of the IR fraction to the TE. The targeted power conversion efficiencies are above 15% and 10% for SMSC in high and medium energy spectral regions, respectively, and 6% for TE, to reach a global efficiency above 30%, well beyond the present limits, along with cost-effectiveness and environmental safety. Five Universities and one Research Institution guarantee a scientific and technological multidisciplinary research, based on top level theoretical and experimental approaches. The high degree of knowledge in solid-state physics and chemistry, nanoscience and nanotechnology and engineering of the researchers assures that the new concepts and the objectives proposed will be successfully developed/pursued. A high-tech SME will provide proof-of-concept prototypes to validate the innovative GLOBASOL devices.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2013.2.1-01 | Award Amount: 2.75M | Year: 2014
The European Space Agency has invested heavily in two cornerstone missions: Herschel and Planck. These space observatories provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to study, at far infrared wavelengths, the cold Universe beyond our Galaxy. As these missions come to an end (2013) they will leave a huge legacy data set that we intend to exploit by utilising the complimentary expert skills of researchers at six sites across Europe. To maximise our spatial resolution and sensitivity to cosmic dust our intention is to analyse in detail 3045 local galaxies (v<3000 km/s) selected via their near infrared luminosity (stellar mass). This data provides us with an opportunity to study cosmic dust in galaxies to answer fundamental questions about: the origin of the chemical elements, physical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM), its effects on the emitted stellar radiation, its relation to star formation and the cosmic far infrared background. In the course of our work we will develop tools and computer models that will help us relate observed cosmic dust emission to the physical properties of the dust (chemical composition, size distribution, temperature), the origins of dust (evolved stars, super novae, growth in the ISM) and the processes that destroy it (high energy collisions and shock heated gas). To help us interpret the data we will use our own, world leading, Monte Carlo photon tracing radiative transfer model of galaxies and our state-of-the-art model of dust physical properties. To carry out this research we will need to combine the Herschel/Planck data with that from many other recently compiled databases that contain observations of our sample galaxies at other wavelengths, thus creating the definitive legacy database - DustPedia.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 2.44M | Year: 2010
EDGIs aim is to deploy desktop grid (DG) and cloud services for EGI user communities that are heavy users of DCIs and require extremely large multi-national e-infrastructure. In order to achieve this goal software components of ARC, gLite, Unicore, BOINC, XWHEP, ADICS, 3G Bridge, OpenNebula, Eucalyptus will be integrated into SG?DG?Cloud platforms for service provision and as a result EDGI will extend ARC, gLite and Unicore grids with volunteer and institutional DG systems. EDGI will create novel QoS support for the DG systems and will explore new service provision models in order to ensure harmonised DG?Cloud interfaces to ARC, gLite, Unicore resources. EDGI will provide a workflow-oriented science gateway to enable user communities to more easily access the EDGI infrastructure. EDGI will establish the EuroCivis organization to coordinate DG-related activities in Europe both for solving technical issues as well as to attract volunteer DG resource donors by disseminating results of the EDGI and EGI projects. EuroCivis and EDGI will work in strong collaboration with EGI, EMI, NorduGrid, Unicore Forum and interested NGIs.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-1.4-1 | Award Amount: 16.14M | Year: 2010
There are currently no cures for Parkinsons disease (PD) but one of the most effective reparative therapies in patients to date has been with allotransplants of dopamine (DA) neuroblasts obtained from fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) tissue. However, this cell transplantation approach has given inconsistent results, with some patients doing extremely well and coming off anti-PD medication for years, whilst others have shown no or only modest clinical improvements, and in some cases also developed severe, off-state graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs). The reasons behind this heterogeneity of outcomes, and the emergence of GIDs in particular, need to be better understood, not least in the perspective of the rapid advances that are now being made in the development of stem-cell based therapies. There is therefore an urgent need to revisit the trials that have already been done with fetal VM tissue in PD patients, with the expectation that a critical reassessment can form the basis for an optimised and more standardised procedure that will translate into more consistently efficacious transplants with minimal side-effects. Over the last two years a group of international experts, including the key investigators of the previous European and North American trials, has been re-examining the outcome of these trials as well as reviewing the results obtained from recent and ongoing animal experimental studies, and identified a number of weaknesses that may explain the inconsistent outcome in previous trials. As a result of these discussions, the group has agreed to join forces in a new round of experimental work and cell therapy trials in PD, based on a new jointly developed protocol where all these factors are taken into account. In the first instance fetal VM tissue containing mesencephalic DA neuroblasts will be used, with the expectation that this will pave the way for bigger trials using dopaminergic neurons derived from stem cells.
Agency: GTR | Branch: ESRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 100.41K | Year: 2012
The aim of this knowledge exchange project is to set up a new Research-Policy-Practice Hub to create a platform for knowledge exchange and debate across communities that have influence in the area of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Knowledge exchange will be achieved by a set of coordinated online and offline activities that will provide elements of the hub in the first stage of its development. These activities include:
The goal is that the proposed Research-Policy-Practice hub should form a model system that can be applied, not only to ASD but also beyond ASD into other conditions that affect education, health and social services.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2013.2.1-01 | Award Amount: 3.10M | Year: 2013
VIALACTEA will bring to a common forum the major new-generation surveys of the Galactic Plane from 1um to the radio, both in thermal continuum and in atomic and molecular lines, from Europe-funded space missions and ground-based facilities, to engage one of the fundamental challenges in Galactic astronomy: to quantify Galaxy-wide the relationship between the physical agents responsible for the onset and the regulation of star formation in a spiral galaxy and the resulting Rate and Efficiency of star formation, and obtain a star formation recipe that will be a cornerstone to trace the star formation history of galaxies back to their formation. The new state-of-the-art Milky Way paradigm is offering today, for the first time, the possibility to deploy a coherent science analysis methodology that can be uniformly applied from the Galactic Center to the outskirts of the Galaxy. A homogeneous and inter-calibrated evolutionary classification of the cold and dense clumps hosting young forming clusters at a variety of evolutionary stages will allow to deliver a new 3D model of the Galaxy, mapping the essential critical parameters like column density thresholds, rate and efficiency of star formation in the Galaxy To make such an analysis possible in a timely and effective fashion, we will develop a suite of next-generation 3D-visualization tools that will integrate visual analytics, on-the-fly handling of multi-SED radiative transfer modeling and data mining/machine-learning technologies to incorporate the astronomers know-how into a set of supervised workflows with decision making capabilities. The focus on research and analysis of data obtained from European space missions in combination with data from Europe-funded ground facilities, will enable time-effective exploitation of steradiant-scale multi-wavelength Galactic Plane surveys through new 3D-based visual analytics frameworks, making VIALACTEAs objectives timely and totally relevant for FP7-SPACE-2013-1.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.2.3 | Award Amount: 3.09M | Year: 2010
Partners to this proposal include the six major global programmes exploring the full extent of species diversity, a core dimension in human knowledge of global biodiversity.\nThey are: GBIF and distribution modelling, the EBI/INDSC, and Barcode of Life initiatives and molecular diversity, IUCN Red Lists and the species conservation movement, and the Species 2000 Catalogue of Life taxonomic framework. These will work closely with ELIXIR and LifeWatch, the ESFRI Infrastructures covering biodiversity, and build on the 4D4Life Project that develops the internal e-infrastructure of the Catalogue of Life.\nThe i4Life project is to establish a Virtual Research Community that will enable each of these global projects to engage in a common programme enumerating the extent of life on earth. It builds on the common need of each organisation to specify the entire set of organisms, their growing use of the Catalogue of Life as a common taxonomic resource alongside their own catalogues, and the different expertise that each programme brings to the task.\nThese key players present particular hurdles to Catalogue integration because they a) have established their own architectures, standards and protocols, b) have special requirements, and c) have their own partial catalogues that need to be integrated with the Catalogue of Life in a two way flow.\nIn each case i4Life will design, implement and test the necessary special pipelines, as well as contributing significantly to enhancement of the Catalogue of Life for all to use through the inflows from the partners. By providing access to a common species catalogue within each of the organisations, we expect to contribute a much needed level of knowledge integrity across the various scientific and community studies of the global biota. To make sense of global biodiversity it is vital that these organisations can communicate through a unified view of the extent of life.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.3.3 | Award Amount: 13.81M | Year: 2010
