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Cardiff, United Kingdom

Cardiff University is a research university located in the Cathays Park area of Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom. It received its Royal charter in 1883 and is a member of the Russell Group of Universities. The university is consistently recognised as providing high quality research-based university education in Wales. Wikipedia.


Pourgashtasbi G.,University of Cardiff
Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

This paper focuses on the processes of translation in nanomedical research practices and contributes to a context-and object-centred research agenda in Science and Technology Studies. In particular, it addresses how nano-specific issues in medical research are exacerbated by uncertainty and unpredictability. Analyzing the relationship between nanomedicine and nanotoxicology I discuss how scientists are involved in highly uncertain processes, which require a contingent and experimental approach to nano-objects in everyday laboratory practices. Consequently, the dealings with nanomedical materials evoke a reformulation of numerous traditional forms of toxicological knowledge and knowledge practices, and challenge the self-concept of toxicology as a testing discipline. © 2015 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Li Y.-C.,Zhejiang University | Cleall P.J.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering | Year: 2010

Analytical solutions for conservative solute diffusion in one-dimensional double-layered porous media are presented in this paper. These solutions are applicable to various combinations of fixed solute concentration and zero-flux boundary conditions (BC) applied at each end of a finite one-dimensional domain and can consider arbitrary initial solute concentration distributions throughout the media. Several analytical solutions based on several initial and BCs are presented based on typical contaminant transport problems found in geoenvironmental engineering including (1) leachate diffusion in a compacted clay liner (CCL) and an underlying stratum; (2) contaminant removal from soil layers; and (3) contaminant diffusion in a capping layer and underlying contaminated sediments. The analytical solutions are verified against numerical solutions from a finite-element method based model. Problems related to leachate transport in a CCL and an underlying stratum of a landfill and contaminant transport through a capping layer over contaminated sediments are then investigated, and the suitable definition of the average degree of diffusion is considered. © 2010 ASCE. Source


Burre J.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Sharma M.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Tsetsenis T.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Buchman V.,University of Cardiff | And 2 more authors.
Science | Year: 2010

Presynaptic nerve terminals release neurotransmitters repeatedly, often at high frequency, and in relative isolation from neuronal cell bodies. Repeated release requires cycles of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-complex assembly and disassembly, with continuous generation of reactive SNARE-protein intermediates. Although many forms of neurodegeneration initiate presynaptically, only few pathogenic mechanisms are known, and the functions of presynaptic proteins linked to neurodegeneration, such as α-synuclein, remain unclear. Here, we show that maintenance of continuous presynaptic SNARE-complex assembly required a nonclassical chaperone activity mediated by synucleins. Specifically, a-synuclein directly bound to the SNARE-protein synaptobrevin-2/vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) and promoted SNARE-complex assembly. Moreover, triple-knockout mice lacking synucleins developed age-dependent neurological impairments, exhibited decreased SNARE-complex assembly, and died prematurely. Thus, synucleins may function to sustain normal SNARE-complex assembly in a presynaptic terminal during aging. Source


Eccles R.,University of Cardiff
Lung | Year: 2010

Cough is a unique symptom because, unlike sneeze and other symptoms, it can be under voluntary control and this complicates clinical trials on cough medicines. All over-the-counter cough medicines (OTC) are very effective treatments because of their placebo effect. The placebo effect is enhanced by expectancy related to advertising, brand, packaging, and formulation. This placebo effect creates a problem for the conduct of clinical trials on OTC cough medicines that attempt to demonstrate the efficacy of a pharmacological agent above that of any placebo effect. Up to 85% of the efficacy of some cough medicines can be attributed to a placebo effect. The placebo effect apparent in clinical trials consists of several components: natural recovery, regression of cough response toward mean, demulcent effect, effect of sweetness, voluntary control, and effects related to expectancy and meaning of the treatment. The placebo effect has been studied most in the pain model, and placebo analgesia is reported to depend on the activation of endogenous opioid systems in the brain; this model may be applicable to cough. A balanced placebo design may help to control for the placebo effect, but this trial design may not be acceptable due to deception of patients. The placebo effect in clinical trials may be controlled by use of a crossover design, where feasible, and the changes in the magnitude of the placebo effect in this study design are discussed. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Vinod C.P.,University of Cardiff
Catalysis Today | Year: 2010

Molecular level understanding of catalysis is fundamental to solve many problems related to activity, selectivity and a host of other issues. Over the years surface science techniques have been instrumental in shedding light into some of these fundamental questions. With the rapid advancement of instrumentation and microscopy techniques, the field of nanotechnology has taken unprecedented dimensions. Catalysis by nanoscale materials is an area, which has benefited most from this. A major area in nanocatalysis is aimed at identifying critical size and shape dependence of these materials towards various reactions of industrial importance. This article is aimed at looking at recent developments in the field of nanocatalysis along with the role of surface science towards understanding the role of active sites in catalysis. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Swann K.,University of Cardiff
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2013

At fertilization mammalian eggs are activated by a prolonged series of oscillations in the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration. These oscillations can be monitored with any number of Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dyes. The oscillations last for several hours at fertilization and so there are some considerations with mammalian eggs that make them distinct from somatic cells that are commonly used in Ca(2+) imaging experiments. I describe the use of two particular dyes that can be loaded into mouse eggs and that give the most valuable results. The first one is PE3 which can be loaded by incubation with the AM form of the dye which is membrane permeable. The other is rhod dextran which requires microinjection. Either one of these dyes offers advantages over the more commonly used fura2. I describe the way that the fluorescence from dye-loaded eggs is measured with a conventional epifluorescence microscope and a CCD camera. Source


Soe S.P.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Materials Processing Technology | Year: 2012

Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a thermal process and one of the main problems associated with it is "part curling". The aim of the work is to describe the degree of curling quantitatively and to provide suggestions to minimise the curl, thereby improving the overall part quality. In order to fulfil the task a benchmark part has been designed, fabricated and measured to allow the comparison between different processing parameters, the effect of placement in different areas of the build chamber, variations due to different part geometries, the effect of applying heat insulating base and finally, the evaluation between PA (Polyamide) and GFPA (Glass-filled Polyamide) materials. In this research an EOS P700, the largest commercially available SLS machine, has been employed. The curl results extracted from a series of builds are mentioned along with build pictures. The paper discusses the full description of these comparisons and recommendations for minimising the degree of curling. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Randall J.,University of Cardiff
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. Source


Cardno A.G.,University of Leeds | Owen M.J.,University of Cardiff
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2014

There is substantial evidence for partial overlap of genetic influences on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, with family, twin, and adoption studies showing a genetic correlation between the disorders of around 0.6. Results of genome-wide association studies are consistent with commonly occurring genetic risk variants, contributing to both the shared and nonshared aspects, while studies of large, rare chromosomal structural variants, particularly copy number variants, show a stronger influence on schizophrenia than bipolar disorder to date. Schizoaffective disorder has been less investigated but shows substantial familial overlap with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A twin analysis is consistent with genetic influences on schizoaffective episodes being entirely shared with genetic influences on schizophrenic and manic episodes, while association studies suggest the possibility of some relatively specific genetic influences on broadly defined schizoaffective disorder, bipolar subtype. Further insights into genetic relationships between these disorders are expected as studies continue to increase in sample size and in technical and analytical sophistication, information on phenotypes beyond clinical diagnoses are increasingly incorporated, and approaches such as next-generation sequencing identify additional types of genetic risk variant. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. Source


De Medeiros P.,University of Cardiff | Hollands S.,University of Leipzig
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2013

By conformally coupling vector and hyper multiplets in Minkowski space, we obtain a class of field theories with extended rigid conformal supersymmetry on any Lorentzian 4-manifold admitting twistor spinors. We construct the conformal symmetry superalgebras which describe classical symmetries of these theories and derive an appropriate BRST operator in curved spacetime. In the process, we elucidate the general framework of cohomological algebra which underpins the construction. We then consider the corresponding perturbative quantum field theories. In particular, we examine the conditions necessary for conformal supersymmetries to be preserved at the quantum level, i.e. when the BRST operator commutes with the perturbatively defined S-matrix, which ensures superconformal invariance of amplitudes. To this end, we prescribe a renormalization scheme for time-ordered products that enter the perturbative S-matrix and show that such products obey certain Ward identities in curved spacetime. These identities allow us to recast the problem in terms of the cohomology of the BRST operator. Through a careful analysis of this cohomology, and of the renormalization group in curved spacetime, we establish precise criteria which ensure that all conformal supersymmetries are preserved at the quantum level. As a by-product, we provide a rigorous proof that the beta-function for such theories is one-loop exact. We also briefly discuss the construction of chiral rings and the role of non-perturbative effects in curved spacetime. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


De Medeiros P.,University of Cardiff | Hollands S.,University of Leipzig
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2013

We show how the rigid conformal supersymmetries associated with a certain class of pseudo-Riemannian spin manifolds define a Lie superalgebra. The even part of this superalgebra contains conformal isometries and constant R-symmetries. The odd part is generated by twistor spinors valued in a particular R-symmetry representation. We prove that any manifold which admits a conformal symmetry superalgebra of this type must generically have dimension less than 7. Moreover, in dimensions 3, 4, 5 and 6, we provide the generic data from which the conformal symmetry superalgebra is prescribed. For conformally flat metrics in these dimensions, and compact R-symmetry, we identify each of the associated conformal symmetry superalgebras with one of the conformal superalgebras classified by Nahm. We also describe several examples for Lorentzian metrics that are not conformally flat. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Hopkinson J.B.,University of Cardiff
Nutrition | Year: 2015

Cancer in the geriatric population is a growing problem. Malnutrition is common in cancer. A number of factors increase the risk for malnutrition in older people with cancer, including chronic comorbid conditions and normal physiological changes of aging. Nurses have an important role in the nutritional support of older cancer patients. To contribute to the improvement of nutritional support of these patients, nurses need appropriate training to be able to identify risk for malnutrition and offer a range of interventions tailored to individual need. Factors to consider in tailoring interventions include disease status, cancer site, cancer treatment, comorbidity, physiological age, method of facilitating dietary change, and family support. This article identifies ways in which nurses can contribute to the nutritional support of older cancer patients and thus help mitigate the effects of malnutrition. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Martin T.A.,University of Cardiff
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2014

Over the last decade, it has become apparent that the tight junction (TJ) is a key component in tumour progression and metastasis. In addition to its role in the control of paracellular diffusion of ions and certain molecules, the TJ has a vital role in maintaining cell to cell adhesion and tissue integrity. Changes in the expression and/or distribution of TJ proteins can result in loss in cohesion of the TJ structure, which in turn results in the ability of cancer cells to become invasive and then ultimately lead to the metastasis of cancer cells. This review will discuss recent insights into how TJ are involved in the process of tumour metastasis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


This article examines the translation of a clinical governance concept - integrated care pathways (ICPs) - into an infrastructural technology. Building on previous work, the application of boundary object theory is extended in this article to argue that stakeholder enrolment in pathway methodology may be less thoroughgoing than originally assumed. Pathways have effectively aligned management and nursing interests around a quality agenda and nurses have emerged as the leaders in this field, but doctors have rather lower levels of engagement. It is suggested that the contradictory logics inherent in pathway philosophy (primarily as these relate to 'evidence') and the social organisation of ICP development foster a transformation of the concept when this is translated into the technology, creating a negative boundary object from the perspective of doctors. Medicine is a powerful actor in health care, which is consequential for whether pathways, as designated boundary objects, become boundary objects-in-use. It also has implications for the diffusion of the concept as a mechanism of clinical governance and the credibility of nurses as emergent leaders in this field. Qualitative case studies of ICP development processes undertaken in the UK National Health Service and ethnographic research on the ICP community provide the empirical foundations for the analysis. © 2014 The Author. Source


Baudouin S.J.,University of Basel | Baudouin S.J.,University of Cardiff
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Autism is a developmental disorder characterised by a high heterogeneity of clinical diagnoses and genetic associations. This heterogeneity is a challenge for the identification of the pathophysiology of the disease and for the development of new therapeutic strategies. New conceptual approaches are being used to try to challenge this complexity and gene cluster analysis studies suggest that the pathophysiology of autism is associated with a dysregulation of specific cellular mechanisms. This review will present the experimental evidence for a convergence of synaptic pathophysiology between syndromic and non-syndromic forms of autism, grouped under the generic term of autism spectrum disorders. In particular I will highlight the results from genetic mouse models identifying a convergence of dysregulation of the synaptic type I metabotropic glutamate receptor pathway in mouse models for autism spectrum disorders. These results help to build a new conceptual framework for the study of the synaptic phenotype of autism, which is important for the identification of new therapeutic strategies. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Syrett K.,University of Cardiff
Public Health Ethics | Year: 2014

Courts are increasingly obliged to adjudicate upon challenges to allocative decisions in healthcare, but their involvement continues to be regarded with unease, imperilling the legitimacy of the judicial role in this context. A central reason for this is that judges are perceived to lack sufficient expertise to determine allocative questions. This article critically appraises the claim of lack of judicial expertise through an examination of the various components of a limit-setting decision. It is argued that the inexpertise argument is weak when compared with other rationales for judicial restraint, such as the procedural unsuitability and lack of constitutional competence of courts. © 2014 The Author. Source


Smith A.,University of Cardiff
Nutritional Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Rationale: Recent research suggests that chewing gum may improve aspects of cognitive function and mood. There is also evidence suggesting that chewing gum reduces stress. It is important, therefore, to examine these two areas and to determine whether contextual factors (chewing habit, type of gum, and personality) modify such effects. Objectives: The aims of the present study were: (i) to determine whether chewing gum improved mood and mental performance; (ii) to determine whether chewing gum had benefits in stressed individuals; and (iii) to determine whether chewing habit, type of gum and level of anxiety modified the effects of gum. Subjects and methods: A cross-over study involving 133 volunteers was carried out. Each volunteer carried out a test session when they were chewing gum and without gum, with order of gum conditions counterbalanced across subjects. Baseline sessions were conducted prior to each test session. Approximately half of the volunteers were tested in 75 dBA noise (the stress condition) and the rest in quiet. Volunteers were stratified on chewing habit and anxiety level. Approximately, half of the volunteers were given mint gum and half fruit gum. The volunteers rated their mood at the start and end of each session and had their heart rate monitored over the session. Saliva samples were taken to allow cortisol levels (good indicator of alertness and stress) to be assayed. During the session, volunteers carried out tasks measuring a range of cognitive functions (aspects of memory, selective and sustained attention, psychomotor speed and accuracy). Results: Chewing gum was associated with greater alertness and a more positive mood. Reaction times were quicker in the gum condition, and this effect became bigger as the task became more difficult. Chewing gum also improved selective and sustained attention. Heart rate and cortisol levels were higher when chewing which confirms the alerting effect of chewing gum. Conclusions: Overall, the results suggest that chewing gum produces a number of benefits that are generally observed and not context-dependent. In contrast to some previous research, chewing gum failed to improve memory. Further research is now required to increase our knowledge of the behavioral effects of chewing gum and to identify the underlying mechanisms. © 2010 Maney Publishing. Source


Noble S.,University of Cardiff
Thrombosis Research | Year: 2014

The relationship between cancer and thrombosis is a complex one with the haemostatic system and mechanisms of cancer growth and metastasis inextricably linked. The possibility that antithrombotics may confer a survival benefit on cancer patients has been considered for over sixty years, over which time a growing body of evidence has suggested that drugs such as low molecular weight heparins may inhibit cancer growth and metastasis through a myriad of mechanisms. Much of the trial data suggesting a survival benefit has been obtained through secondary subgroup analyses in highly heterogeneous populations. To date no sufficiently powered studies have been undertaken which support the routine use of LMWH to improve survival in cancer patients. This paper will review the current evidence around the topic to identify where we currently stand in this exciting yet challenging field. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