The objective of the project is to realise high-performance organic electronic devices and circuits using large-area processing compatible fabrication methods. The high performance of the organic circuits referred to here means high speed (kHz-MHz range), low parasitic capacitance, low operating voltage, and low power consumption. The related organic thin film transistor (OTFT) fabrication development will be focused to enable a high resolution nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) step, which is compatible with roll-to-roll processing environment. Applying NIL will enable smaller transistor channel lengths (down below 1 m) and thereby an increase in the speed of the device. Another important concept to improve the performance is the self-aligned fabrication principle, in which the critical patterns of the different OTFT layers are automatically aligned in respect to each other during the fabrication. This decreases the parasitic capacitances and thereby increases the speed of the device, and is one of the key elements to enable the use of large-area fabrication techniques such as printing. Also complementary transistor technology will be developed, which will enable a decrease in operating voltage and power consumption. The high performance organic transistors will be tested in basic electronic building blocks such as inverters and ring oscillators. The technology development will be exploited in the active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) and radio-frequency identification (RFID) demonstrators. In addition to showing that sufficient performance can be reached without sacrificing the mass fabrication approach, solutions for the fabrication of roll-to-roll tools in order to make serial replication viable will be provided. Finally, the design, characterization, and modeling of submicron low-power OTFTs will be done in order to support the fabrication of the demonstrators based on the technology developed in the project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.2.1-2 | Award Amount: 7.78M | Year: 2013
Our proposal is based on the idea that real-time functional neuroimaging can be used to train patients to regulate their own brain activity via neurofeedback training and thus modulate the brain networks of mental disorder, restore function, improve symptoms and promote resilience. We have brought together the core groups that have been instrumental in the development of methods for real-time functional imaging and fMRI (functional magnetic resonance)-based neurofeedback and have led the initial clinical applications in neuropsychiatric disorders. Our proposal has three main components, the development and refinement of methods for the real-time analysis and feedback of fMRI data and combination with other imaging modalities (WP2), the adaptation of fMRI mapping techniques to localise disease-relevant networks and development of protocols for their self-regulation through neurofeedback (WP3) and the assessment of feasibility and clinical effects in several mental disorders that are characterised by dysfunctional brain systems for motivation, emotion regulation and social communication and by important therapeutic gaps (autism spectrum disorders, alcohol addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder, childhood anxiety disorders, binge-eating disorder) (WP4). We will also explore the potential transfer of (laboratory-based) imaging feedback training into everyday settings through ambulatory and assistive technologies such as electroencephalography (EEG) and gaming (WP5). We will engage with potential users of these technologies (healthcare professionals and providers, medical instrument and software manufacturers, patient and carer associations) through several workshops, liaise with regulatory authorities and disseminate findings to the academic and user communities in WP6.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-16-2014 | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2015
The accelerated development of shale gas is accompanied by growing public concern regarding the safety of shale gas extraction and its impact on human health and the environment. For the US, shale gas exploitation proved very successful in changing the energy landscape in terms of security of domestic supply and increased contribution of gas in the energy mix. For Europe, shale gas exploitation could increase our resources and production of natural gas; a critical fuel for the transition to a low carbon energy system. However, there are a number of important gaps in our present understanding of shale gas exploration and exploitation, and a strong need for independent, science-based knowledge of its potential impacts in a European context. The M4ShaleGas program focuses on reviewing and improving existing best practices and innovative technologies for measuring, monitoring, mitigating and managing the environmental impact of shale gas exploration and exploitation in Europe. The technical and social research activities will yield integrated scientific recommendations for 1) how to minimize environmental risks to the subsurface, surface and atmosphere, 2) propose risk reduction and mitigation measures and 3) how to address the public attitude towards shale gas development. The 18 research institutes from 10 European Union Member States that collaborate in the M4ShaleGas consortium cover different geopolitical regions in Europe, including Member States that are at the forefront regarding shale gas exploration and exploitation in Europe as well as Member States where shale gas exploitation is not yet being actively pursued. The project governance ensures proper integration of all research activities. Knowledge and experience on best practices is imbedded by direct collaboration with US and Canadian research partners and input from representatives from the industry. During the project, results will be public and actively disseminated to all stakeholders.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2007-3.5-2 | Award Amount: 9.03M | Year: 2008
Various emerging markets in the field of non silicon multimaterial micro devices offer a huge potential for commercialisation in the near future. However, solutions for mass-production for most of them have still to be developed. The objective of the MULTILAYER project is to develop a set of solutions for the large-scale production of micro devices based on a technology we call Rolled multi material layered 3D shaping technology and using the concept of tape casting and advanced printing techniques. This technology will enable to manufacture complex multifunctional 3D-micro parts on a layer by layer manner and in a high-throughput context. Each layer can be given a specific structure. They will be printed and contain channels and cavities that are open or filled in a very high precision manner. The microsystems will have as basic building material ceramics, which is a clear advantage in applications that require high temperature, corrosive environments and long time reliability. Furthermore, it will allow spatial resolutions under 10 m and the ceramics tapes developed will be down to 10 m thin. The Rolled multi material layered 3D shaping technology will have several advantages: - it will be an efficient mass production method - the fabrication series can attain over a million units - it will offer a good flexibility for a wide variety possible component designs, - it will allow the integration of different materials as different layers enabling to manufacture multimaterial multilayered packages with a high degree of integration, - the process will be very reliable, indeed, every single layer can be advantageously inspected and controled
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: SPIRE-02-2014 | Award Amount: 11.04M | Year: 2014
Methanol represents one of the most common and widespread platform chemicals and precursors for further synthesis, and is traditionally produced from synthesis gas, obtained by the reforming of natural gas. This methanol synthesis process operates in a stable, high-throughput manner and demands low carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide ratios in feed. The current project, nonetheless, is to encompass flexible (in operation and feed) methanol synthesis with high carbon dioxide concentration-streams as an input, the latter originating from thermal power stations using fossil fuels. The demonstrational technology may alternatively be intended for the application of existing biomass combustion and gasification system streams, operating for the production of electric/thermal energy, as opposed to chemical synthesis. The other synthesis reactant, hydrogen, is to originate from water hydrolysis using surplus energy, which would be conversely difficult to return to the grid. The three main benefits of the process would thus be as follows; the mitigation of exhaust carbon dioxide and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (1), stabilisation of electric grid by the consumption of the electric energy at its peaks (2), and the production of methanol as a versatile chemical for further conversion (3). Implications of such technology would have a strong connection to the pending exploration of alternative energy carriers and their synthesis as opposed to conventional resources of fuels and chemicals. The principal technological challenge to be overcome is anticipated to be the development of a suitable catalyst and process, which would allow for high-CO2-content feeds, relatively transient operation (save for an upstream buffering technology is developed), and economically viable operating conditions. The primary advantages of this technology are to be its flexibility, medium-scale operation (deployed at exhaust location), and facile integration capacities.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: INFRA-2011-3.2. | Award Amount: 761.17K | Year: 2011
ESFRI initiatives with a need to work on a global scale will have to collaborate with international comparable partners. The CReATIVE-B project will seek to support the interaction between the LifeWatch ESFRI Research Infrastructure with RI on biodiversity and ecosystems research in other parts of the world. The immediate objective is to define a road map for interoperability on the technological level, on the governance level and on the interrelation with the scientific communities using the RIs. The project will therefore be a catalyst for worldwide collaboration in this field by supporting and initiating coordination activities of these RIs. The greater objective of this collaboration is to serve the goals of GEOSS. At the same time, the international outreach of LifeWatch can lead to further international collaboration on interoperability of these infrastructures to even better serve research communities worldwide. In order to do so, CReATIVE-B will initiate with the international sister infrastructures to have a second edition of the e-Biosphere conference, to be organized in 2013, and contribute to this conference. In achieving the goals of this coordination and support action, CReATIVE-B will further support the European Commission flagship, vision 2020.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.6.1 | Award Amount: 4.53M | Year: 2014
The success of the European vision of a low carbon electricity grid that minimises greenhouse gas emissions; and enhances security, quality and reliability of supply depends on how smart infrastructures, combining energy and telecom, are developed and implemented for the wider integration of security-aware distributed energy resources into the increasingly decentralised grid. MAS2TERING, a 3-year technology-driven and business-focussed project, is aimed at developing innovative information and communication technology (ICT) platform for the monitoring and optimal management of low-voltage distribution grids by integrating last mile connectivity solutions with distributed optimisation technologies, while enhancing the security of increased bi-directional communications. The project also aims at enabling new collaboration opportunities between grid operators and telecom and energy companies, both from technology and business perspectives. The project consortium includes prominent industrial organisations and research institutes from the European energy, telecom and security fields, to leverage the critical dimensions of energy, ICT, security and business. Nine project partners are CEA, Utility Partnership Limited, R2M Solutions , GDF Suez, Cassidian CyberSecurity, Telecom Italia, Cardiff University, Waterford Institute of Technology and Laborelec, from five European countries: France, United Kingdom, Italy, Ireland, Belgium.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.6.3 | Award Amount: 4.42M | Year: 2014
Growing water demand caused by climate change, urbanization and population growth requires new business and technology platforms to manage the increased level of diversity and complexity of urban water resources management. The increasing variability of both supply and consumption will also require more sophisticated and optimized decision making.\n\nTo achieve a step change in water and energy savings we propose to apply and test an intelligent ICT system for real time abstraction & discharge monitoring. This will create an open, scalable, marketable and user-friendly system to optimise water resource management and replace the current licensing system. An innovative just-in time ability will be applied to create substantial water savings, whilst also enhancing delivery on EU Water Framework Directive obligations. The WISDOM approach will combine different innovative technologies (including smart ICT components and decision support system) to integrate water distribution, real time sensor monitoring and high power computing networks to (a) improve household, business and societal awareness, (b) induce changes in consumer behaviour, (c) enable the introduction of innovative resource and demand management schemes, (d) pave the way to adaptive pricing incentives, and (e) develop and demonstrate widely applicable concepts for energy recovery from water use, enhancing the water-energy nexus.\n\nThe WISDOM project strategy fundamentally relies on a comprehensive R&D and demonstration approach. The proposed integrated concept will be first modelled and simulated for different typologies of buildings and water distribution network, then tested at an intermediate level in a full-scale experimental facility in France (AQUASIM) before being finally installed, monitored and evaluated in two pilot projects (including residential and non residential buildings) in the UK (Cardiff - Wales) and Italy (La Spezia).\n\nThese demonstrators will be used to assess the societal, environmental and economic benefits of the new integrated concept and also to validate models and technologies in order for the concept to be easily replicable throughout all countries and differing European areas. The major resultant impact from WISDOM will be (a) increased user awareness and modified behaviours concerning the use of water, (b) quantifiable and significant reduction of water consumption, (c) peak-period reduction of water and energy distribution loads, (d) improved resource efficiency and business operations of water utilities due to ICT, and (e) contribute to the improvement of the environmental performance of buildings. In addition, WISDOM will promote the development of a complete value chain covering all stakeholders in the water usage cycle including the establishment of strategic partnerships between ICT equipment providers, software companies and water authorities to pave the way to a Europe wide, and beyond, exploitation of the WISDOM technology.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.2.1-7 | Award Amount: 5.45M | Year: 2008
Long-lasting, activity-dependent synaptic changes are thought to underlie the ability of the brain to translate experiences into memories and seem to represent the cellular model underlying learning and memory processes. Alteration of brain plasticity may lead to the motor and cognitive disturbances observed in neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic approaches targeting synaptic plasticity could prevent neuronal degeneration and restore altered motor and cognitive functions. Long-term synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation and long-term depression, are widely expressed at excitatory synapses throughout the brain and have both been described at corticostriatal connections, at which they might underlie motor-skill learning, cognitive performance and reward mechanisms. Unique feature of corticostriatal plasticity is the observation that the loss of these opposite forms of synaptic plasticity has been observed in experimental models of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsons disease (PD). REPLACES will use cortical striatal plasticity and its alterations in experimental PD to explore basic mechanisms of brain plasticity and repair and to translate the new generated knowledge into novel restorative therapeutic approaches. The long-term efficacy of new treatments for PD will be conditioned by their ability to restore, structurally and functionally, the synaptic wiring of striatal neurons and physiological synaptic plasticity. REPLACES addresses the potential restorative effects of either novel pharmacological treatments or neuronal transplants on the corticostriatal microcircuitry. Since chronic treatment with DA precursor L-DOPA induces in the majority of PD patients a maladaptative plasticity causing dyskinesia, innovative strategies should prevent the development of this disabling condition. REPLACES will characterize corticostriatal synaptic plasticity from molecular aspects to clinical neurophysiology involving behavioural and morphological analysis.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.19M | Year: 2011
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD) are life-saving renal replacement therapies for more than 200,000 patients with chronic kidney disease in Europe, and this number increases annually. Although PD and HD have similar mortality rates, PD offers major advantages in terms of quality of life, costs, home-based treatment opportunities and early patient survival. Moreover, PD, rather than HD, offers opportunities for improvements. Nevertheless, only 10% of patients in Europe are treated with PD. Presently, PD research faces a significant shortage in workforce, probably through competition with other specialisations, the absence of a coherent training program and limited trans-European collaboration. The EuTRiPD consortium consists of eight research institutes, an SME and a large private company throughout eight of the EU Member States. Additionally, one multi-national company and three (inter)national organizations that promote education, scholarly excellence and public awareness will be associate partners. Each partner has internationally recognized expertise in PD, ranging from basic to bedside research and from raising awareness on kidney diseases to commercialisation of project results. By providing an inter-disciplinary and intersectoral long lasting training programme in PD research, EuTRiPD will address this need for researchers and clinicians in renal diseases. The scientific goal of EuTRiPD is to advance the current state of the art in PD by carrying out bench to bedside research, focused on the identification of biomarkers and interventions that promote survival and function of the peritoneal membrane. This will finally result in the clinical implementation of new therapeutic approaches. EuTRiPD will deliver twelve skilled ESRs with excellent career opportunities in nephrology and PD research. The unique set up of this training program will equip them with the skills to pursue a career in other disciplines and sectors should they choose to do so.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2007-2.2-01 | Award Amount: 6.37M | Year: 2008
The Life Watch e-Science and Technology Infrastructure for biodiversity data and observatories will be a large-scale European research infrastructure bringing together: -a system of marine, terrestrial and freshwater observatories; -common access to a huge amount of interlinked, distributed data from databases and monitoring sites; -computational facilities in virtual laboratories with analytical and modelling tools; -targeted user and training support and a programme for public services. The biodiversity research infrastructure will open up new and exciting research opportunities, and will help to enhance the understanding and sustainable management of our natural environment. This preparatory project brings together the interested EU Member and Associated States with the objective to prepare a cooperation agreement on the construction and maintenance of the Life Watch research infrastructure. In addition, the leading networks in biodiversity science and stakeholder institutes are preparing the organisation and logistics for the following construction phase. The current project delivers the technical, legal and financial preparations required for entering and managing the Construction Phase. A range of policy issues are resolved with respect the organisation of the distributed infrastructure, its legal implications, construction logistics, user service, cost analysis and planning. In addition the project makes the necessary preparations in the domain of risk management and quality control. The project is planned to take three years. A Policy and Science Board, populated by the representatives of fourteen potentially interested partner countries and eight cooperating scientific networks, oversees the progress of the preparations. The individual members of the Board act as the liaison with their political domains and the research communities, respectively.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2013.2.5-01 | Award Amount: 4.95M | Year: 2014
TRANSMANGO aims to obtain a comprehensive picture of the effects of the global drivers of change (climate, economic concentration and market structure, financial power, resource competition, marginalization, property rules, geo-political shifts, consumer preferences, consumption patterns and nutritional transition) on European and global food demand and on raw material production (and, consequently, on food flows). The research focuses on the vulnerability and resilience of European food systems in a context of socio-economic, behavioral, technological, institutional and agro-ecological change and aims to enhance understanding of the new challenges and opportunities that the food sector will face in the future. Vulnerability assessment methodologies and dynamic modeling tools will be reviewed, upgraded and developed to assess the resilience of Europes agro-food sector and food security situation and to understand the sustainability frontiers of different food production systems under the new unfolding conditions. The project will collect analytical data that will be used to design scenarios for the desired transition pathways in the food system. Based on these scenarios, TRANSMANGO will provide guidance to support the transition towards sustainability and will offer recommendations to address Europes medium- and long-term food security.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.4.3-2 | Award Amount: 14.25M | Year: 2009