The incidence of oropharyngeal carcinoma is increasing in many countries of the developed world, largely because of cancers caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV-positive patients may ask questions that fall outside the remit of traditional consultations held in head and neck clinics. The purpose of this article is to highlight key messages about HPV and oropharyngeal cancer that are relevant to patients. Key messages include: HPV is a very common virus that transiently infects most people at some point in their lives; HPV infection is transmitted by normal sexual activity and is not a marker of promiscuity or abnormal sexual practices; HPV infections may be acquired many years before a cancer develops and infection does not imply recent infidelity; long-term partners of HPV-positive patients do not seem to be at increased risk of HPV infection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Shelkovnikova T.A.,University of Cardiff | Shelkovnikova T.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Biochemical Society Transactions | Year: 2013

The discovery of a causative link between dysfunction of a number of RNA-binding proteins with prionlike domains and the development of certain (neuro)degenerative diseases has completely changed our perception of molecular mechanisms instigating pathological process in these disorders. Irreversible aggregation of these proteins is a crucial pathogenic event delineating a type of proteinopathy. FUS (fused in sarcoma) is a prototypical member of the class, and studies into the causes and consequences of FUSopathies have been instrumental in characterizing the processes leading to deregulation of RNA metabolism in neurodegeneration. In vivo models of FUSopathy have provided critical insights into the mechanisms of FUS toxicity and clues on the role of non-amyloid aggregates, which are hallmarks of these diseases. The present review summarizes the data on FUS aggregation signatures in available model organisms on the basis of overexpression of FUS variants. © 2013 Biochemical Society. Source


Tannock S.,University of Cardiff
Antipode | Year: 2011

Education and skill are increasingly used by states around the world as a central organizing principle in the regulation of migration flows. Immigration theorists have often claimed that use of education and skill to determine "who should get in" to a country is non-discriminatory, innocent and legitimate. Using the example of Canadian immigration policy, this article argues in contrast that skill-based migration regimes are discriminatory, violate core principles of public education provision, unjustly create second-class tiers of immigrants officially classified as "low skilled" in receiving countries, and contribute to a growing problem of "brain drain" of the highly skilled from sending countries worldwide. © 2011 The Author Antipode © 2011 Editorial Board of Antipode. Source


Archampong D.,University of Cardiff
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

A large body of research has focused on investigating the effects of healthcare provider volume and specialization on patient outcomes including outcomes of colorectal cancer surgery. However there is conflicting evidence about the role of such healthcare provider characteristics in the management of colorectal cancer. To examine the available literature for the effects of hospital volume, surgeon caseload and specialization on the outcomes of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer surgery. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and LILACS using free text search words (as well as MESH-terms). We also searched Medline (January 1990-September 2011), Embase (January 1990-September 2011) and registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Non-randomised and observational studies that compared outcomes for colorectal cancer, colon cancer and rectal cancer surgery (overall 5-year survival, five year disease specific survival, operative mortality, 5-year local recurrence rate, anastomotic leak rate, permanent stoma rate and abdominoperineal excision of the rectum rate) between high volume/specialist hospitals and surgeons and low volume/specialist hospitals and surgeons. Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Results were pooled using the random effects model in unadjusted and case-mix adjusted meta-analyses. Overall five year survival was significantly improved for patients with colorectal cancer treated in high-volume hospitals (HR=0.90, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.96), by high-volume surgeons (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.93) and colorectal specialists (HR=0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.94). Operative mortality was significantly better for high-volume surgeons (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.91) and specialists (OR=0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.91), but there was no significant association with higher hospital caseload (OR=0.93, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.04) when only case-mix adjusted studies were included. There were differences in the effects of caseload depending on the level of case-mix adjustment and also whether the studies originated in the US or in other countries. For rectal cancer, there was a significant association between high-volume hospitals and improved 5-year survival (HR=0.85, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.93), but not with operative mortality (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.33); surgeon caseload had no significant association with either 5-year survival (HR=0.99, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.14) or operative mortality (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.19) when case-mix adjusted studies were reviewed. Higher hospital volume was associated with significantly lower rates of permanent stomas (OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.90) and APER (OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.72). High-volume surgeons and specialists also achieved lower rates of permanent stoma formation (0.75, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.88) and (0.70, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.94, respectively). The results confirm clearly the presence of a volume-outcome relationship in colorectal cancer surgery, based on hospital and surgeon caseload, and specialisation. The volume-outcome relationship appears somewhat stronger for the individual surgeon than for the hospital; particularly for overall 5-year survival and operative mortality, there were differences between US and non-US data, suggesting provider variability at hospital level between different countries, making it imperative that every country or healthcare system must establish audit systems to guide changes in the service provision based on local data, and facilitate centralisation of services as required. Overall quality of the evidence was low as all included studies were observational by design. In addition there were discrepancies in the definitions of caseload and colorectal specialist. However ethical challenges associated with the conception of randomised controlled trials addressing the volume outcome relationship makes this the best available evidence. Source


Online fraud is the most prevalent acquisitive crime in Europe. This study applies routine activities theory to a subset of online fraud, online identity theft, by exploring country-level mechanisms, in addition to individual determinants via a multi-level analysis of Eurobarometer survey data. This paper adds to the theory of cybercrime and policy debates by: (1) showing that country physical guardianship (e.g. cyber security strategy) moderates the effects of individual physical guardianship; (2) introducing a typology of online capable guardianship: passive physical, active personal and avoidance personal guardianship; (3) showing that online identity theft is associated with personal and physical guardianship; and (4) identifying public Internet access and online auction selling as highly risky routine activities. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of studying country-level effects on online identity theft victimization. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (ISTD). Source


Disney S.M.,University of Cardiff | Warburton R.D.H.,Boston University
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2012

We illustrate the use of the Lambert W function by analysing two Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) scenarios: an EOQ model with perishable inventory; and a Net Present Value analysis of an EOQ problem with trim loss. Both scenarios are motivated by real-world situations. Via these two examples, we reflect upon the pedagogical aspects of using the Lambert W function. We present a Lambert W function 'look-up' table for classroom use and a Microsoft Excel 'Add-In' for self-study and practical use. We also illustrate the use of the Laplace transform to conduct NPV analyses of the EOQ model. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Maillard J.Y.,University of Cardiff
Critical reviews in microbiology | Year: 2013

Silver has been used for centuries. Today, silver and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in a wide range of healthcare, food industry, domiciliary applications, and are commonly found in hard surface materials and textiles. Such an extensive use raises questions about its safety, environmental toxicity and the risks associated with microbial resistance and cross-resistance. If the mechanisms of antimicrobial action of ionic silver (Ag+) have been studied, there is little understanding of AgNPs interactions with microorganisms. There have been excellent reviews on the bacterial resistance mechanisms to silver, but there is a paucity of information on resistance to AgNPs. Silver toxicity and accumulation in the environment has been studied and there is a better understanding of silver concentration and species in different environmental compartments. However, owing to the increased applications of silver and AgNPs, questions remain about the presence and consequences of AgNPs in the environment. This review provides an historical perspective of silver usage, an overview of applications, and combined information of microbial resistance and toxicity. Owing the evidence provided in this review, a call for a better understanding and control of silver usage, and for tighter regulations of silver and AgNPs usage is proposed. Source


Jervis M.A.,University of Cardiff | Moe A.,University of Minnesota | Moe A.,Syracuse University | Heimpel G.E.,University of Minnesota
Ecology Letters | Year: 2012

An important assumption in insect parasitoid life-history theory is that, within parasitoid complexes (species assemblages associated with particular hosts), members attacking young host stages are more fecund than members targeting older ones. This hypothesis reflects the general trajectory of host survivorship curves: as a host cohort ages, availability to female parasitoids declines, as can the risk that the host - and the parasitoid offspring it carries - succumbs to extrinsic mortality. However, the analyses that provided empirical support for the hypothesis did not control for phylogeny. Using the original datasets, we use phylogenetically corrected analyses to test whether the results of the seminal study are upheld. Although we show those findings to be robust, the decline in fecundity could be a sampling artefact. We conclude that it would be unwise to assume the paradigm to be generally representative of natural parasitoid complexes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS. Source


The current studies examined basolateral (BLA) and central nucleus (CNA) amygdala lesioned rats in flavour-taste learning. In Experiment 1 rats received access to a flavour paired with the palatable sweet taste of fructose while in Experiment 2 the same rats received access to a different flavour paired with the unpalatable bitter taste of quinine. BLA, but not CNA, lesions disrupted appetitive flavour-taste learning and prevented aversive flavour-taste learning. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003) in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making. © 2014 Foxall. Source


Upadhyaya M.,University of Cardiff
Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics | Year: 2010

Importance of the field: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a familial tumour predisposition syndrome with no current treatment regime. Neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product, is a Ras-GAP protein that downregulates Ras and when inactivated leads to increased cell growth, proliferation and eventually tumorigenesis. The Ras family proteins have a central role in cell biology and are of prime importance in cancer development. Areas covered in this review: This article reviews recent advances from the past 5 years, covering aspects of molecular and clinical diagnosis of NF1, genotype/phenotype studies, the RASopathies, NF1 tumorigenesis, mouse NF1 models and potential therapies. What reader will gain: The reader is introduced to recent advances in NF1 that focus on clinical and molecular diagnosis. The reader should gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of NF1 and of other NF1-like syndromes, and the challenges presented for clinical management. Take home message: A molecular diagnosis can usually be made in most NF1 patients using a battery of gene screening techniques. The sensitivity and specificity of mutation detection will increase with the introduction of new technologies and new bioinformatic tools. Pathogenic somatic mutations of the NF1 gene are increasingly being identified in tumours not usually associated with NF1, a clear indication that neurofibromin has a much wider biological role and has an importance far beyond NF1. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd. Source


O'Donnell V.B.,University of Cardiff | Murphy R.C.,University of Colorado at Denver | Watson S.P.,Institute of Biomedical Research
Circulation Research | Year: 2014

Lipids are diverse families of biomolecules that perform essential structural and signaling roles in platelets. Their formation and metabolism are tightly controlled by enzymes and signal transduction pathways, and their dysregulation leads to significant defects in platelet function and disease. Platelet activation is associated with significant changes to membrane lipids, and formation of diverse bioactive lipids plays essential roles in hemostasis. In recent years, new generation mass spectrometry analysis of lipids (termed lipidomics) has begun to alter our understanding of how these molecules participate in key cellular processes. Although the application of lipidomics to platelet biology is still in its infancy, seminal earlier studies have shaped our knowledge of how lipids regulate key aspects of platelet biology, including aggregation, shape change, coagulation, and degranulation, as well as how lipids generated by platelets influence other cells, such as leukocytes and the vascular wall, and thus how they regulate hemostasis, vascular integrity, and inflammation, as well as contribute to pathologies, including arterial/deep vein thrombosis and atherosclerosis. This review will provide a brief historical perspective on the characterization of lipids in platelets, then an overview of the new generation lipidomic approaches, their recent application to platelet biology, and future perspectives for research in this area. The major platelet-regulatory lipid families, their formation, metabolism, and their role in health and disease, will be summarized. Source


Lynch C.D.,University of Cardiff | Wilson N.H.F.,Kings College London
British Dental Journal | Year: 2013

The announcement of the Minamata Convention has triggered the lead into a phase-down in the use of dental amalgam. This paper considers aspects of this development in the context of the experience of banning the use of dental amalgam in Norway. It is suggested that strong top-down leadership and joined-up working by all relevant stakeholders, including patients, may be one of the most important keys to an effective, seamless transition to the provision of preventatively orientated, patient-centred, minimally interventive operative dentistry, based on state-of-the-art selection and application of tooth-coloured restorative materials. The benefits of such a transition are considered to be an important goal for dentistry in the UK. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Rosin P.L.,University of Cardiff
Computer Vision and Image Understanding | Year: 2010

This paper describes the application of cellular automata (CA) to various image processing tasks such as denoising and feature detection. Whereas our previous work mainly dealt with binary images, the current work operates on intensity images. The increased number of cell states (i.e. pixel intensities) leads to a vast increase in the number of possible rules. Therefore, a reduced intensity representation is used, leading to a three state CA that is more practical. In addition, a modified sequential floating forward search mechanism is developed in order to speed up the selection of good rule sets in the CA training stage. Results are compared with our previous method based on threshold decomposition, and are found to be generally superior. The results demonstrate that the CA is capable of being trained to perform many different tasks, and that the quality of these results is in many cases comparable or better than established specialised algorithms. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source


Jasani B.,University of Cardiff | Gibbs A.,Llandough Hospital
Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2012

Context.-Despite asbestos being identified as the single most important cause of malignant mesothelioma, the tumor is known to occur in only 10% to 20% of heavily exposed individuals. In addition, about 20% of the patients have no history of asbestos exposure even after detailed assessment. Therefore, there has been speculation for some time that asbestos alone may not be sufficient to cause mesothelioma and that other factors may be involved either as cocarcinogens or as independent mechanisms of cancer causation. Objective.-To give a brief review of nonasbestos fiber erionite and therapeutic radiation as 2 established examples of asbestos-independent mechanisms, of the potential emerging role of man-made fibers such as carbon nanotubes, and of polyoma virus SV40 (simian virus 40) as a potential example of the cocarcinogenic mode of involvement. Data Sources.-Relevant recent literature has been surveyed to portray and provide the evidence in favor of the examples. Conclusions.-Erionite has emerged as the most important example of nonasbestos-mediated cause of mesothelioma in regions such as Turkey where exposure to this type of fiber is highly prevalent. Recently, the polyoma virus SV40 has been unexpectedly discovered as an effective cocarcinogen of asbestos in the causation of animal mesothelioma, though despite considerable research, its potential role in human mesothelioma remains unproven. Source


Perrier S.,AGM Communication & Control Ltd. | Jarde T.,University of Cardiff
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone, expressed almost exclusively in adipose tissue, with significant antidiabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. The anti-carcinogenic effects of adiponectin result from two main mechanisms: a modulation in the signaling pathways involved in proliferation process and a subtle regulation of the apoptotic response. In this review, we present recent findings on the association of adiponectin with the risk of several malignancies (breast, colorectal, liver and prostate cancers), as well as data on underlying molecular mechanisms by which adiponectin plays a substantial role in cancer pathogenesis. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


Objective: To review the relative efficacy of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) and graduated compression stockings (GCS) stated in direct clinical comparisons. Summary Background Data: Both IPC and GCS are recommended for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis in surgical patients. Although both are known to be effective, guidance is less clear on the clinical grounds for choosing between the 2 devices. Methods: Major medical databases were searched for trial reports published between January 1970 and August 2008. All trials comprising a direct clinical comparison between IPC and GCS were reviewed. Results: Ten direct comparisons were found, 9 of which were with surgical patients. The difference in DVT outcome only reached statistic significance in 3, all of which showed IPC to have the lower DVT rate. Five of the trials that did not produce statistic significance included fewer than 40 patients in each study group. The crude cumulated DVT rate for all the trials was 5.9% for GCS and 2.8% for IPC. Conclusion: There is only weak evidence to show a difference in performance between the devices, however, given the many influential factors, caution should be taken in assuming equivalence. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Kerfriden P.,CNRS Clement Ader Institute | Passieux J.C.,University of Cardiff | Bordas S.P.A.,CNRS Clement Ader Institute
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2012

This paper proposes a novel technique to reduce the computational burden associated with the simulation of localized failure. The proposed methodology affords the simulation of damage initiation and propagation while concentrating the computational effort where it is most needed, that is, in the localization zones. To do so, a local/global technique is devised where the global (slave) problem (far from the zones undergoing severe damage and cracking) is solved for in a reduced space computed by the classical proper orthogonal decomposition while the local (master) degrees of freedom (associated with the part of the structure where most of the damage is taking place) are fully resolved. Both domains are coupled through a local/global technique. This method circumvents the difficulties associated with model order reduction for the simulation of highly nonlinear mechanical failure and offers an alternative or complementary approach to the development of multiscale fracture simulators. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Borodich F.M.,University of Cardiff
Advances in Applied Mechanics | Year: 2014