This proposal will pioneer the concept of tailored interventions with minimal immune system interference in new onset T1DM, leading to beta-cell protection and restoration, based on a solid understanding of the disease pathogenesis. This will enable experimental findings to be adopted for future clinical application. Four work packages are grouped around Reversal of autoimmunity, in which two key players of the immune system in beta-cell destruction will be targeted: the dendritic cell (WP1: Re-educating antigen-presenting cells) and the T-lymphocyte (WP2: Restoring the T-cell balance). In both cell types, interventions using steroid hormones (vitamin D and glucocorticoids) will be used to induce tolerance. Moreover, novel interventions using soluble T-cell receptors to target immune cells and beta-cells in an antigen-specific way (WP3: TCR-mediated immunotherapy) will be introduced. Novel mucosal interventions using probiotics and recombinant L. lactis as a carrier for specific peptides in combination with cytokines (WP4: Mucosal intervention for tolerance restoration) will be studied for their immune modulating potential. A full work package (WP5: Beta-cell protection and restoration the dialogue with the immune system) is dedicated to the beta-cell and its role in driving and amplifying the immune attack through communication between beta-cells and the immune system. The last scientific work package (WP6: Pharmacogenetics) will identify genetic profiles within patients that predict responsiveness to the steroid interventions proposed. WP7 and 8 are dedicated to training and management of the consortium. For this purpose, a multidisciplinary consortium of leading European diabetologists and immunologists from 11 academic research institutions, in co-operation with 3 SMEs developing novel technologies allowing translation of basic research results towards clinical applications, has been established.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2008-2.5-1 | Award Amount: 4.92M | Year: 2010
MATRANS aims at development of novel metal-ceramic functionally graded materials (FGMs) for aerospace and automotive applications in: (i) exhaust and propulsion systems, (ii) power transmission systems, and (iii) braking systems, with the main objective to enhance the mechanical properties of these materials through spatial variations of material composition and microstructure. Specifically, MATRANS deals with two groups of bulk FGMs: (i) ceramics-copper/copper alloys, (ii) ceramics-intermetallics. These FGM systems have not yet been used in the transport sectors targeted. The MATRANS methodology is problem oriented and comprehensive combining interrelated activities of material processing (core activity of the project), characterisation, modelling and demonstration. The processing will encompass starting materials (e.g. nanopowders) and the resulting FGMs. Characterisation of the FGMs will include detailed description of microstructure, measurements of physical and mechanical properties and residual stresses. The modelling will be carried out at a design phase and for the material response to combined thermomechanical loading and extreme service conditions. Extensive use of multiscale approaches and numerical methods will be made. The project addresses the joint design of the FGM and the structural component it is intended for. Economical and ecological aspects of processing are included. Risks aspects of material non-performance will be tackled, too. MATRANS has mobilized a critical mass of interdisciplinary expertise and highly specialized equipment. The consortium includes leading groups from materials science, physics, chemistry, mechanical engineering and computer science. The industry and SME involvement in the project is substantial. As the exploitation measures, the industrial partners will define business plans and start pilot cases during the project, followed by upscaling activities after the project end.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.8.5 | Award Amount: 3.15M | Year: 2010
RECOGNITION will develop a radically new approach for embedding self-awareness in ICT systems. This will be based on the cognitive processes that the human species exhibits for self-awareness, seeking to exploit the fact that humans are ultimately the fundamental basis for high performance autonomic processes. This is due to the cognitive ability of the brain to efficiently assert relevance (or irrelevance), extract knowledge and take appropriate decisions, when faced with partial information and disparate stimuli. Using the psychological and cognitive sciences as concrete inspiration, our approach is to develop functional models of the core cognitive processes that allow humans to assert relevance and achieve knowledge from information. This involves mechanisms such as inference, belief, similarity and trust. These will be translated to the ICT domain by development of flexible RECOGNITION algorithms that can be imbedded in ICT on a flexible basis for self-awareness.\nWe will demonstrate this new paradigm for Internet content. The future Internet will see ever-increasing amounts of content that needs to be effectively managed and acquired, often from portable devices and in diverse spatial and social situations. The massive scale of content will swamp the user with information, impeding effective management and relevant acquisition by the user. By exploiting the self-awareness capability we will enable the users, content and network to cope effectively in a scalable manner, thus making unprecedented amounts of relevant content available and unleashing new classes of applications that extract maximum utility from content.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EE-08-2016 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2016
Modelling analyses typically suggest that policies accelerating the adoption of energy-efficient technologies (EETs) by overcoming barriers to energy efficiency in the residential sector provide benefits for individual households, the energy system and for society as a whole. Yet, implicit discount rates, employed to reflect households decision criteria and response to policy, are disputed in policy and academic circles. CHEETAH (CHanging Energy Efficiency Technology Adoption in Households) provides evidence-based input to energy efficiency policy design and evaluation, thereby supporting the market uptake of EETs in the EU residential sector. It contributes to the work programme by addressing the interrelations between microeconomic factors, sectoral energy demand and macroeconomic effects, relying on a consistent methodological framework. CHEETAH: Provides empirical evidence on household response to established and new energy-efficiency policies and on factors driving adoption of EETs, accounting for differences across households, technologies, and countries. A multi-country survey (2000 interviews per country) will be carried out and analyzed econometrically Assesses the impact of established and new policies energy demand in the EU residential sector until 2030 (meso-level). Established vintage stock energy models will be employed for appliances (FORECAST) and for buildings (Invert/EE-Lab) and linked with an agent-based modelling approach (ABM) Explores the macro-level impacts of changes in microeconomic decision-making and energy-efficiency policy on employment, GDP and exports until 2030, relying on simulations with a recognized macroeconomic model for the EU (ASTRA) Offers evidence-based recommendations for key energy efficiency policies and input for impact assessments and policy analysis at the three levels of analysis. Communicates empirical findings to policy makers, national experts, the re-search community and the general public
Agency: GTR | Branch: ESRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 978.10K | Year: 2015
There exists a unique opportunity to exploit existing UK data to better understand alcohol misuse across the life course. The overall goals of this project are to 1) incorporate data into the UK Secure eResearch Platform (UKSeRP) and develop facilities to enable research access, 2) undertake hypothesis driven research using this platform to provide critical insights into alcohol use, its effects and pathways into harm, 3) exploit the current research groups expertise to capitalise on the most recent developments in analytical methodology, and 4) make explicit the policy relevance of the work and exploit opportunities to interface with possible intervention development. This project therefore aims to leverage the value of a broad set of longitudinal studies and data linkage facilities to construct an analytical platform within UKSeRP that facilitates the investigation of harmful alcohol use across the life course. The proposal is balanced, it combines a broad skillset, with considerable expertise with the available data together with techniques in the analysis of such data. The data itself covers youngsters, those in mid- and later-life. These data are then linked to routine administrative data including those from schools (e.g. educational attainment), the NHS (health), the police (anti-social behaviour) and other sources including births and deaths. These then allow us to understand how alcohol affects general health, health service use, mental health, educational attainment and criminality. The nature of these data also allow us to understand how alcohol use affects cognitive decline in later life, and emotional and cognitive development in young people. There has already been considerable activity generating opportunities to use longitudinal data for research, although only limited work has looked at alcohol specifically. We are therefore able to exploit these on-going investments and collaborate with the UK Dementia Platform, Centre for the Improvement of Population Health through e-Records Research (CIPHER) at Swansea University (funded by a consortium led by the Medical Research Council) which will provide technical and financial support for data linkage. In addition, the project will explicitly examine the policy and impact relevance of outputs, use outputs to investigate opportunities to develop novel interventions with, for example, the Centre for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement (funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, amongst others). These collaborations bring together a unique set of skills that are required for such work as well as technical support. Fundamental to the project is the opportunity to bring together a diverse skillset. Investigators come from a broad range of backgrounds and have varying skills in relation to the analysis and interpretation of longitudinal data. This provides opportunities for work in specific areas to inform the project as a whole. Although the project is based on specific research hypotheses, these feed into work packages that use the project teams skills as a whole to develop relevant outputs. This added value is realised through organising resources to maximise collaborative working and therefore go beyond the fundamental questions asked of the data.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-14-2015 | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2016