Connections between the Hertz-type contact problems and depth-sensing indentation of materials are studied. Formulations of Hertz-type contact problems with various boundary conditions within the contact area are discussed in detail. The problems under investigations can be subdivided into two large groups: self-similar problems for anisotropic materials with various rheological properties and adhesive contact problems for arbitrary bodies of revolution or for power-law shaped blunt indenters. Specific features of indentation problems are described and the common methods for extracting elastic and adhesive properties of materials are briefly reviewed. The basic formulae are extended to the case of nonslipping boundary conditions between a probe and the material. The main formulae of the JKR theory of adhesion are extended to any material with rotational symmetry of the elastic properties. These materials include not only isotropic or transversely isotropic elastic solids but also homogeneously prestressed isotropic or transversely isotropic nonlinear elastic materials. The BG method introduced for extracting adhesive and elastic properties of isotropic elastic materials from depth-sensing diagrams of spherical indenters, is described and extended to linear or linearized materials with rotational symmetry of the elastic properties. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Treasure T.,University College London | Milosevic M.,University of Novi Sad | Fiorentino F.,Imperial College London | Macbeth F.,University of Cardiff
Thorax | Year: 2014

Pulmonary metastasectomy is a commonly performed operation and is tending to increase as part of a concept of personalised treatment for advanced cancer. There have been no randomised trials; belief in effectiveness of metastasectomy is based on registry data and surgical follow-up studies. These retrospective series are comprised predominately of solitary or few metastases with primary resection to metastasectomy intervals longer than 2-3 years. Five-year survival rates of 30-50% are recorded, but as case selection is based on favourable prognostic features, an apparent association between metastasectomy and survival cannot be interpreted as causation. Cancers for which lung metastasectomy is used are considered in four pathological groups. In non-seminomatous germ cell tumour, for which chemotherapy is highly effective, excision of residual pulmonary disease guides future treatment and in particular allows an informed decisions as to further chemotherapy. Sarcoma metastasises predominately to lung and pulmonary metastasectomy for both bone and soft tissues sarcoma is routinely considered as a treatment option but without randomised data. The commonest circumstance for lung and liver metastasectomy is colorectal cancer. Repeated resections and ablations are commonplace but without evidence of effectiveness for either. For melanoma, results are particularly poor, but lung metastases are resected when no other treatment options are available. In this review, the available evidence is considered and the conclusion reached is that in the absence of randomised trials there is uncertainty about effectiveness. A randomised controlled trial, Pulmonary Metastasectomy in Colorectal Cancer (PulMiCC), is in progress and randomised trials in sarcoma seem warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions. Source


Fahnert B.,University of Cardiff
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Recombinant production has become an invaluable tool for supplying research and therapy with proteins of interest. The target proteins are not in every case soluble and/or correctly folded. That is why different production parameters such as host, cultivation conditions and co-expression of chaperones and foldases are applied in order to yield functional recombinant protein. There has been a constant increase and success in the use of folding promoting agents in recombinant protein production. Recent cases are reviewed and discussed in this chapter. Any impact of such strategies cannot be predicted and has to be analyzed and optimized for the corresponding target protein. The in vivo effects of the agents are at least partially comparable to their in vitro mode of action and have been studied by means of modern systems approaches and even in combination with folding/activity screening assays. Resulting data can be used directly for experimental planning or can be fed into knowledge-based modelling. An overview of such technologies is included in the chapter in order to facilitate a decision about the potential in vivo use of folding promoting agents. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Currie C.J.,University of Cardiff | Johnson J.A.,University of Alberta
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism | Year: 2012

There is no doubt about the value of exogenous insulin for people with type 1 diabetes. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss emerging evidence that this may not be the case for the majority of people with type 2 diabetes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Dwyer D.M.,University of Cardiff
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2012

Affective processes are a key determinant of behaviour: At its simplest, liked stimuli are approached while disliked stimuli are avoided. Although assessing hedonic responses in nonverbal animals can be difficult, one relatively tractable approach relies on detailed analyses of rodents' consummatory behaviour. Rodents typically produce rhythmic sets of licks that can be grouped into clusters on the basis of the intervals between licks. The mean number of licks in a cluster (cluster size) is directly related to the concentration of palatable and unpalatable solutions. These relationships suggest that lick cluster size might be a useful index of an animal's hedonic reaction to the solution being consumed. I begin by reviewing studies of conditioned flavour preference and aversion that support the idea that lick cluster size can provide useful information about rats' hedonic reactions. I then describe how this methodology has been used to address previously intractable issues in the investigation of contrast effects as well as revealing an analogue of effort justification effects that, in humans, are commonly explained in terms of cognitive dissonance reduction. Finally, I consider how lick analysis might provide information about hedonic responses in animal models of human psychiatric disorders. In all these cases, how an animal did something was particularly informative about why it was doing it. © 2012 Copyright The Experimental Psychology Society. Source


Holmes E.,Imperial College London | Li J.V.,Imperial College London | Marchesi J.R.,University of Cardiff | Nicholson J.K.,Imperial College London
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2012

The symbiotic gut microbiota modulate health and disease of the host through a series of transgenomic metabolic and immune regulatory axes. We explore connections between microbiome composition and function related to individual metabolic phenotypes and consider these interactions as possible targets for developing new personalized therapies and clinical management strategies. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Petersen O.H.,University of Cardiff
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2012

The pancreatic acinar cell synthesizes many digestive proenzymes, which are packaged into secretory (zymogen) granules and secreted by exocytosis upon the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, released from vagal nerve endings, or the hormone cholecystokinin. These secretagogues mobilize Ca 2+ from internal stores and thereby create the cytosolic Ca 2+ signals that control exocytosis. Exocytosis requires Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and ATP. Mg 2+ is present in millimolars concentration throughout the cytosol, but high cytosolic Ca 2+ concentrations need to be created in the local domains near the apical plasma membrane. A special group of mitochondria surrounding the apical granular area play a crucial role in confining cytosolic Ca 2+ elevations to this part of the cell by acting as a Ca 2+ buffer barrier. The Ca 2+ uptake into these mitochondria during apical Ca 2+ spiking stimulates mitochondrial ATP synthesis. ATP is also required for Ca 2+ extrusion via the plasma membrane Ca 2+ pumps, mainly located in the apical area, as well as for Ca 2+ reuptake into the endoplasmic reticulum. Because Ca 2+ extrusion occurs during Ca 2+ spiking, there is a need for compensatory Ca 2+ entry via store-operated Ca 2+ channels. Sub-plasmalemmal (peripheral) mitochondria play an important role in supporting both store-operated Ca 2+ entry at the base as well as the subsequent Ca 2+ pumping into the endoplasmic reticulum. A third group of mitochondria surround the nucleus. They protect the nucleus against unwarranted Ca 2+ signals generated elsewhere and are capable of confining Ca 2+ signals primarily generated inside the nucleus to this part of the cell. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


Riccardi D.,University of Cardiff
Current Molecular Pharmacology | Year: 2012

With a rise in the aging population, the global osteoporosis market represents a major unmet need and one of the greatest challenges for the pharmaceutical companies. Currently bisphosphonates constitute the mainstay antiosteoporotic treatment. They inhibit osteoclast-dependent bone resorption, and substantially reduce the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. However, bisphosphonates are only marginally effective in subjects with significant loss of bone mineral density. Furthermore, safety concerns have recently been raised due to an increased risk of low-energy fractures associated with long-term bisphosphonate treatment; hence the need for new osteoanabolic drugs. Transient fluctuations in plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) are a well-established bone anabolic stimulus and efforts have aimed at identifying new medical therapies that can reduce the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures and increase bone mineral density through modifications of circulating PTH. Two approaches have recently emerged in the search for new bone anabolics: a) administration of exogenous PTH, and b) administration of compounds, which evoke transient release of endogenous PTH, namely calcilytics. This review will focus on the potential use of PTH modifying agents as the new osteoanabolics. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


Carpenter B.K.,University of Cardiff
Theoretical Chemistry Accounts | Year: 2014

The possibility of influencing the selection of product-forming branches in a reaction with a bifurcating reaction path is explored. The reaction chosen is a substituted version of the well-known ring opening of singlet cyclopropanylidene. The substituents are arranged such that the starting carbene is meso (i.e., achiral) but the products are enantiomeric allenes. The question being posed is whether optical activity can be induced in the products by choosing the reaction to occur within a chirally disposed set of point charges. Direct-dynamics trajectory calculations are used to address the problem. It is found that, on a microscopic level, the point charges have a very significant effect on the choice of bifurcation branch. However, when the individual microscopic effects are averaged, to take account of free rotation of the molecule with respect to the charge array, the net effect is small (about 3 % enantiomeric excess after 500 fs). Nevertheless, even this small effect is larger than one might have predicted on the basis of an earlier analysis of electrostatic contributions to the interactions between chiral molecules. The reason is that the present simulation involves a concentric arrangement of chiral, polar objects, whereas the earlier analysis considered only a side-by-side arrangement. Through the use of numerical simulation, it is shown that two freely rotating arrays of chiral point charges exhibit larger diastereomeric discrimination when the arrays are concentric than when they are not, even for comparable average distances between the charges. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Hemmerlin A.,University of Strasbourg | Harwood J.L.,University of Cardiff | Bach T.J.,University of Strasbourg
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2012

When compared to other organisms, plants are atypical with respect to isoprenoid biosynthesis: they utilize two distinct and separately compartmentalized pathways to build up isoprene units. The co-existence of these pathways in the cytosol and in plastids might permit the synthesis of many vital compounds, being essential for a sessile organism. While substrate exchange across membranes has been shown for a variety of plant species, lack of complementation of strong phenotypes, resulting from inactivation of either the cytosolic pathway (growth and development defects) or the plastidial pathway (pigment bleaching), seems to be surprising at first sight. Hundreds of isoprenoids have been analyzed to determine their biosynthetic origins. It can be concluded that in angiosperms, under standard growth conditions, C20-phytyl moieties, C30-triterpenes and C40-carotenoids are made nearly exclusively within compartmentalized pathways, while mixed origins are widespread for other types of isoprenoid-derived molecules. It seems likely that this coexistence is essential for the interaction of plants with their environment. A major purpose of this review is to summarize such observations, especially within an ecological and functional context and with some emphasis on regulation. This latter aspect still requires more work and present conclusions are preliminary, although some general features seem to exist. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Hopkinson J.B.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle | Year: 2014

Background: Cancer cachexia has impact on patients and their family members. Patients experience loss of weight often accompanied by anorexia and other debilitating symptoms that have clinical impact and impact everyday life. The importance of understanding this impact lies in (1) the alleviation of cachexia-related suffering and (2) its implications for treating cachexia. Review: Two decades of exploratory investigation of the manifestations, meaning and management of cancer cachexia reveal emotional and social impacts for both patients and their carers. Patients can describe change in appearance and loss of physical strength often accompanied by change in eating habits (amount, type and pattern of food intake). The psychosocial effects can include loss of independence, sense of failure, sense of helplessness, conflict with family members over food, social isolation and thoughts of death. They are effects that can distress. Conversely, weight loss, especially early in its course and for those who are obese, can be perceived as beneficial, which inhibits self-management of diet and physical activity. Conclusion: Models of the psychosocial effects of cancer cachexia have been developed, leading to, as yet unproven, propositions of how negative patient and family impacts can be addressed. This literature overlooks the potential importance of psychosocial intervention to emerging multimodal treatments for the multicausal syndrome. Psychosocial intervention in cachexia should be tested for potential to help people affected by cancer cachexia feel better but also for potential to make people better by aiding uptake and compliance with multimodal therapy. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Abdulrahman G.O.,University of Cardiff | Rahman G.A.,University Of Ilorin
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Breast cancer continues to remain the most lethal malignancy in women across the world. This study reviews some of the epidemiological similarities and differences in breast cancer between white European women and black African women with the aim of optimising care for women with breast malignancy across the world. The incidence of breast cancer is lower among African women than their European counterparts. Majority of women in Europe are postmenopausal when they present with breast cancer; however, the peak incidence among African women is in the premenopausal period. Ductal carcinoma is the commonest type of breast cancer among women in Africa and Europe. However, medullary and mucinous carcinomas are more common in Africa than in Europe. While European women usually present at an early stage especially with the advent of screening, African women generally present late for treatment resulting in lower survival rates. There should be more research at the molecular level among African women to identify genetic factors that may contribute to the risk of developing breast cancer. There should also be improvement in the health care system in Africa in order to optimise care for women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Ganiy Opeyemi Abdulrahman Jnr. and Ganiyu Adebisi Rahman. Source


Sullivan P.F.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Daly M.J.,Harvard University | O'Donovan M.,University of Cardiff
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2012

Psychiatric disorders are among the most intractable enigmas in medicine. In the past 5 years, there has been unprecedented progress on the genetics of many of these conditions. In this Review, we discuss the genetics of nine cardinal psychiatric disorders (namely, Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, alcohol dependence, anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, nicotine dependence and schizophrenia). Empirical approaches have yielded new hypotheses about aetiology and now provide data on the often debated genetic architectures of these conditions, which have implications for future research strategies. Further study using a balanced portfolio of methods to assess multiple forms of genetic variation is likely to yield many additional new findings. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Caterson B.,University of Cardiff
International Journal of Experimental Pathology | Year: 2012

This review emphasizes the importance of glycobiology in nature and aims to highlight, simplify and summarize the multiple functions and structural complexities of the different oligosaccharide combinatorial domains that are found in chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate (CS/DS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. For example, there are 1008 different pentasaccharide sequences possible within CS, DS or CS/DS hybrid GAG chains. These combinatorial possibilities provide numerous potential ligand-binding domains that are important for cell and extracellular matrix interactions as well as specific associations with cytokines, chemokines, morphogens and growth factors that regulate cellular differentiation and proliferation during tissue development, for example, morphogen gradient establishment. The review provides some details of the large and diverse number of different enzymes that are involved in CS/DS biosynthesis and attempts to explain how differences in their expression patterns in different cell types can lead to subtle but important differences in the GAG metabolism that influence cellular proliferation and differentiation in development as well as regeneration and repair in disease. Our laboratory was the first to generate and characterize monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that very specifically recognize different 'native' sulphation motif/epitopes in CS/DS GAG chains. These monoclonal antibodies have been used to identify very specific spatio-temporal expression patterns of CS/DS sulphation motifs that occur during tissue and organ development (in particular their association with stem/progenitor cell niches) and also their recapitulated expression in adult tissues with the onset of degenerative joint diseases. In summary, diversity in CS/DS sulphation motif expression is a very important necessity for animal life as we know it. © 2012 The Author. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2012 International Journal of Experimental Pathology. Source


Jones I.,University of Cardiff | Chandra P.S.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Dazzan P.,Kings College London | Howard L.M.,Kings College London
The Lancet | Year: 2014

The perinatal period is associated with an increased risk of severe mental disorders. We summarise the evidence regarding the epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment of severe mental illness in relation to childbirth, focusing on bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia. We discuss women with ongoing chronic conditions and those with the onset of new episodes of post-partum psychosis. Despite the importance of perinatal episodes, with suicide a leading cause of maternal death, few studies are available to guide the management of women with severe mental disorders in pregnancy and the post-partum period. However, general principles of management are discussed, including the need for an individual risk-benefit analysis for each woman. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Cleall P.J.,University of Cardiff | Li Y.-C.,Zhejiang University
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering | Year: 2011

Analytical solutions are presented for analyzing volatile organic compound (VOC) diffusion through intact composite landfill liners for two scenarios with boundary conditions at the base of either a VOC concentration of zero or a VOC mass flux of zero. A time-dependent concentration top boundary condition is included in the presented analytical solutions to model typical variations of VOC concentration in the leachate over time. The presented solutions are verified against alternative numerical solutions and applied to analyze dichloromethane diffusion through a composite liner. The analytical solutions are found to provide useful predictions of VOC concentration and mass flux for the design of composite liners. VOC concentrations and fluxes at the base of the composite liner at 30 years predicted by consideration of representative transient variation in leachate concentration, for an example problem, are nearly half of those when a constant leachate concentration assumed. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Jaleel A.,University of Cardiff
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013

The islands of the Maldives are very low lying with an average of about a metre above mean high tide. Consequently, climate change and associated sea-level rise, is a very real threat faced by the people of Maldives and it may well be one of the most vulnerable in the whole world. For the Maldives, where the whole population practically lives on reefs, it would not be erred in stating that their livelihoods are totally dependent on the reefs and the services obtained from them. In addition to their directly obvious economic significance, the coral reefs are also responsible for the protection of the coasts from the open sea and storms and even from obliviation of these low lying islands.While effects such as coral bleaching are consequences of natural events, anthropogenic causes such as coral mining, siltation and pollution have contributed to loss of the Maldives' reefs. The institutions in place to manage, sustain and conserve the reef environment have implemented mitigation measures towards ensuring a healthy and sustainable reef environment. With a few Acts of Parliament, most legal authority is derived from regulations pursuant to these Acts. Though stakeholder involvement is limited, the industrial sector has taken initiatives to promote reef growth. Existing measures are producing desired outcomes. However lessons need to be learnt from other similar countries and more need to be done especially in way of provisions for safe garbage disposal, mitigation of marine oil pollution and improving human resources for better management and strengthen resilience. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gulden E.,Yale University | Wong F.S.,University of Cardiff | Wen L.,Yale University
Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial, immune-mediated disease, which is characterized by the progressive destruction of autologous insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The risk of developing T1D is determined by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. In the past few decades there has been a continuous rise in the incidence of T1D, which cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Changes in our lifestyle that include diet, hygiene, and antibiotic usage have already been suggested to be causal factors for this rising T1D incidence. Only recently have microbiota, which are affected by all these factors, been recognized as key environmental factors affecting T1D development.In this review we will summarize current knowledge on the impact of gut microbiota on T1D development and give an outlook on the potential to design new microbiota-based therapies in the prevention and treatment of T1D. © 2015. Source


Bleil De Souza C.,University of Cardiff
Automation in Construction | Year: 2012

This paper contrasts two different paradigms of design thinking: the one of the dynamic thermal simulation tool users with the one of the building designer. It shows that, in theory, the two paradigms seem to be incommensurable but complementary due to differences in knowledge and praxis between the two professions. The author discusses these differences side-by-side based on a review of the design science literature together with an analysis of the basic structure and knowledge involved in existing thermal simulation tools. This discussion aims to unfold a set of insights into the type of approach needed to move this research area further. It highlights the modus operandi of the building designer rather than focusing on collaborative efforts and sets up the backgrounds for designers to learn relevant concepts of building physics in an environment in which they can experiment with these concepts as 'craftsmen'. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Implementation of the hybrid discontinuous Galerkin/cohesive zone model method, which is a (volumetric) locking free single field yet highly scalable method for nonlinear fracture mechanics problems, is presented. In this method cohesive interface elements are placed at element surfaces prior to the simulation of which artificial compliance is removed by a discontinuous Galerkin formulation. The formulation is switched to a standard extrinsic cohesive crack model upon satisfaction of a failure criterion. We provide details on the computation of the internal force vector and the tangent stiffness matrix. Examples that consist of (in) compressible elasticity, microcracking of fiber reinforced composite materials and dynamic fracture are provided. This paper is addressed to researchers who would like to have a quick working implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin/cohesive zone model method. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Edwards P.G.,University of Cardiff | Hahn F.E.,University of Munster
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2011

Poly-NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) ligands emerged almost immediately after the first stable NHCs had been described. Macrocyclic ligands, featuring NHC donor groups and their metal complexes, however, remained rare until recently. This perspective highlights modern developments in the fields of synthesis and coordination chemistry of macrocyclic poly-NHC ligands. These include the synthesis of tetracarbene ligands which were obtained from complexes of β-functionalized isocyanides followed by cyclization of the coordinated iscocyanide ligands to NH,NH-functionalized NHCs and the subsequent metal template controlled bridging alkylation of the NH,NH-NHCs to yield the macrocycle. The template synthesis of ligands featuring a mixed NHC/phosphine donor set like [11]ane-P2CNHC and [16]ane-P 2CNHC 2 by linkage of NH,NH-NHCs to different phosphines is also presented. Finally, methods for the preparation of cyclic polyazolium salts, their deprotonation and metalation and the different modes of coordination of such macrocyclic poly-NHC ligands are discussed. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Pannarale F.,Max Planck Institute For Gravitationsphysik | Pannarale F.,University of Cardiff
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We present a model for determining the dimensionless spin parameter and mass of the black hole remnant of black hole-neutron star mergers with parallel orbital angular momentum and initial black hole spin. This approach is based on the Buonanno, Kidder, and Lehner method for binary black holes, and it is successfully tested against the results of numerical-relativity simulations: the dimensionless spin parameter is predicted with absolute error a 0.02, whereas the relative error on the final mass is a 2%, its distribution in the tests being pronouncedly peaked at 1%. Our approach and the fit to the torus remnant mass reported in thus constitute an easy-to-use analytical model that accurately describes the remnant of black hole-neutron star mergers. The space of parameters consisting of the binary mass ratio, the initial black hole spin, and the neutron star mass and equation of state is investigated. We provide indirect support to the cosmic censorship conjecture for black hole remnants of black hole-neutron star mergers. We show that the presence of a neutron star affects the quasinormal mode frequency of the black hole remnant, thus suggesting that the ringdown epoch of the gravitational wave signal may virtually be used to (1) distinguish black hole-black hole from black hole-neutron star mergers and to (2) constrain the neutron star equation of state. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Because few prospective studies have examined the independent influence of mothers and fathers on smoking experimentation, we tested the association between a set of parent-specific, familial and peer interactions with smoking experimentation in early adolescence. Data come from two cohorts in the British Youth Panel Survey (N = 1736; mean age at baseline, 11.26; SD = 0.65), a study of children resident with members of the British Household Panel Survey. Baseline data showed 8.2% of participants had smoked which increased to 40.3% after a 3-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression models showed risk factors for the onset of experimentation included frequent time spent with peers (P < 0.001), maternal smoking (P = 0.001), female gender and older participant age (P < 0.001). Parent-child quarrels, mother-child conversations, family meal frequency and household income were not significantly associated with experimentation. Frequent father-child conversations, about things which mattered to children, were the only type of parent-child contact associated with a reduced risk of experimentation (P < 0.001), and a significant interaction suggested that maternal smoking increased the likelihood of girls but not boys experimentation (P = 0.01). This study suggests that familial risk and protective factors operate independently and that more attention should be paid to the role of fathers in smoking prevention. © 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Walters D.,University of Cardiff
Safety Science | Year: 2011

This paper explores the relationship between worker representation and the prevention and control of psycho-social risks at work. It argues that to understand this relationship it is helpful to position it within the labour relations context in which it occurs and which helps explain the strengths and limitations of interventions involving worker representation.The paper opens with some important questions of definition with regard to psycho-social risks and worker representation and consultation on health and safety. It goes on to review the evidence for the success or otherwise of worker representation in health and safety generally and discusses this evidence in relation to the control of psycho-social risks specifically. It discusses the problems that the restructuring of work pose for the sustainability of the preconditions for the effectiveness of the statutory model on which worker representation on psycho-social risk is predicated. In so doing the paper notes that many of the features of current restructuring of work that present problems for traditional model of worker representation are the same ones that lead to the increased prevalence of psycho-social risks at the workplace.The paper identifies both barriers and opportunities presented by the changing world of work for achieving an improved preventive scenario for psycho-social risks and discusses the implications of these for current and future strategies of trade unions. It concludes that in the present political and economic climate the state cannot be relied upon for effective regulatory strategies on the psycho-social risks of work. In the absence, or much reduced presence, of this support, some joined up thinking on the part of organised labour is required. Interventions by health and safety representatives on psycho-social risks at the workplace level need to be fully integrated in such thinking if they are to be effective. © 2010. Source


Coulson-Thomas V.J.,Edith awley Vision Research Center | Caterson B.,University of Cardiff | Kao W.W.-Y.,Edith awley Vision Research Center
Stem Cells | Year: 2013

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are a family of related disorders caused by a mutation in one of the lysosomal exoglyco-sidases which leads to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS VII, caused by a mutation in β-glucuronidase, manifests hepatomegaly, skeletal dysplasia, short stature, corneal clouding, and developmental delay. Current treatment regimens for MPS are not effective for treating corneal clouding and impaired mental development. We hypothesized that human umbilical mesen-chymal stem cells (UMSCs) transplanted into the corneal stroma could participate in the catabolism of GAGs providing a means of cell therapy for MPS. For such treatment, human UMSCs were intrastromally transplanted into corneas of MPS VII mice. UMSC transplantation restored the dendritic and hexagonal morphology of host keratocytes and endothelial cells, respectively, and in vivo confocal microscopy (HRT-II) revealed reduced corneal haze. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies against heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains as well as lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 revealed a decrease in GAG content and both lysosomal number and size in the treated corneas. Labeling UMSC intracellular compartments prior to transplantation revealed the distribution of UMSC vesicles throughout the corneal stroma and endothelium. An in vitro coculture assay between skin fibroblasts isolated from MPS VII mice and UMSC demonstrated that neutral vesicles released by the UMSC are taken up by the fibro-blasts and proceed to fuse with the acidic lysosomes. Therefore, transplanted UMSCs participate both in extracellular GAG turnover and enable host keratocytes to catabolize accumulated GAG products, suggesting that UMSC could be a novel alternative for treating corneal defects associated with MPS and other congenital metabolic disorders. © AlphaMed Press. Source


Hahn U.,University of Cardiff
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2011

Normative theories provide essential tools for understanding behaviour, not just for reasoning, judgement, and decision-making, but many other areas of cognition as well; and their utility extends to the development of process theories. Furthermore, the way these tools are used has nothing to do with the is-ought fallacy. There therefore seems no basis for the claim that research would be better off without them. © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source


Kotecha S.,University of Cardiff
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews | Year: 2013

In this article, we debate the pros and cons for the surgical removal of asymptomatic antenatally diagnosed cystic adenomatous malformations (CCAM). It is often argued that asymptomatic antenatally diagnosed CCAMs should be surgically removed in infancy due to the risk of future malignancy, future risk of infection and other symptoms and of increased risk of surgery after infective episodes. However, the risk of malignancy is often overplayed and the risk may not even be decreased after excision of the CCAM. Furthermore, the risk of future symptoms is uncertain thus surgical removal will subject many infants to unnecessary risk. Medical follow up will decrease the numbers that undergo surgical intervention and newer imaging techniques are likely to decrease the radiation risk. Whichever route of management is followed there is an urgent need to outline the natural history of asymptomatic CCAMs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Thapar A.,University of Cardiff
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2015

A strong motivation for undertaking psychiatric gene discovery studies is to provide novel insights into unknown biology. Although attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, and large, rare copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to risk, little is known about its pathogenesis and it remains commonly misunderstood. We assembled and pooled five ADHD and control CNV data sets from the United Kingdom, Ireland, United States of America, Northern Europe and Canada. Our aim was to test for enrichment of neurodevelopmental gene sets, implicated by recent exome-sequencing studies of (a) schizophrenia and (b) autism as a means of testing the hypothesis that common pathogenic mechanisms underlie ADHD and these other neurodevelopmental disorders. We also undertook hypothesis-free testing of all biological pathways. We observed significant enrichment of individual genes previously found to harbour schizophrenia de novo non-synonymous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs; P=5.4 × 10-4) and targets of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (P=0.0018). No enrichment was observed for activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (P=0.23) or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (P=0.74) post-synaptic signalling gene sets previously implicated in schizophrenia. Enrichment of ADHD CNV hits for genes impacted by autism de novo SNVs (P=0.019 for non-synonymous SNV genes) did not survive Bonferroni correction. Hypothesis-free testing yielded several highly significantly enriched biological pathways, including ion channel pathways. Enrichment findings were robust to multiple testing corrections and to sensitivity analyses that excluded the most significant sample. The findings reveal that CNVs in ADHD converge on biologically meaningful gene clusters, including ones now established as conferring risk of other neurodevelopmental disorders.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 17 November 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.163. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source


Smith A.P.,University of Cardiff
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2013

Minor illnesses such as the common cold and influenza are frequent and widespread. As well as specific symptoms such as nasal problems and fever, these illnesses are associated with a behavioural malaise. One feature of this malaise is reduced alertness and this has been confirmed using subjective reports and objective measures of performance. Such effects have been obtained with both experimentally induced infections and in studies of naturally occurring illnesses. The mechanisms underlying the effects are unclear but possibly reflect effects of cytokines on the CNS which result in changes in neurotransmitter functioning that lead to reduced alertness. The malaise induced by these illnesses has many real-life consequences and activities such as driving and safety at work may be at risk. These illnesses not only have direct effects on performance and mood but also make the person more sensitive to effects of other negative influences such as noise, alcohol and prolonged work. Countermeasures include ingestion of caffeine and other drugs known to increase alertness. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Le Pelley M.E.,University of Cardiff | Le Pelley M.E.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition | Year: 2012

Monkeys will selectively and adaptively learn to avoid the most difficult trials of a perceptual discrimination learning task. Couchman, Coutinho, Beran, and Smith (2010) have recently demonstrated that this pattern of responding does not depend on animals receiving trial-by-trial feedback for their responses; it also obtains if experience of the most difficult trials occurs only under conditions of deferred feedback. Couchman et al. argued that this ruled out accounts based on low-level processes of associative learning and instead required explanation in terms of metacognitive processes of decision monitoring. Contrary to this argument, a simple associative model of reinforcement learning is shown to account for the key findings of Couchman et al.'s empirical study, along with several other findings that have previously been claimed to challenge associative models. © 2012 American Psychological Association. Source


Rousselle P.,University of Lyon | Beck K.,University of Cardiff
Cell Adhesion and Migration | Year: 2013

Laminin 332, composed of the α3, β3 and γ2 chains, is an epithelial-basement membrane specific laminin variant. Its main role in normal tissues is the maintenance of epithelial-mesenchymal cohesion in tissues exposed to external forces, including skin and stratified squamous mucosa. After being secreted and deposited in the extracellular matrix, laminin 332 undergoes physiological maturation processes consisting in the proteolytic processing of domains located within the α3 and the γ2 chains. These maturation events are essential for laminin 332 integration into the basement membrane where it plays an important function in the nucleation and maintenance of anchoring structures. Studies in normal and pathological situations have revealed that laminin 332 can trigger distinct cellular events depending on the level of its proteolytic cleavages. In this review, the biological and structural characteristics of laminin 332 domains are presented and we discuss whether they trigger specific functions. © 2013 Landes Bioscience. Source


McKeown N.B.,University of Cardiff | Budd P.M.,University of Manchester
Macromolecules | Year: 2010