The goal of BATCure is to advance the development of new therapeutic options for a group of rare lysosomal diseases - neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) or Batten disease. There are > thousand affected across Europe, with a combined incidence of c.1:100 000. The NCLs are devastating and debilitating genetic disorders that mainly affect children, who suffer progressive dementia and motor decline, visual failure and epilepsy, leading to a long period of complete dependence on others, and eventually a premature death. Existing palliative treatment can reduce, but does not eliminate, the burden of seizures and the progressively worsening effects on the whole body due to decreasing CNS influence and control. There are no curative treatments in the clinic for any type of NCL. We will follow a novel integrated strategy to identify specific gene and small molecule treatments for three genetic types of Batten disease that include the most prevalent world-wide, juvenile CLN3 disease, and in southern and mediterranean Europe, CLN6 and CLN7 diseases. To develop new therapies for these 3 types of Batten disease, BATCure will: 1. Create new models, tools and technologies for developing and testing therapies 2. Further delineate disease biology and gene function to identify new therapeutic target pathways utilising yeast and pluripotent stem cell models 3. Identify biochemical therapeutic target pathways, facilitate effective evaluation of preclinical therapies and improve diagnostics 4. Extend a comprehensive natural history beyond the brain to include cardiology, the spinal cord, PNS, psychiatric and metabolic changes 5. Identify new and repurpose existing small molecule therapy 6. Triage new compound treatments in zebrafish, a high-throughput small vertebrate model 7. Deliver and monitor new treatments using mouse models 8. Provide a novel mechanism to involve patients and their families to inform and fully contribute to therapy development and prepare for clinical trials
Agency: GTR | Branch: AHRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.22M | Year: 2013
The overarching aim of this project is to explore how community representations produced through creative arts practices (e.g. storytelling, performance, visual art) can be used as forms of evidence to inform health-related policy and service developments. Policies for health improvement tend to focus either on the impact of poverty and deprivation - but with little thought given to historical and cultural context or the experiences of living in these circumstances - or on the prevalence of unhealthy behaviours, with limited attempts to connect these with meaningful ways of life. However, research evidence indicates the need for studies that explore the experiences of people living in deprivation and isolation and find ways to improve dialogue between communities themselves and health policy makers. This study will develop methods for using creative art forms as a mode of communication and knowledge exchange. Through analysis of existing representations of disadvantaged and stigmatised communities in literature, film, etc, and the production of new community self-representations in arts-based workshops, it will explore the relationship between official representations of community health and well-being (e.g. in statistical data) and how communities understand and present their own health and well-being. There will be a focus on the accumulated assets and resources that allow individuals and communities to cope with and navigate real and perceived structural barriers, and on the possibilities of resilience to upheaval, resistance to reputational damage, and the alternative representations that these can stimulate. The project will take place across five distinct case-study communities in Wales, Scotland and England and connect these to relevant policy makers, researchers and arts practitioners in each country. Our understanding of community is informed by a relational view of place which conceptualises community as more of a process than an entity. Although we define communities in terms of spaces that are shared, we fully recognise that the meaning of those spaces will not necessarily be shared. The project will consider how perceptions and experiences of community vary across time and changing circumstances, and how communities and the people living in them are represented in relation to key differences and divisions relating to gender, class, ethnicity and age. Following an inventory and analysis of existing representations of each community, both artistic (e.g. in literature) and formal (e.g. in deprivation indices), each case study will use creative engagement methods (including life mapping, drama, storytelling, and photography) to generate new community self-representations, working in partnership with local arts and health organisations. The engagement process will be documented in ways that allow all participants, though diaries, blogs, or digital soap boxes, to reflect on the process and the dynamics of engagement. In all case studies the final creative representations themselves will be co-authored by the community participants and they will have the final decision on how their own accounts are presented. These new data will be presented to relevant local or national policy makers and service development officials through exhibitions, performances, and digital media. The researchers will evaluate this process, reflecting on the relationship between arts participation and community empowerment, and will examine how community values, participation, self-reliance and resilience are shaped, experienced and articulated, and can ultimately become embedded into policy. Through its rigorous analysis, its development of arts-based research methods, and its conviction that literature and the arts form a valid form of evidence in policy discussions, the research will offer innovative thinking about, and will make a distinctive contribution to, the study and development of community health and well-being.
University of Cardiff and King's College London | Date: 2013-09-25
The invention concerns a calcium/cation-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonist to treat an inflammatory lung disorder; a method of treatment involving said antagonist; a combination therapeutic comprising said antagonist and at least one other agent; and a nebuliser or inhaler containing same.
President And Fellows Of Harvard College, University of Cambridge and University of Cardiff | Date: 2014-11-14
Rega Foundation and University of Cardiff | Date: 2016-04-29
A compound of formula (I) wherein Ar can be one six-membered or two fused six-membered aromatic rings; R_(8 )and R_(9 )can be hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, halogens, amino, alkylamino, dialkylamino, nitro, cyano, alkyoxy, aryloxy, thiol, alkylthiol, arythiol, or aryl; Q can be O, S or CY_(2), where Y may be H, alkyl or halogens; X can be O, NH, S, N-alkyl, (CHR_(2))_(m )where m is 1 to 10, and CY_(2); Z can be O, S, NH, or N-alkyl; U is H and U can be H or CH_(2); wherein: T can be OH, H, halogens, O-alkyl, O-acyl, O-aryl, CN, NH_(2 )or N_(3); T and T can be H or halogen; and W can be H or a phosphate group. Compounds show anti-viral activity, for example with respect to varicella zoster virus.
Duncan R.,University of Cardiff |
Vicent M.J.,Research Center Principe Felipe
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2010
N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugates containing doxorubicin designed in the late 1970s/early 1980s as anticancer polymer therapeutics were the first synthetic polymer-based anticancer conjugates to enter clinical trial beginning in 1994. Early clinical results were promising, confirming activity in chemotherapy refractory patients and the safety of HPMA copolymers as a new polymer platform in this setting. Subsequent Phase I/II trials have investigated conjugates containing paclitaxel (PNU 166945), camptothecin (PNU 166148) (both failed in clinical trials underlining the importance of rational design), and most recently HPMA-copolymer platinates (AP5280 and then AP5346-ProLindacTM) entered Phase II clinical development. There are a growing array of second generation HPMA copolymer-based systems involving combination therapy, incorporating putative targeting ligands, having an ever more complex architecture, and both drug and protein conjugates are being proposed as novel treatments for diseases other than cancer. Despite their promise, and the success of polymeric drugs and polymer-protein conjugates, no polymer-drug conjugate (HPMA copolymer-based or otherwise) has yet entered routine clinical use. It is timely to reflect on the progress made over the last 30 years, the relative merits of HPMA copolymers as a platform compared to other polymeric carriers, and comment on their future potential as polymer-based nanomedicines into the 21st century in comparison with the many alternative strategies now emerging for creation of nanopharmaceuticals. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hemmerlin A.,University of Strasbourg |
Harwood J.L.,University of Cardiff |
Bach T.J.,University of Strasbourg
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2012
When compared to other organisms, plants are atypical with respect to isoprenoid biosynthesis: they utilize two distinct and separately compartmentalized pathways to build up isoprene units. The co-existence of these pathways in the cytosol and in plastids might permit the synthesis of many vital compounds, being essential for a sessile organism. While substrate exchange across membranes has been shown for a variety of plant species, lack of complementation of strong phenotypes, resulting from inactivation of either the cytosolic pathway (growth and development defects) or the plastidial pathway (pigment bleaching), seems to be surprising at first sight. Hundreds of isoprenoids have been analyzed to determine their biosynthetic origins. It can be concluded that in angiosperms, under standard growth conditions, C20-phytyl moieties, C30-triterpenes and C40-carotenoids are made nearly exclusively within compartmentalized pathways, while mixed origins are widespread for other types of isoprenoid-derived molecules. It seems likely that this coexistence is essential for the interaction of plants with their environment. A major purpose of this review is to summarize such observations, especially within an ecological and functional context and with some emphasis on regulation. This latter aspect still requires more work and present conclusions are preliminary, although some general features seem to exist. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davies L.C.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
Taylor P.R.,University of Cardiff
Immunology | Year: 2015
Summary: Macrophages have been at the heart of immune research for over a century and are an integral component of innate immunity. Macrophages are often viewed as terminally differentiated monocytic phagocytes. They infiltrate tissues during inflammation, and form polarized populations that perform pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory functions. Tissue-resident macrophages were regarded as differentiated monocytes, which seed the tissues to perform immune sentinel and homeostatic functions. However, tissue-resident macrophages are not a homogeneous population, but are in fact a grouping of cells with similar functions and phenotypes. In the last decade, it has been revealed that many of these cells are not terminally differentiated and, in most cases, are not derived from haematopoiesis in the adult. Recent research has highlighted that tissue-resident macrophages cannot be grouped into simple polarized categories, especially in vivo, when they are exposed to complex signalling events. It has now been demonstrated that the tissue environment itself is a major controller of macrophage phenotype, and can influence the expression of many genes regardless of origin. This is consistent with the concept that cells within different tissues have diverse responses in inflammation. There is still a mountain to climb in the field, as it evolves to encompass not only tissue-resident macrophage diversity, but also categorization of specific tissue environments and the plasticity of macrophages themselves. This knowledge provides a new perspective on therapeutic strategies, as macrophage subsets can potentially be manipulated to control the inflammatory environment in a tissue-specific manner. © 2015 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd..