The past decade has seen the development of microporous materials (i.e., materials containing pores of dimensions <2 nm) derived wholly from organic components. Here we review this nascent area with a particular emphasis on amorphous polymers that possess intrinsic microporosity (IM), which is defined as microporosity that arises directly from the shape and rigidity of component macromolecules. Although IM can be readily identified within soluble non-network polymers and oligomers, for network polymers it is harder to differentiate IM from template effects that are responsible for the microporosity within hyper-cross-linked networks. The numerous examples of microporous polymers assembled from rigid monomers by the formation of rigid linking groups are surveyed and their IM assessed. The potential applications of these materials are highlighted. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Min G.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2010

All current techniques for ZT measurement are carried out under a small temperature difference, despite the fact that thermoelectric devices are likely to operate under a relatively large temperature difference. In this paper, we describe a new technique which enables ZT measurement under a large temperature difference. The principle of measurement is presented, followed by a proof-of-concept study. The results of this study show that ZT values obtained under a large temperature difference differ significantly from those obtained under small temperature differences. The technique provides a more realistic evaluation of thermoelectric materials and devices. © 2010 TMS. Source


Monrouxe L.V.,University of Cardiff
Medical Education | Year: 2010

Context Medical education is as much about the development of a professional identity as it is about knowledge learning. Professional identities are contested and accepted through the synergistic internal-external process of identification that is constituted in and through language and artefacts within specific institutional sites. The ways in which medical students develop their professional identity and subsequently conceptualise their multiple identities has important implications for their own well-being, as well as for the relationships they form with fellow workers and patients. Objectives This paper aims to provide an overview of some current thinking about identity and identification with the aim of highlighting some of the core underlying processes that have relevance for medical educationists and researchers. These processes include aspects that occur within embodied individuals (e.g. the development of multiple identities and how these are conceptualised), processes specifically to do with interactional aspects of identity (e.g. how identities are constructed and co-constructed through talk) and institutional processes of identity (e.g. the influence of patterns of behaviour within specific hierarchical settings). Implications Developing a systematic understanding into the processes through which medical students develop their identities will facilitate the development of educational strategies, placing medical students' identification at the core of medical education. Conclusions Understanding the process through which we develop our identities has profound implications for medical education and entails that we adopt and develop new methods of collecting and analysing data. Embracing this challenge will provide better insights into how we might develop students' learning experiences, facilitating their development of a doctor identity that is more in line with desired policy requirements. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Purrer M.,University of Cardiff
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2014

Black-hole binary coalescences are one of the most promising sources for the first detection of gravitational waves. Fast and accurate theoretical models of the gravitational radiation emitted from these coalescences are highly important for the detection and extraction of physical parameters. Spinning effective-one-body models for binaries with aligned-spins have been shown to be highly faithful, but are slow to generate and thus have not yet been used for parameter estimation (PE) studies. I provide a frequency-domain singular value decomposition-based surrogate reduced order model that is thousands of times faster for typical system masses and has a faithfulness mismatch of better than ∼0.1% with the original SEOBNRv1 model for advanced LIGO detectors. This model enables PE studies up to signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 20 and even up to 50 for total masses below 50 Mφ. This paper discusses various choices for approximations and interpolation over the parameter space that can be made for reduced order models of spinning compact binaries, provides a detailed discussion of errors arising in the construction and assesses the fidelity of such models. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Choy E.H.S.,University of Cardiff
Nature Reviews Rheumatology | Year: 2015

Fibromyalgia is a common cause of chronic widespread pain, characterized by reduced pressure pain thresholds with hyperalgesia and allodynia. In addition to pain, common symptoms include nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, stiffness and mood disturbances. The latest research indicates that the dominant pathophysiology in fibromyalgia is abnormal pain processing and central sensitization. Neuroimaging studies have shown that patients with fibromyalgia have similar neural activation to healthy age-matched and gender-matched individuals; however, they have a lower pressure-pain threshold. Polysomnography data has demonstrated that these patients have reduced short-wave sleep and abnormal α-rhythms, suggestive of wakefulness during non-REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Sleep deprivation in healthy individuals can cause symptoms of fibromyalgia, including myalgia, tenderness and fatigue, suggesting that sleep dysfunction might be not only a consequence of pain, but also pathogenic. Epidemiological studies indicate that poor sleep quality is a risk factor for the development of chronic widespread pain among an otherwise healthy population. Mechanistically, sleep deprivation impairs descending pain-inhibition pathways that are important in controlling and coping with pain. Clinical trials of pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies have shown that improving sleep quality can reduce pain and fatigue, further supporting the hypothesis that sleep dysfunction is a pathogenic stimulus of fibromyalgia. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Owens D.R.,University of Cardiff
Diabetes technology & therapeutics | Year: 2011

The discovery of insulin and its clinical application early in the last century dramatically improved the prospects of people with diabetes. However, the limitations of those initial, unmodified insulin preparations were quickly recognized; most notably, their relatively "short action" meant that multiple daily subcutaneous injections were required. This stimulated a concerted effort to modify the properties of insulin in order to extend the duration of its blood glucose-lowering effect, minimize dosing frequency, and decrease the burden of treatment. The first successful attempts to prolong insulin's action were achieved by modifying its formulation with additives such as protamine and zinc, culminating in the production of "intermediate-acting" neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in the 1940s and the lente family of insulins in the 1950s. However, NPH and lente insulins were still associated with several limitations, including considerable variability of effect and a pronounced peak in their time-action profile. In the 1980s, the focus of research moved toward the modification of insulin itself with the aim of producing a "long-acting" insulin that would better satisfy basal insulin requirements over the entire day. Once-daily insulin glargine was the first "long-acting" insulin analog in clinical practice, followed by once- or twice-daily insulin detemir and, more recently, insulin degludec, which is now being evaluated for administration at less frequent intervals. These analogs demonstrate several benefits over "intermediate-acting" insulins, including a lower risk of both overall hypoglycemia and nocturnal hypoglycemia and reduced day-to-day glucose variability, making it more feasible to achieve better fasting and overall glycemic control. Long-acting insulin analogs (insulin glargine and insulin detemir) are now firmly established as key tools in the battle against diabetes, and ongoing clinical research of insulin-based therapy should focus on treatment strategies to maximize their benefits. To date, the clinical experience with insulin degludec is limited but demonstrates it has comparable efficacy to insulin glargine. Source


John R.M.,University of Cardiff
Biochemical Society Transactions | Year: 2013

A defining feature of mammals is the development in utero of the fetus supported by the constant flow of nutrients from the mother obtained via a specialized organ: the placenta. The placenta is also a major endocrine organ that synthesizes vast quantities of hormones and cytokines to instruct both maternal and fetal physiology. Nearly 20 years ago, David Haig and colleagues proposed that placental hormones were likely targets of the epigenetic process of genomic imprinting in response to the genetic conflicts imposed by in utero development [Haig (1993) Q. Rev. Biol. 68, 495-532]. There are two simple mechanisms through which genomic imprinting could regulate placental hormones. First, imprints could directly switch on or off alleles of specific genes. Secondly, imprinted genes could alter the expression of placental hormones by regulating the development of placental endocrine lineages. Inmice, the placental hormones are synthesized in the trophoblast giant cells and spongiotrophoblast cells of the mature placenta. In the present article, I review the functional role of imprinted genes in regulating these endocrine lineages, which lends support to Haig's original hypothesis. I also discuss how imprinting defects in the placenta may adversely affect the health of the fetus and its mother during pregnancy and beyond. © 2013 Biochemical Society. Source


Spivey J.J.,Louisiana State University | Hutchings G.,University of Cardiff
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Recent developments in natural gas production technology have led to lower prices for methane and renewed interest in converting methane to higher value products. Processes such as those based on syngas from methane reforming are being investigated. Another option is methane aromatization, which produces benzene and hydrogen: 6CH4(g) → C6H6(g) + 9H2(g) ΔGor = +433 kJ mol-1 ΔHor = +531 kJ mol-1. Thermodynamic calculations for this reaction show that benzene formation is insignificant below ∼600 °C, and that the formation of solid carbon [C(s)] is thermodynamically favored at temperatures above ∼300 °C. Benzene formation is insignificant at all temperatures up to 1000 °C when C(s) is included in the calculation of equilibrium composition. Interestingly, the thermodynamic limitation on benzene formation can be minimized by the addition of alkanes/alkenes to the methane feed. By far the most widely studied catalysts for this reaction are Mo/HZSM-5 and Mo/MCM-22. Benzene selectivities are generally between 60 and 80% at methane conversions of ∼10%, corresponding to net benzene yields of less than 10%. Major byproducts include lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight substituted aromatics. However, carbon formation is inevitable, but the experimental findings show this can be kinetically limited by the use of H 2 or oxidants in the feed, including CO2 or steam. A number of reactor configurations involving regeneration of the carbon-containing catalyst have been developed with the goal of minimizing the cost of regeneration of the catalyst once deactivated by carbon deposition. In this tutorial review we discuss the thermodynamics of this process, the catalysts used and the potential reactor configurations that can be applied. © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Stanley S.,University of Cardiff
European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling | Year: 2013

I argue that current theoretical understandings of mindfulness as an attention regulation strategy for psychological stress reduction and enhanced adaptation to society may produce de-ethicised therapeutic applications. I show how understandings of mindfulness in early Buddhism, psychotherapy and clinical psychology have changed over time. Current understandings of mindfulness as a skill or technique of bringing non-judgmental awareness (or bare attention) to present moment experience are historically recent and differ from early Buddhist understandings in at least one crucial respect: definitions of mindfulness as attentional control or metacognitive awareness lack an emphasis on deep ethical reflection. As such, we need to re-ethicise our conceptual understanding of mindfulness by remembering early Buddhist texts, where mindfulness involves the cultivation of an ethically sensitive style of remembering, which has largely been lost in contemporary definitions. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Bisson J.I.,University of Cardiff
European Journal of Psychotraumatology | Year: 2013

The inconsistent implementation of evidence-based practice has become a significant concern in the traumatic stress field. The European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) has played a major role in highlighting this issue and has contributed to a number of European initiatives to improve dissemination and implementation. Key initiatives include the introduction of the ESTSS General Certificate in Psychotrauma Psychotraumatology and the European Network for Traumatic Stress (TENTS); these are discussed in this paper. © 2013 Jonathan I. Bisson. Source


Mudge E.J.,University of Cardiff
International Wound Journal | Year: 2015

The challenge to balance limited resources with infinite demand has encouraged an evolution in the way health care services are managed and operated. Chronic wound management is complex and prolonged, and places a considerable financial burden on health services. A typical driver of cost includes the necessity to change dressings on a regular basis. Over the last few decades, several scientific and biological advances have furthered the development of wound care products and facilitated wound management. This article investigates some of the major advancements that have occurred within the wound-care arena during the last 5 years and how these advancements are being translated to provide better delivery of clinical care to patients. © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Jones A.,University of Cardiff
Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987) | Year: 2014

To evaluate nurses' and ward managers' experience of the Nurse Foundation Programme (NFP), with a view to improving future programmes. The NFP was introduced in 2008 to provide newly qualified nurses with standardised training and support during their first year post-training in Cardiff and Vale University Health Board. Anonymous evaluation forms were analysed and interviews with nurses and ward managers were undertaken. Evaluation form data were descriptively analysed, and interviews and free text comments were thematically analysed. The NFP was highly valued by attendees, offering timely knowledge and support for newly qualified nurses. Ward managers reported that the NFP made it easier to release time for newly qualified nurses to participate in training, while helping with skill mix decisions on the ward. The centrally planned and coordinated NFP was positively evaluated and led to a standardised approach to training and support for newly qualified nurses. Source


Crunelli V.,University of Cardiff | Carmignoto G.,University of Padua | Steinhauser C.,University of Bonn
Neuroscientist | Year: 2015

During the last 20 years, it has been well established that a finely tuned, continuous crosstalk between neurons and astrocytes not only critically modulates physiological brain functions but also underlies many neurological diseases. In particular, this novel way of interpreting brain activity is markedly influencing our current knowledge of epilepsy, prompting a re-evaluation of old findings and guiding novel experimentation. Here, we review recent studies that have unraveled novel and unique contributions of astrocytes to the generation and spread of convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures and epileptiform activity. The emerging scenario advocates an overall framework in which a dynamic and reciprocal interplay among astrocytic and neuronal ensembles is fundamental for a fuller understanding of epilepsy. In turn, this offers novel astrocytic targets for the development of those really novel chemical entities for the control of convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures that have been acknowledged as a key priority in the management of epilepsy. © The Author(s) 2014. Source


Stickler D.J.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

This review is largely based on a previous paper published in the journal Spinal Cord. The care of many patients undergoing long-term bladder catheterization is complicated by encrustation and blockage of their Foley catheters. This problem stems from infection by urease-producing bacteria, particularly Proteus mirabilis. These organisms colonize the catheter forming an extensive biofilm; they also generate ammonia from urea, thus elevating the pH of urine. As the pH rises, crystals of calcium and magnesium phosphates precipitate in the urine and in the catheter biofilm. The continued development of this crystalline biofilm blocks the flow of urine through the catheter. Urine then either leaks along the outside of the catheter and the patient becomes incontinent or is retained causing painful distension of the bladder and reflux of urine to the kidneys. The process of crystal deposition can also initiate stone formation. Most patients suffering from recurrent catheter encrustation develop bladder stones. P. mirabilis establishes stable residence in these stones and is extremely difficult to eliminate from the catheterized urinary tract by antibiotic therapy. If blocked catheters are not identified and changed, serious symptomatic episodes of pyelonephritis, septicaemia and endotoxic shock can result. All types of Foley catheters including silver- or nitrofurazone-coated devices are vulnerable to this problem. In this review, the ways in which biofilm formation on Foley catheters is initiated by P. mirabilis will be described. The implications of understanding these mechanisms for the development of an encrustation-resistant catheter will be discussed. Finally, the way forward for the prevention and control of this problem will be considered. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine. Source


Chadwick R.,University of Cardiff
Bioethics | Year: 2011

Issues in genetics and genomics have been centre stage in Bioethics for much of its history, and have given rise to both negative and positive imagined futures. Ten years after the completion of the Human Genome Project, it is a good time to assess developments. The promise of whole genome sequencing of individuals requires reflection on personalization, genetic determinism, and privacy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Martin P.,University of Bristol | Nunan R.,University of Cardiff
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015

Summary A considerable understanding of the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning healthy acute wound healing has been gleaned from studying various animal models, and we are now unravelling the mechanisms that lead to chronic wounds and pathological healing including fibrosis. A small cut will normally heal in days through tight orchestration of cell migration and appropriate levels of inflammation, innervation and angiogenesis. Major surgeries may take several weeks to heal and leave behind a noticeable scar. At the extreme end, chronic wounds - defined as a barrier defect that has not healed in 3 months - have become a major therapeutic challenge throughout the Western world and will only increase as our populations advance in age, and with the increasing incidence of diabetes, obesity and vascular disorders. Here we describe the clinical problems and how, through better dialogue between basic researchers and clinicians, we may extend our current knowledge to enable the development of novel potential therapeutic treatments. What's already known about this topic? Much is known about the sequence of events contributing to normal healing. The two pathologies of wound healing are chronic wounds and scarring. What does this study add? We explain how the cell and molecular mechanisms of healing guide the therapeutic strategies. We introduce zebrafish and the fruit fly, Drosophila as novel wound healing models. We highlight unanswered questions and future directions for wound healing research. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists. Source


Kumar D.,University of Cardiff
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Year: 2011