Hunter C.A.,University of Pennsylvania |
Jones S.A.,University of Cardiff
Nature Immunology | Year: 2015
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has a broad effect on cells of the immune system and those not of the immune system and often displays hormone-like characteristics that affect homeostatic processes. IL-6 has context-dependent pro- and anti-inflammatory properties and is now regarded as a prominent target for clinical intervention. However, the signaling cassette that controls the activity of IL-6 is complicated, and distinct intervention strategies can inhibit this pathway. Clinical experience with antagonists of IL-6 has raised new questions about how and when to block this cytokine to improve disease outcome and patient wellbeing. Here we discuss the effect of IL-6 on innate and adaptive immunity and the possible advantages of various antagonists of IL-6 and consider how the immunobiology of IL-6 may inform clinical decisions.
Rossjohn J.,Monash University |
Rossjohn J.,University of Cardiff |
Gras S.,Monash University |
Miles J.J.,University of Cardiff |
And 4 more authors.
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2015
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) locus encodes classical MHC class I and MHC class II molecules and nonclassical MHC-I molecules. The architecture of these molecules is ideally suited to capture and present an array of peptide antigens (Ags). In addition, the CD1 family members and MR1 are MHC class I-like molecules that bind lipid-based Ags and vitamin B precursors, respectively. These Ag-bound molecules are subsequently recognized by T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) expressed on the surface of T lymphocytes. Structural and associated functional studies have been highly informative in providing insight into these interactions, which are crucial to immunity, and how they can lead to aberrant T cell reactivity. Investigators have determined over thirty unique TCR-peptide-MHC-I complex structures and twenty unique TCR-peptide-MHC-II complex structures. These investigations have shown a broad consensus in docking geometry and provided insight into MHC restriction. Structural studies on TCR-mediated recognition of lipid and metabolite Ags have been mostly confined to TCRs from innate-like natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells, respectively. These studies revealed clear differences between TCR-lipid-CD1, TCR-metabolite-MR1, and TCR-peptide-MHC recognition. Accordingly, TCRs show remarkable structural and biological versatility in engaging different classes of Ag that are presented by polymorphic and monomorphic Ag-presenting molecules of the immune system. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 7.91M | Year: 2009
Micro- and nanotechnologies have the potential to increase economic growth in every geographical area of Europe and among almost every industry leading to new product innovations, new companies and new jobs. Such innovative ideas based on solutions using micro and nano fabrication technologies require access not only to high end equipment but also the essential highly skilled personnel. It is not possible for SMEs or even most research departments to justify investment in a comprehensive range of technologies and trained personnel, especially when the need is to try out the feasibility of a new idea or develop a one off tool. EUMINAfab aims to overcome such economic barriers and lack of skills by creating the first pan-European research infrastructure for micro- and nanotechnologies for structuring and characterising a multitude of functional materials. The consortium integrates 9 leading academic institutes and three industrial partners from seven European member states. Five networking and three Joint research work packages create the framework for the transnational access activities which are open for users from both industry and academia from throughout European member and associated states. EUMINAfab opens access to more than 50 installations and offers over 1300 user days of access in the project duration of four years. The budget of nearly 7,79M with a requested EC contribution of almost 6M is thus dedicated to structuring the ERA in the area of multimaterial micro and nanotechnologies.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 2.27M | Year: 2014
This proposal seeks funding to acquire a stepper and associated wafer coater, tools to enable photolithographic patterning of semiconductor wafers for device and circuit fabrication. The stepper will be located at Southampton University in the recent £120m cleanroom complex. It will relieve the bottleneck within the cleanroom, an electron beam lithography tool, which is a slower alternative patterning tool. This will increase capacity within the cleanroom complex and facilitate and underpin a wealth of world class research. Not only will research at Southampton be enhanced, but Southampton (SOU), Glasgow (GLA), and Surrey (SUR) universities will pool resources to establish a Silicon Photonics Fabrication Capability within the UK, to facilitate an increasing demand for the fabrication of Silicon Photonics devices from the UKs premier researchers. This will encourage wider usage of world class equipment within the UK, in line with EPSRC policy. We seek funding for both the equipment and 3.5 RAs across the 3 institutions, over a 4 year period, to establish and deliver the Capability. Access to a very significant inventory of additional equipment at these 3 universities will be facilitated. The Capability is extremely timely, as silicon foundry services around the world are moving towards a model in which standard platforms and devices will be offered, making it more difficult for researchers to carry out innovative work at the device level, or in non-standard platforms. The proposal is supported by 36 members of academic staff at Southampton, with a total current research portfolio of projects valued in excess of £88m. Furthermore we have 10 project partners who will take part in the use and assessment of the silicon photonics capability by designing and subsequently testing fabricated devices. Their total in-kind contribution is valued at £793,300. These partners have expressed an interest in using the capability after the project has been completed. In addition have contacted a few example potential users from within the industrial sector (SMEs), and from around the world who have also provided letters of support indicating that they would use the capability after the project is complete. Taking this net proposed usage, it is clear that the equipment will be sustained beyond the period of the funded project. The Southampton users alone need only generate a tiny fraction (0.2%) of their research portfolio to cover running costs and depreciation. Consumables will increase with usage, but clearly, the silicon photonics capability will generate paying users, to further sustain the capability beyond the project, which will, in turn, allow UK researchers to compete effectively on the world stage in the buoyant field of silicon photonics. Beyond the 4 year project, the Silicon Photonics Capability will be operated by the commercial arms of the 3 partner universities, all of whom have provided letters of support confirming their ongoing participation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.97M | Year: 2015
Mobility, important for well-being, is seriously impaired by chronic low back pain and osteoarthritis in many people due to degeneration of cartilaginous tissue of the intervertebral disc and joint. To develop a treatment for these diseases this ETN aims to combine expertise in novel highly advanced drug delivery carriers with dedicated targeting tools, state of the art imaging techniques and expertise in stem cell and joint biology by training 15 young scientists in 12 partner institutes located in 5 different countries. We aim to achieve regeneration of damaged and degenerated tissues by employing targeting strategies tailored both to the pathology and the tissues involved. Regeneration of diseased tissues will be achieved by loading biologically active agents in state-of-the-art nanocarriers. The biologically active agents will stimulate the bodys own capacity to regenerate by attracting local stem cells or inhibit degeneration. Targeting will be achieved by A] injection with synthetic or natural hydrogels loaded with the nanocarriers or B] coupling diseased tissue-specific antibodies and specific hyaluronic acid moieties to the nanocarriers. Delivery and retention will be monitored by advanced in vivo and molecular imaging techniques to monitor distribution of the delivered compounds at the tissue level, as well as detect biological markers of regeneration. Major objectives: 1] To establish a network of scientists skilled in the use of smart nanocarriers, unique approach of targeting by disease-specific molecules and application of innovative imaging tools. Supported by generic scientific and training in economical and clinical valorisation, these researchers can further implement these technologies in the musculoskeletal or other areas, both in academia and industry. 2] To develop strategies exclusively targeting diseased tissues with controlled doses of bio-actives, circumventing the disadvantages of the current shotgun approaches in regenerative medicine.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: TPT-2008.0.0.14 | Award Amount: 1.46M | Year: 2009
React project scope is to act as a driving force for coordinating, supporting and strengthening the RTD area on climate-friendly transport and mobility so as to avoid spillage of funding resources and achieve integration of funding opportunities at European level, in relation to mitigation of greenhouse emissions from transport. React project has the following concrete aims: 1.Exchange of experience among research program managers in the Member States, Associated States and EC. Identification of the national and regional initiatives and research programs on climate-friendly transport and mobility, in to identify opportunities for stakeholders and researchers. 2.Articulate a long term vision and a Strategic Future Research Agenda on climate-friendly transport that will contribute to the development of a European strategy on the issue. 3.To improve synergies between Member States, Associated States and EU RTD Agenda on climate-friendly transport and mobility by enhancing coordination of funded research initiatives among EC and national agencies. 4.Organise a set of focused dissemination activities that will enhance the impact of research outcomes from EC funded projects to the highest degree. Coordination with the activities of ERANET-Transport. 5.To develop a common set of indicators for the carbon impact of the transport research.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: COMPET-05-2015 | Award Amount: 1.78M | Year: 2016