The practice of "evidence-based medicine" aims at the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the individualised patient care. The clinical genetics evolved from translational genetics research and contributes to the clinical care of patients and families through evidence-based health care in managing inherited disorders through accurate diagnosis, molecular pathology and assessing phenotypic correlations. Translational genetics and genomics research has led to the development of powerful tools for clinical diagnosis, assessing individual's genomic profile for disease prediction/prevention, high-throughput genome-wide screening for predisposition and/or protection to complex medical conditions, and discovery and development of new drugs and vaccines. Gene mapping and deciphering pathogenic mutations have helped in unravelling the basic biological mechanisms leading to new drug discovery and development. Targeted pharmacotherapy is now possible for managing the highly penetrant multi-system dominantly inherited conditions. Notable examples include rapamycin (sirolimus) in suppressing the mTOR pathway associated hamartomas in dominantly inherited cancer family syndromes and angiotensin converting enzyme receptor blockers (ACE-RB) in preventing aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome and related familial arteriopathies. The translational genomic research is the essential prerequisite for developing sound evidence-based diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic clinical protocols for the practice of personalised clinical medicine. Source


McNamee M.,University of Swansea | Phillips N.,University of Cardiff
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

The manner in which healthcare and medical professionals serve their athlete patients is governed by a variety of relevant codes of conduct. A range of codifi ed rules is presented that refer both the welfare of the patient and the maintaining of confi dentiality, which is at the heart of trustworthy relations. The 2009 version of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC), however, appears to oblige all healthcare professionals not to assist athletes if they are known to be engaged in doping behaviours under fear of removal from working with athletes from the respective sports. In contrast, serving the best interests of their athlete patients may oblige healthcare professionals to give advice and guidance, not least in terms of harm minimisation. In so far as the professional conduct of a healthcare professional is guided both by professional code and World Anti- Doping Code, they are obliged to fall foul of one or the other. We call for urgent and pressing inter-professional dialogue with the World Anti-Doping Agency to clarify this situation. Source


Kingdom S.E.,University of Cardiff
International maritime health | Year: 2012

Having initially reported on the overall level of stress in Her Majesty's Coastguard (HMCG), in a second study we found that a combined (negative) effects approach to stress was better able to identify the associated psychosocial risk factors than by using the well-documented Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) or Job Demand-Control Support (JDCS) models alone. Using the same combined effects method, this study now examines the negative health and wellbeing outcomes associated with the level of high stress found in this occupational group. Participants included 282 coastguards. A range of known stress outcomes were measured including: mental and physical health, accidents, risk taking, effects of memory, lifestyle, and job satisfaction. Significant associations were found with: anxiety, depression, number of sick days, perception that illness was caused or made worse by work, number of symptoms, medicines taken, insomnia, ability to maintain a desired body weight or take planned exercise and find time to relax and wind down, time spent on hobbies or interests, the impact of job on family life/family life on job, and job satisfaction. Sixteen negative outcomes were significantly associated with the combined effects approach, compared with 15 using ERI or 10 using JDCS alone. Results clearly demonstrated the harmful effects of stress in maritime related roles, other than those of seafarers and suggest that further research in this area would be useful. Further studies on the more flexible stress model, which allows for the examination of both established and new combinations of risk factors and associated outcomes, would also be beneficial. Source


Andrews R.,University of Cardiff
British Journal of Criminology | Year: 2011

In 2001, the UK government funded the introduction of a series of targeted situational preventive schemes and multi-agency partnerships to reduce deliberate fire-setting in vehicles. This paper explores the impact of these alternative arson-reduction strategies on vehicle arson in the areas served by fire authorities in England utilizing panel data for an eight-year period (1999-2006). The statistical results suggest that both forms of intervention have been successful in reducing vehicle arson, and that higher input intensity is also responsible for better outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (ISTD). All rights reserved. Source


Lisle R.J.,University of Cardiff
Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France | Year: 2013

The assumption is widely made that slip on faults occurs in the direction of maximum resolved shear stress, an assumption known as the Wallace-Bott hypothesis. This assumption is used to theoretically predict slip directions from known in situ stresses, and also as the basis of palaeostress inversion from fault-slip data. This paper examines different situations in relation to the appropriateness of this assumption. Firstly, it is shown that the magnitude of the shear stress resolved within a plane is a function with a poorly defined maximum direction, so that shear stress values greater than 90% of the maximum occur within a wide angular range (ß 26°) degrees. The situation of simultaneous movement on pairs of faults requires slip on each fault to be parallel to their mutual line of intersection. However, the resolved shear stresses arising from a homogeneous state of stress do not accord with such a slip arrangement except in the case of pairs of perpendicular faults. Where fault surfaces are non-planar, the directions of resolved shear stress in general give, according to the Wallace-Bott hypothesis, a set of slip directions of rigid fault blocks, which is generally kinematically incompatible. Finally, a simple model of a corrugated fault suggests that any anisotropy of the shear strength of the fault such as that arising from fault surface topography, can lead to a significant angular difference between the directions of maximum shear stress and the slip direction. These findings have relevance to the design of procedures used to estimate palaeostresses and the amount of data required for this type of analysis. Source


Cook J.,University of Cardiff | Cook S.,University of Swansea
Journal of Quantitative Criminology | Year: 2011

Existing research has uncovered little evidence against the hypothesis of US crime rates being unit root processes, despite the uncomfortable implications of this assumption. In light of this, the present paper draws upon noted changes in the temporal patterns of US crime rates since 1960 to undertake an informed approach to testing of the unit root hypothesis which incorporates two potential points of structural change. The results obtained show the unit root hypothesis to be rejected for all classifications of criminal activity examined over the period 1960 to 2007. In addition, the dates of the detected breakpoints are supported by a variety of arguments available in the existing criminology literature concerning alternative determinants of crime and their movements. Interestingly, a difference is observed in the nature of the breaks detected for violent and property crimes. However, potential explanations for this are again found in theoretical arguments available in the criminology literature. Finally, the implications of the current findings for the properties of crime, its subsequent statistical analysis and past and future research are discussed. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Chadwick R.,University of Cardiff
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics | Year: 2011

This quotation from the London Review of Books is an example of a turn-a different way of looking at things that involves a redefinition of the kind of thing higher education is and how it should be provided. It is a turn away from a public good perspective-the opposite, it might be said, of the kind of turn addressed in this article. © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source


Burgon H.L.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Social Work Practice | Year: 2011

There is a significant body of research into the benefits of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) but less into the fields known as equine-assisted learning and therapy (EAL/EAT) where horses are incorporated in therapeutic and learning interventions. This paper explores the experiences of seven 'at-risk' young people who participated in a therapeutic horsemanship (TH) programme. The study followed a practice-near approach seeking to capture the young people's experiences within a participative ethnography. Themes related to the risk and resilience literature such as self-confidence, self-esteem, self-efficacy and a sense of mastery, empathy and the opening of positive opportunities are explored in this paper. © 2011 GAPS. Source


O'Donnell V.B.,University of Cardiff | Murphy R.C.,University of Colorado at Denver
Blood | Year: 2012

Phospholipids are of critical importance in mammalian cell biology, both through providing a permeability barrier and acting as substrates for synthesis of lipid mediators. Recently, several new families of bioactive lipids were identified that form through the enzymatic oxidation of membrane phospholipids in circulating innate immune cells and platelets. These comprise eicosanoids attached to phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine and form within 2-5 minutes of cell activation by pathophysiologic agonists, via the coordinated action of receptors and enzymes. In this review, we summarize what is currently known regarding their structures, mechanisms of formation, cell biology, and signaling actions. We show that phospholipid oxidation by acutely activated immune cells is a controlled event, and we propose a central role in regulating membrane biology and innate immune function during health and disease. We also review the mass spectrometry methods used for identification of the lipids and describe how these approaches can be used for discovery of new lipid mediators in complex biologic samples. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology. Source


Broadley K.J.,University of Cardiff
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Trace amines, including tyramine, β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA), tryptamine and octopamine, are biologically active amines mostly based on phenylethylamine, occurring in the body in trace amounts. They are a diverse group of naturally occurring and synthetic amines, which are also found in the diet and in herbal plants, such as ephedrine and cathinone. They include amphetamine and its analogues, such as MDMA ('ecstasy'), and synthetic proprietary sympathomimetic agents such as phenylpropanolamine and pseudoephedrine. On the vascular system they cause vasoconstriction and a rise in blood pressure. This effect is the basis of their use as nasal decongestants. For over 50 years, they have been assumed to be indirectly acting sympathomimetic amines, their responses being due to the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurones. There are, however, results that suggest that this is not their only mechanism of action and that they may also exert direct vascular effects independent of a noradrenergic mechanism. Recently, a group of novel trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) have been cloned and identified in the brain and peripheral tissues including blood vessels. Trace amines bind to these cloned receptors and it is suggested that their vasoconstrictor effects can in part be attributed to this mechanism. This review describes the cardiovascular pharmacology of this diverse group of amines, their structures and uses and their endogenous synthesis and metabolism. The review also considers their clinical relevance as constituents of the diet, as therapeutic agents (ritodrine, phenylpropanolamine, and pseudoephedrine) and as drugs of abuse (amphetamine, 'ecstasy') and their mechanisms of action. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Jones T.,University of Cardiff
British Journal of Criminology | Year: 2011

Studies based on British Crime Survey (BCS) data suggest that the overall incidence of workplace assault is relatively low. However, these data have a number of limitations. They include only assaults carried out by clients or the public, provide limited information about the individuals involved and their workplaces, and tell us little about perceived causes of violence at work. The 2008 Workplace Behaviour Survey (WBS) presents a more detailed picture than has hitherto been available about the extent and nature of interpersonal assaults at work. This paper discusses in detail the WBS findings regarding the prevalence, frequency and patterns of workplace assaults in Britain. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (ISTD). Source


Jones D.K.,University of Cardiff | Leemans A.,University Utrecht
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) is the only non-invasive method for characterising the microstructural organization of tissue in vivo. Generating parametric maps that help to visualise different aspects of the tissue microstructure (mean diffusivity, tissue anisotropy and dominant fibre orientation) involves a number of steps from deciding on the optimal acquisition parameters on the scanner, collecting the data, pre-processing the data and fitting the model to generating final parametric maps for entry into statistical data analysis. Here, we describe an entire protocol that we have used on over 400 subjects with great success in our laboratory. In the 'Notes' section, we justify our choice of the various parameters/choices along the way so that the reader may adapt/modify the protocol to their own time/hardware constraints. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Schutz B.F.,Albert Einstein Institute | Schutz B.F.,University of Cardiff
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2011

This paper develops a general framework for studying the effectiveness of networks of interferometric gravitational wave detectors and then uses it to show that enlarging the existing LIGO-VIRGO network with one or more planned or proposed detectors in Japan (LCGT), Australia, and India brings major benefits, including much larger detection rate increase than previously thought. I focus on detecting bursts, i.e. short-duration signals, with optimal coherent data-analysis methods. I show that the polarization-averaged sensitivity of any network of identical detectors to any class of sources can be characterized by two numbers - the visibility distance of the expected source from a single detector and the minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a confident detection - and one angular function, the antenna pattern of the network. I show that there is a universal probability distribution function (PDF) for detected SNR values, which implies that the most likely SNR value of the first detected event will be 1.26 times the search threshold. For binary systems, I also derive the universal PDF for detected values of the orbital inclination, taking into account the Malmquist bias; this implies that the number of gamma-ray bursts associated with detected binary coalescences should be 3.4 times larger than expected from just the beaming fraction of the gamma burst. Using network antenna patterns, I propose three figures of merit (f.o.m.'s) that characterize the relative performance of different networks. These measure (a) the expected rate of detection by the network and any sub-networks of three or more separated detectors, taking into account the duty cycle of the interferometers, (b) the isotropy of the network antenna pattern, and (c) the accuracy of the network at localizing the positions of events on the sky. I compare various likely and possible networks, based on these f.o.m.'s. Adding any new site to the planned LIGO-VIRGO network can dramatically increase, by factors of 2-4, the detected event rate by allowing coherent data analysis to reduce the spurious instrumental coincident background. Moving one of the LIGO detectors to Australia additionally improves direction finding by a factor of 4 or more. Adding LCGT to the original LIGO-VIRGO network not only improves direction finding but will further increase the detection rate over the extra-site gain by factors of almost 2, partly by improving the network duty cycle. Including LCGT, LIGO-Australia, and a detector in India gives a network with position error ellipses a factor of 7 smaller in area and boosts the detected event rate a further 2.4 times above the extra-site gain over the original LIGO-VIRGO network. Enlarged advanced networks could look forward to detecting 300-400 neutron star binary coalescences per year. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Monrouxe L.V.,University of Cardiff | Rees C.E.,University of Dundee
Advances in Health Sciences Education | Year: 2012

Recent investigations into the UK National Health Service revealed doctors' failures to act with compassion and professionalism towards patients. The British media asked questions about what happens to students during their learning that influences such behaviour as doctors. We listened to 200 medical students' narratives of professionalism dilemmas during workplace learning (n = 833) to understand the range of dilemmas experienced and emotional reactions to them. 32 group and 22 individual interviews were held across three medical schools (England, Wales, Australia). Data were analysed thematically (Framework Analysis), for negative emotional content (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count) and a narrative analysis of one exemplar narrative was also conducted. While a wider range of professionalism dilemmas than previously identified were found, most were classified to five main sub-themes. Within these sub-themes, clinical students' narratives contained more negative emotion words than pre-clinical students' narratives (p = 0. 046, r = -0.36). Narratives of 'patient safety and dignity breaches by students' contained fewer anger words (p = 0.003, r = -0.51), 'patient safety and dignity breaches by healthcare professionals' contained more anger words (p = 0.042, r = -0.37), 'identity' narratives contained fewer anxiety words (p = 0.034, r = 0.38), and 'abuse' narratives contained more sadness words (p = 0.013, r = -0.47). The narrative analysis revealed a complex interplay between identities, attribution of blame, narrated emotions and emotional residue. Analysing emotional talk within narratives suggests that medical students sometimes struggle with contradictory formal and informal learning experiences around professionalism arising from a cultural clash. We provide educational recommendations to facilitate students' coping with their emotional reactions to professionalism dilemmas and to facilitate cultural change. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Devuyst O.,UCL Medical School | Margetts P.J.,McMaster University | Topley N.,University of Cardiff
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2010

The development of peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a successful therapy has and still depends on experimental models to test and understand critical pieces of pathophysiology. To date, the majority of studies performed in rat and rabbit models derive mechanistic insights primarily on the basis of interventional pharmacologic agents, blocking antibodies, or transient expression systems. Because body size no longer limits the performance of in vivo studies of PD, genetic mouse models are increasingly available to investigate the molecular and pathophysiologic mechanisms of the peritoneal membrane. We illustrate in this review how these investigations are catching up with other areas of biomedical research and provide direct evidence for understanding transport and ultrafiltration, responses to infection, and structural changes including fibrosis and angiogenesis. These studies are relevant to mechanisms responsible not only for the major complications of PD but also for endothelial biology, host defense, inflammation, and tissue repair processes. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source


Hopfe C.J.,University of Cardiff | Hensen J.L.M.,TU Eindhoven
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2011

Building performance simulation (BPS) has the potential to provide relevant design information by indicating directions for design solutions. A major challenge in simulation tools is how to deal with difficulties through large variety of parameters and complexity of factors such as non-linearity, discreteness, and uncertainty. The purpose of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis can be described as identifying uncertainties in input and output of a system or simulation tool [1-3]. In practice uncertainty and sensitivity analysis have many additional benefits including: (1) With the help of parameter screening it enables the simplification of a model [4]. (2) It allows the analysis of the robustness of a model [5]. (3) It makes aware of unexpected sensitivities that may lead to errors and/or wrong specifications (quality assurance) [6-10]. (4) By changing the input of the parameters and showing the effect on the outcome of a model, it provides a "what-if analysis" (decision support). [11]. In this paper a case study is performed based on an office building with respect to various building performance parameters. Uncertainty analysis (UA) is carried out and implications for the results considering energy consumption and thermal comfort are demonstrated and elaborated. The added value and usefulness of the integration of UA in BPS is shown. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Swann K.,University of Cardiff
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

At fertilization mammalian eggs are activated by a prolonged series of oscillations in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. These oscillations can be monitored with any number of Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes. The oscillations last for several hours at fertilization and so there are some considerations with mammalian eggs that make them distinct from somatic cells that are commonly used in Ca2+ imaging experiments. I describe the use of two particular dyes that can be loaded into mouse eggs and that give the most valuable results. The first one is PE3 which can be loaded by incubation with the AM form of the dye which is membrane permeable. The other is rhod dextran which requires microinjection. Either one of these dyes offers advantages over the more commonly used fura2. I describe the way that the fluorescence from dye-loaded eggs is measured with a conventional epifluorescence microscope and a CCD camera. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Lewis M.B.,University of Cardiff
Emotion | Year: 2012

The facial feedback effect (e.g., Strack et al., 1988) is explored in three experiments. It was found that when someone lowers their eyebrows, following instructions, their mood becomes more negative. If, however, they are instructed to raise their eyebrows they become more surprised by facts. Finally, if people are instructed to wrinkle their noses, then odors are evaluated as more unpleasant. While providing further diverse evidence for facial feedback, the experiments are also considered in the context of facial muscular paralysis induced as part of cosmetic treatments using botulinum toxin. The research presented here supports the previously suggested idea that such treatments could reduce depression, but other possible psychological impacts of such treatments are considered. © 2012 American Psychological Association. Source


Morgan B.P.,University of Cardiff
Expert Review of Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

The complement system is a major component of innate immunity and a potent driver of inflammation. It has key roles in host defense against pathogens but can also contribute to pathology by driving inflammation and cell damage in diverse diseases. Complement has emerged as an important factor in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases of the CNS and PNS, including infectious, autoimmune and degenerative disorders, and is increasingly implicated in neuropsychiatric disease. Establishing the roles and relevance of complement in disease pathogenesis has become ever more important in recent years as new drugs targeting the complement system have reached the clinic, and the potential for using complement analytes as disease biomarkers has been recognized. In this brief review, the author summarizes the evidence implicating complement in these diseases and outlines ways in which this new understanding can be used to aid diagnosis and improve outcome. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


O'Hagan M.,Bro. Morgannwg NHS Trust | Harvey J.N.,University of Cardiff
Diabetes Care | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE - To determine whether glycemic control is improving in diabetic children in Wales and to identify factors associated with improvement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Data were collected in 2001 and 2006. RESULTS - Over time A1C was reduced from 9.08 ± 1.66 to 8.88 ± 1.63% (P = 0.012). There were differences among centers (P<0.001) and differential changes over time (interaction P < 0.001). Since 2001 five centers had appointed a pediatric diabetes specialist nurse (PDSN). A1C improved in these centers from 9.59±1.88 to 8.72±1.61% (P<0.001). Glycemic control was worse in children aged >10 years compared with younger patients (P < 0.001). Improvement occurred in those aged >10 years. Age (P = 0.003) and insulin dose (P < 0.001) were positively and independently associated with A1C. Thus, any influence of PDSNs was not achieved through increased insulin prescription. CONCLUSIONS - Improvement in glycemic control has occurred. Worse control is associated with greater prescribed insulin dose in older children. Appointment of PDSNs was associated with improved glycemic control among adolescents. © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Foster G.L.,UK National Oceanography Center | Lear C.H.,University of Cardiff | Rae J.W.B.,University of Bristol
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2012

The middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (17-15Ma; MCO) is a period of global warmth and relatively high CO 2 and is thought to be associated with a significant retreat of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). We present here a new planktic foraminiferal δ 11B record from 16.6 to 11.8Ma from two deep ocean sites currently in equilibrium with the atmosphere with respect to CO 2. These new data demonstrate that the evolution of global climate during the middle Miocene (as reflected by changes in the cyrosphere) was well correlated to variations in the concentration of atmospheric CO 2. What is more, within our sampling resolution (~1 sample per 300kyr) there is no evidence of hysteresis in the response of ice volume to CO 2 forcing during the middle Miocene, contrary to what is understood about the Antarctic Ice Sheet from ice sheet modelling studies. In agreement with previous data, we show that absolute levels of CO 2 during the MCO were relatively modest (350-400ppm) and levels either side of the MCO are similar or lower than the pre-industrial (200-260ppm). These new data imply the presence of either a very dynamic AIS at relatively low CO 2 during the middle Miocene or the advance and retreat of significant northern hemisphere ice. Recent drilling on the Antarctic margin and shore based studies indicate significant retreat and advance beyond the modern limits of the AIS did occur during the middle Miocene, but the complete loss of the AIS was unlikely. Consequently, it seems that ice volume and climate variations during the middle Miocene probably involved a more dynamic AIS than the modern but also some component of land-based ice in the northern hemisphere. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Knorr G.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Knorr G.,University of Cardiff | Lohmann G.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Lohmann G.,University of Bremen
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2014

During the Middle Miocene climate transition about 14 million years ago, the Antarctic ice sheet expanded to near-modern volume. Surprisingly, this ice sheet growth was accompanied by a warming in the surface waters of the Southern Ocean, whereas a slight deep-water temperature increase was delayed by more than 200 thousand years. Here we use a coupled atmosphere-ocean model to assess the relative effects of changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and ice sheet growth on regional and global temperatures. In the simulations, changes in the wind field associated with the growth of the ice sheet induce changes in ocean circulation, deep-water formation and sea-ice cover that result in sea surface warming and deep-water cooling in large swaths of the Atlantic and Indian ocean sectors of the Southern Ocean. We interpret these changes as the dominant ocean surface response to a 100-thousand-year phase of massive ice growth in Antarctica. A rise in global annual mean temperatures is also seen in response to increased Antarctic ice surface elevation. In contrast, the longer-term surface and deep-water temperature trends are dominated by changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We therefore conclude that the climatic and oceanographic impacts of the Miocene expansion of the Antarctic ice sheet are governed by a complex interplay between wind field, ocean circulation and the sea-ice system. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Francis D.,University of Cardiff
Annals of Botany | Year: 2011

BackgroundThe complex events of mitosis rely on precise timing and on immaculate preparation for their success, but the G2/M transition in the plant cell cycle is currently steeped in controversy and alternative models.ScopeIn this brief review, the regulation of the G2/M transition in plants is commented on. The extent to which the G2/M transition is phosphoregulated by WEE1 kinase and CDC25 phosphatase, as exemplified in yeasts and animals, is discussed together with an alternative model that excludes these proteins from this transition. Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional lines for WEE1 and CDC25 that develop normally prompted the latter model. An argument is then presented that environmental stress is the norm for higher plants in temperate conditions. If so, the repressive role that WEE1 has under checkpoint conditions might be part of the normal cell cycle for many proliferative plant cells. Arabidopsis CDC25 can function as either a phosphatase or an arsenate reductase and recent evidence suggests that cdc25 knockouts are hypersensitive to hydroxyurea, a drug that induces the DNA-replication checkpoint. That other data show a null response of these knockouts to hydroxyurea leads to an airing of the controversy surrounding the enigmatic plant CDC25 at the G2/M transition. © 2011 The Author. Source


Hillman A.,University of Cardiff
Sociology of Health and Illness | Year: 2014

This article examines the processes of negotiation that occur between patients and medical staff over accessing emergency medical resources. The field extracts are drawn from an ethnographic study of a UK emergency department (ED) in a large, inner city teaching hospital. The article focuses on the triage system for patient prioritisation as the first point of access to the ED. The processes of categorising patients for priority of treatment and care provide staff with the opportunities to maintain control over what defines the ED as a service, as types of work and as particular kinds of patients. Patients and relatives are implicated in this categorical work in the course of interactions with staff as they provide reasons and justifications for their attendance. Their success in legitimising their claim to treatment depends upon self-presentation and identity work that (re)produces individual responsibility as a dominant moral order. The extent to which people attending the ED can successfully perform as legitimate is shown to contribute to their placement into positive or negative staff-constituted patient categories, thus shaping their access to the resources of emergency medicine and their experience of care. © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Pearce J.A.,University of Cardiff
Elements | Year: 2014

Much of our understanding of ocean ridges has come from the collection and analysis of glasses recovered from ridge axes. However, applying the resulting methodologies to ophiolite complexes is not straightforward because ophiolites typically experience intense alteration during their passage from ridge to subduction zone to mountain belt. Instead, immobile element proxies for fractionation indices, alkalinity, mantle temperature, mantle flow and subduction addition may be used to classify ophiolite lavas and fingerprint the precise setting of the ridge at which an ophiolite formed. The results can help us recognise and interpret past spreading centres and so make plate tectonic reconstructions. Source


Harris K.D.M.,University of Cardiff
Topics in Current Chemistry | Year: 2012

Many important crystalline solids cannot be prepared as single crystals of suitable size and quality for structural characterization by conventional single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques and can instead be prepared only as microcrystalline powders. However, recent advances in techniques for determining crystal structures directly from powder X-ray diffraction data have created a unique opportunity for establishing structural properties of such materials. This chapter surveys the applications of powder X-ray diffraction across various aspects of structural and materials chemistry, focusing mainly on the opportunities that have emerged in recent years for carrying out complete crystal structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction data and giving particular emphasis to the case of molecular crystal structures. The current scope and future potential of powder X-ray diffraction as a strategy for crystal structure determination are discussed, and examples of applications across several disciplines of materials chemistry are presented. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Kirov G.,University of Cardiff
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2010

Recent developments in microarray technology have revealed the presence of many submicroscopic deletions and duplications in the human genome. Some of these have been found to increase the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Over the last 2 years, several large studies on schizophrenia have implicated large deletions and duplications that increase the risk of developing this disorder. It is now clear that rare deletions at 1q21.1, 15q13.3, 15q11.2 and 22q11.2, as well as duplications at 16p11.2 and 16p13.1, increase the risk of developing schizophrenia. They are found collectively in up to 3% of patients; therefore, they account for only a small proportion of the genetic causes of schizophrenia. In this paper I will review the evidence for these findings. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source


Werner H.-J.,University of Stuttgart | Knowles P.J.,University of Cardiff | Knizia G.,University of Stuttgart | Manby F.R.,University of Bristol | Schutz M.,University of Regensburg
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Molecular Science | Year: 2012

Molpro (available at) is a general-purpose quantum chemical program. The original focus was on high-accuracy wave function calculations for small molecules, but using local approximations combined with explicit correlation treatments, highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations are now possible for molecules with up to approximately 100 atoms. Recently, multireference correlation treatments were also made applicable to larger molecules. Furthermore, an efficient implementation of density functional theory is available. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Wu F.,University of Cardiff | Phelps N.A.,University College London
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2011

Chinese cities are experiencing rapid urban expansion and rampant land conversions in periurban areas. Has China's suburban growth gone beyond commonly noted suburbanisation'? To what extent does fast metropolitan growth reflect state entrepreneurialism after economic reform? The authors seek to elaborate further and contextualise Chinese suburban and postsuburban development and examine the underlying dynamics of state entrepreneurialism in the process of metropolitan development. The empirical basis of this research is a case study of the historical development of Yizhuang, an outer suburban new town of Beijing. The city originates from the establishment of the Beijing Economic and Technological Development Zone in 1992, but has passed rapidly through several phases of growth. The pattern of growth reveals both the complexities of adequately defining and delimiting such a growth node within the metropolitan fabric and of the state's intimate involvement in its development and evolution. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors. Source


Recent years have witnessed substantial advances in the precision and availability of digital infrastructure data, remote sensing data, and microscale socioeconomic data for urban areas in many parts of the world. However, these data still remain deficient in detail especially with respect to the fine-grained property-level structural attributes that form the basis of housing-market models and simulations. This lack of detail is hindering the development of house-price models, the validation of housing-market theories, and restricting the quality of empirical input into urban planning. A methodology is developed for deriving estimates of floor area for individual properties from the integration of Ordnance Survey Mastermap data and Environment Agency LiDAR data for an area in the city of Cardiff, Wales. Floor area is an important determinant of house price and a fundamental variable in housing-market models. The estimates are validated against measures of floor area obtained from an estate-agent survey of a large sample of properties. The research investigates the reasons for the differences in the estimates and the implications for the methodology. The paper concludes with a discussion about how the methodology can be developed and some future research applications. © 2009 Pion Ltd and its Licensors. Source


Walsh T.R.,University of Cardiff
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2010

The celestial rise in antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria has challenged both the scientific and pharmaceutical sectors. The hallmark of this general increase is the unbridled dissemination of carbapenem resistance genes, namely KPC, OXA and metallo-β-lactamase variants. In particular, the media attention given to the NDM-1 metallo-β-lactamase has highlighted the global consequences of human behaviour on spreading antibiotic resistance. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source


Stickler D.J.,University of Cardiff | Feneley R.C.L.,North Bristol NHS Trust
Spinal Cord | Year: 2010

Objectives: To review the literature showing that understanding how Foley catheters become encrusted and blocked by crystalline bacterial biofilms has led to strategies for the control of this complication in the care of patients undergoing long-term indwelling bladder catheterization. Methods: A comprehensive PubMed search of the literature published between 1980 and December 2009 was made for relevant articles using the Medical Subject Heading terms biofilms, urinary catheterization, catheter-associated urinary tract infection and urolithiasis. Papers on catheter-associated urinary tract infections and bacterial biofilms collected during 40 years of working in the field were also reviewed.Results: There is strong experimental and epidemiological evidence that infection by Proteus mirabilis is the main cause of the crystalline biofilms that encrust and block Foley catheters. The ability of P. mirabilis to generate alkaline urine and to colonize all available types of indwelling catheters allows it to take up stable residence in the catheterized tract in bladder stones and cause recurrent catheter blockage.Conclusion:The elimination of P. mirabilis by antibiotic therapy as soon as it appears in the catheterized urinary tract could improve the quality of life for many patients and reduce the current expenditure of resources when managing the complications of catheter encrustation and blockage. For patients who are already chronic blockers and stone formers, antibiotic treatment is unlikely to be effective owing to the resistance of cells in the crystalline biofilms. Strategies such as increasing fluid intake with citrated drinks could control the problem until bladder stone removal can be organized. © 2010 International Spinal Cord Society All rights reserved. Source


Ng M.F.,University of Cardiff
International Wound Journal | Year: 2010

Mast cells are predominantly found in the vicinity of connective tissue vessels of skin and mucosa. The main immunological functions of mast cells are in IgE-mediated reactions and in helminth infestations. Mast cells respond to tissue injury by releasing inflammatory mediators and have been implicated in diseases of excessive fibrosis of the dermis such as scleroderma. Current evidence suggests that mast cells exert its role during inflammation and cellular proliferation. Animal models have shown that by stabilising mast cells at the early stages of wound healing, wound contraction is reduced. Mast cells are an ideal candidate to play a pivotal role in wound healing due to its location, substances released and clinical associations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc. Source


Drevinek P.,Charles University | Mahenthiralingam E.,University of Cardiff
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2010

Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria have gained notoriety as pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF) because they are difficult to identify and treat, and also have the ability to spread between CF individuals. Of the 17 formally named species within the complex, Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia cenocepacia dominate in CF. Multilocus sequence typing has proven to be a very useful tool for tracing the global epidemiology of Bcc bacteria and has shown that B. cenocepacia strains with high transmissibility, such as the ET-12 strain (ST-28) and the Czech strain (ST-32), have spread epidemically within CF populations in Canada and Europe. The majority of research on the molecular pathogenesis of Bcc bacteria has focused on the B. cenocepacia ET-12 epidemic lineage, with gene mutation, genome sequence analysis and, most recently, global gene expression studies shedding considerable light on the virulence and antimicrobial resistance of this pathogen. These studies demonstrate that the ability of B. cenocepacia to acquire foreign DNA (genomic islands, insertion sequences and other mobile elements), regulate gene expression via quorum sensing, compete for iron during infection, and mediate antimicrobial resistance and inflammation via its membrane and surface polysaccharides are key features that underpin the virulence of different strains. With the wealth of molecular knowledge acquired in the last decade on B. cenocepacia strains, we are now in a much better position to develop strategies for the treatment of pathogenic colonization with Bcc and to answer key questions on pathogenesis concerning, for example, the factors that trigger the rapid clinical decline in CF patients. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source