We propose to use a combination of data from the ESA space missions GAIA and Herschel, alongside other satellite and European-led ground-based observations, to map the density distribution of star formation regions. This will allow us to identify the mechanisms that underlie both how massive stars themselves form, but more fundamentally, how their natal clusters evolve around them. Our work will underpin studies of how all galaxies evolve. The combination of the two ESA missions will allow us to study clusters and associations of stars when they are very young (much less than 1 Myr old), when the structures we see are a better match to the initial conditions. No one has attempted such a project before as the required datasets were not available. The novel data and complexity of the combined datasets require the development of new analysis and visualization tools. In particular we will statistically compare hybrid large scale N-body \ SPH models with the combined 6-dimensional Gaia plus Herschel and gas kinematical data. Our goals therefore are structured to develop new techniques that we will initially test on simulations. We will follow this with tests on observational data of slightly older clusters (about 1Myr old). We will then apply the tested methodologies to the very youngest clusters. This will address our final goal of cracking the problem of how the most massive stars and clusters form.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.2.4-01 | Award Amount: 4.04M | Year: 2012
This proposal aims to improve safety and quality of RTE fresh produce throughout the whole chain by developing new predictive and probabilistic models and decision-making tools, by exploring rapid and non-destructive methods for quality evaluation and prediction, and by experimenting novel technologies, in order to quantify and manage spoilage and pathogen microorganisms, minimize risks to consumers, and preserve quality. Objectives of the proposal will be reached through the realization of 9 WPs. WP1 will develop diagnostic kits to predict quality and safety of raw material and final product. WP2 will develop process control aids based on non-destructive and rapid evaluation. WP3 will develop decision support tools in very critical points of processing chain. WP4 will investigate innovative processes to improve quality and safety of fresh-cut products. Technological innovations will go through implementation and demonstration in WP5 and through an economic evaluation approach in WP6. Results will represent valuable information in order to re-visit and improve good practice procedures or, to define a more efficient management system for quality and safety (in WP7). Finally results will be disseminated to potential users in WP8, while WP9 will consist of the management of the consortium. The participants are 14, of 7 Countries including 6 SMEs, 2 public research Institutes and 6 Universities, assorted in terms of scientific and technological expertise. The presence of SME will ensure the exploitation of the results directly and indirectly. Potential impacts of the results of this project may be related to the increase of scientific evidences about safety and quality, expansion of consumer awareness, increase of the innovation capacity of the industry strengthening its competitiveness, provision of scientific evidences to the EC and other health authorities (also for campaigns for healthy nutrition), and a reference point to mass media.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2009.4.2.3.2 | Award Amount: 1.68M | Year: 2010
At the heart of this project lies the development, trialling and operationalisation of a tool (STAVE), designed to support the work of policy-making for sustainability in real-world settings. The tool will support processes of knowledge brokerage, promoting the appropriate application of existing research findings, and the generation of new knowledge which is focused on specific policy objectives. In substantive terms, the project responds to recent work on sustainable consumption, which has provided compelling arguments about the difficulties entailed in seeking to address anthropogenic climate change by attempting to shift patterns of consumer behaviour. The project will take the form of a series of collaborative problem-focused interventions with policy-makers which will engage with their current work in these areas. STAVE will allow these policy-makers to examine the nature and validity of assumptions about human sensibilities, reasoning and action that are incorporated into the development of policy. The project will yield detailed guidance on how best to utilise STAVE across a variety of organisational and policy-specific environments. It will also generate important insights into the mechanisms by which different sources of knowledge are utilised in the practical activity of policymaking; and into the nature of lay citizens practical reasoning and everyday activities, as they relate to the sustainability of their patterns of consumption.
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 864.10K | Year: 2011
Aerosol particles act as sites for cloud droplet and ice particle formation. Cloud properties can be perturbed through the addition of aerosol particles into the atmosphere from anthropogenic and natural processes. This addition influences cloud microphysical properties, and subsequently affects cloud dynamics and thermodynamics, and the way the cloud interacts with radiation. The Earths radiation budget is very greatly affected by clouds, and human-induced changes to the particle loading affecting them, known as indirect effects, are large and highly uncertain. A large part of this uncertainty is the result of poor knowledge of the fundamental aerosol and cloud properties and processes, leading to their poor representation in models. A programme of research is proposed here to i) directly investigate these processes in the laboratory, ii) evaluate the sensitivity of climate relevant parameters to the studied processes, iii) interpret the laboratory studies with detailed model investigations and iv) to incorporate and test new descriptions of the studied processes in cloud-scale and, where possible, global scale models. The programme will thereby reduce the uncertainty in estimates of radiative forcing and climate feedbacks relating to aerosol and cloud processes. The studies are split into those affecting warm clouds (those containing only liquid droplets) and those affecting clouds containing ice particles. The programme brings together an interdisciplinary team of researchers with expertise in warm and cold cloud and aerosol processes combining laboratory and multiscale modelling activities to deliver the improved predictive capability. The warm laboratory work focuses on two major aspects i) the rate at which water is taken up by growing aerosol particles as they become cloud droplets (or activate) and ii) the ability of aerosol particles of various compositions to act as seeds for cloud droplets. These studies use a number of techniques including single particle optical levitation and investigations in a large photochemical chamber coupled to a large number of chemical and physical probes of ensembles of particles formed in simulated atmospheric chemical processes. The cold work uses a similar coupling of a large, well-instrumented cloud chamber experiments and single particle levitation studies. The chambers used in both aspects will be coupled to investigate the impacts of aerosol transformation conditions on warm and cold cloud formation, using the instrumental payload from both chambers. A range of detailed models will be used to explicitly describe the processes by which aerosol particles interact with increasing relative humidity and reducing temperature to form cloud droplet and ice crystals and to their properties. The processes and properties will be represented in dynamical frameworks to predict the interactions between aerosols and clouds and their radiative effects at cloud resolving scales and radiative forcing of some of the investigated properties on global radiative forcing and feedbacks. The sensitivity of climate relevant parameters to the fundamental parameters investigated in the laboratory programme and their improved quantification will be evaluated using a simplified model emulator.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: EEB-ICT-2011.6.4 | Award Amount: 4.47M | Year: 2011
Energy efficiency in the building sector through intelligent energy management is a key measure for the global reduction of greenhouse gas emitted by this sector and additionally facilitates user costs reduction in the context of growing energy prices and harshness of natural resources.\nThe KnoholEM projects aim is the engineering of an intelligent energy management solution that will considerably reduce energy consumption, both by systematically avoiding energy wasting in buildings and by knowledge-based holistic optimization of energy consumption. The solution will be applicable and configurable for a broadband of building types from any EU region.\nThe intelligent energy management solution will be based on existing knowledge representation technologies like functional modeling and ontology, which will be used in the context of smart buildings in combination with Building Automation Systems. It will be enhanced by energy consumption behavior simulation with realistic visualization assistance. Approaches previously developed by the project partners will be integrated into a holistic intelligent energy management solution.\nThe focus of the project will not be on development, but on detailed analysis and validation. KnoholEM includes four types of demonstration objects in Spain and the Netherlands that will be used by the consortium of industry and research partners to develop, enhance and extensively test the solution. An overall knowledge base will be created through a detailed analysis of the structure of the demonstration object buildings and their energy consuming/producing devices, through the intelligent interlinking of building usage with its energy demand, as well as by various energy consumption behavior simulations.\nThrough the knowledge accumulated within the extended validation phase, KnoholEM will facilitate up to 30% of energy savings, depending on the building. The 13 partners from 6 countries will ensure an efficient and inexpensive EU-wide application of the results after the end of the project.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 72.25K | Year: 2011
The AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) industry is a highly fragmented data intensive project-based industry depending on a large number of very different professions and firms, with strong data sharing requirement across lifecycle stages from concept design to demolition. The process of designing, re-purposing, constructing and operating a building involves not only the traditional disciplines (Structure, Mechanical & Electrical, etc.) but also many new professions in areas such as energy, environment, waste, and assisted living with large data sharing requirements. In this context, data management support for the project lifecycle tends to be fragmented with a lack of an overall (project wide) data management policy. Additionally, data sets relating to a particular project can often be stored in: (i) local computers of designers/architects - often with limited network connectivity, persistence and availability; (ii) independently managed, single company-owned archives - where access is dictated by a company specific policy or by a charging model; (iii) shared archives owned by a consortium, often in the context of a particular building project - based, at best, on access policy associated with the project. The CloudBIM proposal explores the feasibility and potential for utilizing Cloud capability to address data storage and processing needs of stakeholders in the AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) sector, with a view of delivering a cloud platform for research. CloudBIM will involve close consultation and interaction with major participants in the area to assess stakeholders perceptions about outsourced, virtualized Cloud storage for supporting multi-site, multi-team collaborative projects. A prototype cloud platform (based on CometCloud - www.cometcloud.org) and associated governance model will be developed and made available to the AEC research community. The project will deliver several reports based on a number of people-based activities, involving BRE (Building Research Establishment) and MBEKTN (Modern Built Environment Knowledge Transfer Network), along with a prototype using real project case studies BIM (Building Information Model) data to be provided by Bentley. A key outcome will be to spur a wide range of research-oriented activities through a strategic roadmap aimed at the exploitation of the resulting CloudBIM platform.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2013-5.1.1 | Award Amount: 2.12M | Year: 2013
In line with the Lisbon strategy and 2020 perspective Petrus initiative coordinates since 2005 universities, WMOs, training organisations and research institutes efforts to develop cooperative approach to education and training (E&T) in the geological disposal with the purpose of expanding this cooperation under PETRUS3. PETRUS3 project aims at continuation of the European Cooperation in this area including: Practical implementation of PETRUS training programme following ECVET principles: Starting from the outcomes of the previous project, we will experiment the elaboration and the implementation of training modules defined in term of learning outcomes in a Competency-Based Curriculum. The objective is to set up accredited and recognised qualification in geological disposal that can be achieved in parallel both through formal and PD training programmes. Elaboration of multidisciplinary training and research framework for PhD student:The objectives are i) to fast-track the research activities in geological disposal by proposing customised training programmes, ii) to organize periodic PhD workshops and iii) to enhance the emergence of multidisciplinary research. Development of strategies and frameworks for maintaining PETRUS initiative over the long-term: Following the recommendations of the PETRUS End-users Council, the PETRUS3 project will establish strategic plan for sustainability of the PETRUS initiative through i) establishing a steering board for coordination and follow-up of the PETRUS educational programme, ii) collaboration with the IGD-TPs CMET Working Group iii) creation of an integration framework to the ENEN structure for the overall management of the radioactive waste disposal E&T activities under the association umbrella and iv) linking with the radiation protection platform EUTERP and related EFTS. PETRUS3 strives to continue PETRUS II and ECNET international cooperation by strengthening the links already established with China and IAEA
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: NMP.2010.4.0-5 | Award Amount: 791.45K | Year: 2010
MINAM 2.0 will contribute to enabling a new dimension of quality with respect to the cooperation of the single groups in the micro- and nanotechnology (MN) manufacturing. MINAM aims at bringing together existing and well established (local) Micro Nano related organizations: the microclusters in the European regions, networks of Excellence, Associations, Research infrastructures, European projects and decision makers in the MN community. Through regional clusters with their strong industrial backbone MINAM 2.0 considerably contributes to the participation of the industry in European decision processes in this thematic area. The cooperation between MINAM and European application and technology platforms promoted at European level will improve the exchange between application requirements and technical capabilities, aiming at the identification of common objectives and requirements. MINAM will provide a significant contribution to identification of Cross sectional Joint Research agenda (together with other ETPs) and allows for a derivation of concerted partial roadmaps for the different thematic areas in MNT (Assembly, Micro/Nanotechnologies, System integration). To obtain sustainability MINAM 2.0 will be established as a one stop shop hub for exchanging information, adding value to all players in this area of interest. The hub will also push the improvement of cooperation between the regional key players in the European regions. A close connection to Manufuture, Nanofutures and other ETPs in the NMP area will ensure that double activities are cut down to a minimum and strenghten the production technology as a whole through its specific view on aspect of highly micro relevance, such as precission assembly, characterization, micro sensorics, etc. For the intended target application areas (EUROP, Nanomedicine, Food ...) all this will lead to an improved information flow about new developments in Nano-Microsystems as one of the key enablers for new products
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008.3.1.5.1. | Award Amount: 3.42M | Year: 2009
SUSREF will develop new sustainable technologies for refurbishment of external walls. SUSREF is based on the premise that 1) Refurbishment of external walls is one of the most efficient ways of reducing environmental impacts from European building stock. 2) European building sector is facing huge refurbishment requirements; refurbishment of external walls is among the most urgent tasks. 3) Although there are technological solutions, the risks and optimal solutions are not understood. 4) External walls have an extensive effect on building performance and several aspects have to be taken into account when developing new concepts: a) effect on energy consumption, b) building physical behaviour and durability, c) good integration with building structure, details and building services, d) effect on indoor environment, e) aesthetics. 5) Urgent needs of refurbishment are not only faced in the EU but also in neighbouring areas. Development of functional and environmentally efficient technologies would support the European industry to export projects and the neighbouring areas to adopt sustainable technologies. SUSREF will 1) identify the foreseen needs to refurbish building envelops in the EU in order to understand the significance in terms of environmental and economic impacts and business potentials; 2) develop a systemized methods to manage the functional performance of solutions. Analyse technologies from the view point of building physics, comfort and durability. Consider different challenges in different parts of Europe in terms of present climate and foreseen risks of its changes, technological and cultural-historic issues; 3) develop systemized methods for consideration of energy and environmental performance of external walls; 4) develop sustainable product and project concepts; 5) disseminate results for building industry, standardisation bodies, and policy-makers and authorities in terms of technological knowledge, guidelines and recommendations.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: EeB-ICT-2010.10.2 | Award Amount: 4.66M | Year: 2010
The European Sport and Recreation Building Stock accounts for approximately 1,5 Million buildings or 8% of the overall building stock. These facilities are unique by their physical nature, their energy consumption profiles, the usage patterns of people inside, ownership, and comfort requirements. SPORTE2 aims to manage and optimize the triple dimensions of energy flows (generation, grid exchange, and consumption) in Sport and Recreation Buildings by developing a new scalable and modular BMS based on smart metering, integrated control, optimal decision making, and multi-facility management. This tool will enable a new relationship and business model structure between facility managers and power providers. The SPORTE2 modules will be applicable to both new and existing structures and answer the fundamental questions of how, where, when and why energy is produced, used and grid exchanged. The approach will target a reduction of energy consumption by up 30%, with commensurate CO2 reductions and cost savings. The project will make use of a full scale building laboratory environment (Kubik) for system integration and testing. The project will then implement the SPORTE2 modules in three full-scale pilots representative of the sector (e.g. swimming pools, indoor and outdoor courts, gyms, etc) and able to implement the smart grid concept through the availability of RET and cogeneration devices. Strong linkages to sport associations and green building design are present in the consortium to enable exploitation of project results.