Fiander A.N.,University of Cardiff
Women's Health | Year: 2011

In this article we aim to draw attention to the burden of cervical cancer in Africa for reproductive health and review strategies for prevention, including appropriate noncytology-based cervical screening and prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination. We consider the heavy burden of disease attributable to human papillomavirus infection borne by developing countries, particularly in Africa. Following identification of the human papillomavirus as the infectious etiological agent and elucidation of the long natural history of cervical neoplasia, cervical cancer is now one of the most preventable of all cancers. Opportunities for primary prevention by prophylactic vaccination and secondary prevention by appropriate cervical screening are discussed, together with the importance of population coverage. Qualitative work on attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention, education needs, the creation of an environment for informed choice and uptake are essential aspects of effective prevention programs. Cervical cancer poses a huge health burden in Africa. It is a disease that is eminently preventable given political will, the availability of affordable vaccines, appropriate cervical screening and access to cheap, point-of-care human papillomavirus testing. There are a number of unanswered questions for the prevention of cervical cancer and a need for demonstration projects to address these and further develop prevention strategies. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Fairhurst S.,University of Cardiff
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2011

We derive an expression for the accuracy with which sources can be localized using a network of gravitational wave detectors. The result is obtained via triangulation, using timing accuracies at each detector and is applicable to a network with any number of detectors. We use this result to investigate the ability of advanced gravitational wave detector networks to accurately localize signals from compact binary coalescences. We demonstrate that additional detectors can significantly improve localization results and illustrate our findings with networks comprised of the advanced LIGO, advanced Virgo and LCGT. In addition, we evaluate the benefits of relocating one of the advanced LIGO detectors to Australia. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Inglesfield J.E.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2011

The Dirac-Frenkel variational principle is used to derive the embedding method for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Embedding allows the time evolution of the wavefunction to be calculated explicitly in a limited region of space, the region of physical interest, the embedding potential ensuring that the wavefunction satisfies the correct boundary conditions for matching on to the rest of the system. This is applied to a study of the excitation of electrons at a metal surface, represented by a one-dimensional model potential for Cu(111). Time-dependent embedding potentials are derived for replacing the bulk substrate, and the image potential and vacuum region outside the surface, so that the calculation of electron excitation by a surface perturbation can be restricted to the surface itself. The excitation of the Shockley surface state and a continuum bulk state is studied, and the time structure of the resulting currents analysed. There is a distinction between emission from the localized surface state, where the charge is steadily depleted, and the extended continuum state, where the current emitted into the vacuum is compensated by current approaching the surface from the bulk. The time taken for the current to arrive outside the surface is studied. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Collins P.W.,University of Cardiff | Percy C.L.,University of Wales
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2010

Acquired haemophilia A is an auto-immune disease caused by an inhibitory antibody to factor VIII. Patients with an acquired factor VIII inhibitor are at risk of life- and limb-threatening bleeding until the inhibitor has been eradicated. Management relies on rapid and accurate diagnosis, control of bleeding episodes, investigation for a precipitating cause and eradication of the inhibitor by immunosuppression. Patients should always be managed jointly with a specialist centre even if they present without overt bleeding. Despite an extensive literature, few controlled data are available and management guidelines are predominantly based on case reports, retrospective cohorts and expert opinion. This paper reviews the current literature on incidence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, haemostatic therapy and inhibitor eradication strategies. Potential future developments are discussed. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Pickett J.A.,Rothamsted Research | Allemann R.K.,University of Cardiff | Birkett M.A.,Rothamsted Research
Natural Product Reports | Year: 2013

Covering: up to the end of 2012 Chemical signalling between aphids (small insects that suck plant sap) for mating and avoidance of antagonistic organisms, and between aphids and plants for location of hosts or avoidance of unsuitable plants, employs minute levels of small lipophilic molecules (SLMs), termed "semiochemicals". These semiochemicals, which include sex and alarm pheromones, although often involving relatively simple volatile compounds to allow aerial transmission, convey highly accurate information, either through the uniqueness of their chemical structure or by acting together in characteristic mixtures. In addition, by chemical instability, they do not remain in the environment after their essential signalling role has occurred. Aphids, as a consequence of direct feeding or virus transmission, are major pests of agriculture and horticulture. Aphid semiochemicals present novel opportunities for management of pest populations, but problems of synthesis costs and delivery need to be overcome. Genes for associated enzymes in aphids and plants offer solutions, either for production and subsequent deployment in agriculture, or for direct biosynthesis by crop plants as a new generation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). These approaches are currently under active investigation. Semiochemicals released from plants during aphid feeding can also "switch on" defence chemistry-related genes in intact plants under field conditions, and the gene promoter sequences involved could be used to produce novel types of sentinel plants. The molecular recognition mechanisms employed in aphid olfactory systems are being investigated to provide potential tools for recognition of SLMs, and the acceptance of substrate analogues is explored with enzymes synthesising aphid semiochemicals in an attempt to provide more active or stable structural analogues. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013. Source


Hannam M.,University of Cardiff
General Relativity and Gravitation | Year: 2014

The inspiral and merger of two orbiting black holes is among the most promising sources for the first (hopefully imminent) direct detection of gravitational waves (GWs), and measurements of these signals could provide a wealth of information about astrophysics, fundamental physics and cosmology. Detection and measurement require a theoretical description of the GW signals from all possible black-hole-binary configurations, which can include complicated precession effects due to the black-hole spins. Modelling the GW signal from generic precessing binaries is therefore one of the most urgent theoretical challenges facing GW astronomy. This article briefly reviews the phenomenology of generic-binary dynamics and waveforms, and recent advances in modelling them. © 2014, The Author(s). Source


Felstead A.,University of Cardiff
Ageing and Society | Year: 2010

Populations across Europe are ageing as death rates among the old and fertility rates among the young fall. This produces a number of long-term challenges for national governments - most notably, coping with the increased demand for social services, pensions and benefits that must be funded by a declining proportion of working adults. One policy response has been to extend people's working lives, but we know relatively little about the skills and employment experiences of older workers and how these compare with younger workers. This paper sheds new light on this issue by examining whether older workers do less well than their younger counterparts in terms of the skills of the jobs they hold, the quality of their working lives, their commitment to their current employer and to employment in general, and their attitudes towards and experiences of training. The paper also assesses whether these age gaps have closed over time. The empirical evidence for the paper is from five separate but comparable surveys carried out in 1986, 1992, 1997, 2001 and 2006. Taken together, the five surveys provide information on the employment experiences of over 22,000 workers in Great Britain. This allows us to chart whether we are witnessing the disappearance of at least some of the age divisions in the labour market. © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source


Chambers S.J.,University of Cardiff
Safer Communities | Year: 2014

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how the Police and Crime Commissioners have been scrutinised in their first nine months in office, focusing primarily on one particular force area. Design/methodology/approach - A brief analysis of the most current writing on this topic, including official documents such as minutes of police and crime panel meetings and Home Affairs Committee and Welsh Affairs Committee evidence sessions, as well various online news sources are provided. Academic literature spanning 30 years is also drawn upon. Findings - In considering particular major events in the first nine months of the implementation of Police and Crime Commissioners, central government have been required to take a more prominent role in scrutiny in certain regions than first envisaged, due to ambiguity of legislative guidelines. Research limitations/implications - As an exploratory paper, one force area (Gwent) is the primary focus, sampled because of the issues faced in that area and its widespread coverage in the media. Practical implications - Problems with the legislative guidance for Police and Crime Commissioners, Police and Crime Panels and other involved agencies and individuals are highlighted. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the body of research investigating how the new policing governance framework in England and Wales is unfolding in practice. It is informed by both academic perspectives and real life examples. Copyright © 2014 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Basal insulin provides an effective method for initiating insulin therapy in people with Type 2 diabetes, resulting in significant improvements in glycaemic control, lower rates of hypoglycaemia and less weight gain than either prandial or premixed insulin regimens. However, the progressive nature of Type 2 diabetes and the inability of basal insulin to correct excessive postprandial glucose excursions mean that insulin therapy will eventually need to be intensified, typically by adding prandial insulin as part of a basal-bolus or premixed insulin regimen. The aim of this review is to summarize recent clinical evidence for a staged 'basal-plus' strategy for insulin intensification where one, two or three prandial insulin injections are added to basal insulin according to individual need. In the early stages of insulin therapy, most individuals seem to achieve favourable glycaemic control with basal insulin alone, or in combination with a single prandial insulin injection. The addition of a single prandial insulin injection at the largest meal is well tolerated and associated with significant improvements in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), low rates of hypoglycaemia and limited weight gain. More people achieve recommended HbA1c targets with a basal-plus strategy, compared with twice-daily premixed insulin therapy, with lower rates of hypoglycaemia. The data indicate that a step-by-step approach with the basal-plus strategy is a promising alternative method of insulin intensification that allows for individualization of treatment and may delay progression to a full basal-bolus insulin replacement therapy for many individuals. © 2012 Diabetes UK. Source


McCaddon A.,University of Cardiff
Biochimie | Year: 2013

The classic neurological and psychiatric features associated with vitamin B12 deficiency have been well described and are the subject of many excellent review articles. The advent of sensitive diagnostic tests, including homocysteine and methylmalonic acid assays, has revealed a surprisingly high prevalence of a more subtle 'subclinical' form of B12 deficiency, particularly within the elderly. This is often associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Metabolic evidence of B12 deficiency is also reported in association with other neurodegenerative disorders including vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. These conditions are all associated with chronic neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress. It is possible that these clinical associations reflect compromised vitamin B12 metabolism due to such stress. Physicians are also increasingly aware of considerable inter-individual variation in the clinical response to B12 replacement therapy. Further research is needed to determine to what extent this is attributable to genetic determinants of vitamin B12 absorption, distribution and cellular uptake. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source


Leekam S.,University of Cardiff
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Early psychological theories of autism explained the clinical features of this condition in terms of perceptual and sensory processing impairments. The arrival of domain-specific social cognitive theories changed this focus, postulating a ‘primary’ and specific psychological impairment of social cognition. Across the years, evidence has been growing in support of social cognitive and social attention explanations in autism. However, there has also been evidence for general non-social cognitive impairments in representational understanding, attention allocation and sensory processing. Here, I review recent findings and consider the case for the specificity and primacy of the social cognitive impairment, proposing that we should focus more explicitly on clinically valid features for insights on the integration of ‘social’ and ‘non-social’ cognition. © 2015 The Author(s). Source


Pearce J.A.,University of Cardiff | Robinson P.T.,Dalhousie University
Gondwana Research | Year: 2010

Miyashiro (1973) famously initiated a debate on the tectonic setting of ophiolite complexes by proposing that 'the Troodos ophiolitic complex was probably formed in an island arc'. This paper evaluates and updates Miyashiro's work by: (a) using the Mehegan-Robinson set of 137 fresh volcanic glass analyses to sidestep the controversy over the effect of alteration on major element classification diagrams; (b) using the volcanic glass database for Troodos analogues such as back-arc basins, slab edges, forearcs and subduction initiation terranes; (c) revising Miyashiro's classifications by including the boninitic series and subdividing the tholeiitic series into high- and medium-Fe series; and (d) extending Miyashiro's methodologies to new developments in the interpretation of major element data. We conclude that the Troodos Massif is made up of oceanic crust built from a high-Si8, moderate-Fe tholeiitic magma, overlain by boninites. Its low K8/H8 is consistent with near-trench crustal accretion and its Na8-Fe8 systematics indicate that TP = c.1400 °C for the Lower Lavas, consistent with rapid slab roll-back and/or sideways influx of hot mantle. Overall, the geochemical characteristics and geological setting support models in which the Troodos Massif formed by slab roll-back following subduction initiation, probably near a slab edge. © 2009 International Association for Gondwana Research. Source


Scourfield J.,University of Cardiff
Child Abuse Review | Year: 2015

Increasing the involvement of fathers in child safeguarding is an issue which has seen relatively little practice innovation in mainstream services. This article concerns a bold attempt to improve practice in this domain through a systemic approach. Key findings are presented from an evaluation of a Fatherhood Institute project in six English local authorities. The intervention was positively received and the self-efficacy of children's services staff improved on most measures as a result of training. However, not all planned aspects of the project could be implemented. The article reflects on the challenge of achieving practice change in these areas - both child safeguarding and engaging fathers - where established practices are deep-rooted. There is also reflection on the challenge of public service innovation in a context of austerity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Sims S.,University of London | Hewitt G.,University of Cardiff | Harris R.,University of London
Journal of Interprofessional Care | Year: 2015

Interprofessional teamwork has become an integral feature of healthcare delivery in a wide range of conditions and services in many countries. Many assumptions are made in healthcare literature and policy about how interprofessional teams function and about the outcomes of interprofessional teamwork. Realist synthesis is an approach to reviewing research evidence on complex interventions which seeks to explore these assumptions. It does this by unpacking the mechanisms of an intervention, exploring the contexts which trigger or deactivate them and connecting these contexts and mechanisms to their subsequent outcomes. This is the second in a series of four papers reporting a realist synthesis of interprofessional teamworking. The paper discusses four of the 13 mechanisms identified in the synthesis: collaboration and coordination; pooling of resources; individual learning; and role blurring. These mechanisms together capture the day-to-day functioning of teams and the dependence of that on members' understanding each others' skills and knowledge and learning from them. This synthesis found empirical evidence to support all four mechanisms, which tentatively suggests that collaboration, pooling, learning, and role blurring are all underlying processes of interprofessional teamwork. However, the supporting evidence for individual learning was relatively weak, therefore there may be assumptions made about learning within healthcare literature and policy that are not founded upon strong empirical evidence. There is a need for more robust research on individual learning to further understand its relationship with interprofessional teamworking in healthcare. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Arribas-Ayllon M.,University of Cardiff
British Medical Bulletin | Year: 2011

Introduction or backgroundGenetic testing for rare Mendelian disorders represents the dominant ethical paradigm in clinical and professional practice. Predictive testing for Huntingtons disease is the model against which other kinds of genetic testing are evaluated, including testing for Alzheimers disease. Sources of dataThis paper retraces the historical development of ethical reasoning in relation to predictive genetic testing and reviews a range of ethical, sociological and psychological literature from the 1970s to the present. Areas of agreementIn the past, ethical reasoning has embodied a distinct style whereby normative principles are developed from a dominant disease exemplar. Areas of controversyThis reductionist approach to formulating ethical frameworks breaks down in the case of disease susceptibility. Growing pointsRecent developments in the genetics of Alzheimers disease present a significant case for reconsidering the ethics of disclosing risk for common complex diseases. Disclosing the results of susceptibility testing for Alzheimers disease has different social, psychological and behavioural consequences. Furthermore, what genetic susceptibility means to individuals and their families is diffuse and often mitigated by other factors and concerns. Areas timely for developing researchThe ethics of disclosing a genetic diagnosis of susceptibility is contingent on whether professionals accept that probabilistic risk information is in fact 'diagnostic' and it will rely substantially on empirical evidence of how people actually perceive, recall and communicate complex risk information. © 2011 The Author. Source


Taylor P.N.,University of Cardiff
European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies | Year: 2014

Although the detrimental effects of severe iodine deficiency are well recognised, the benefits of correcting mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency are uncertain. We undertook a systematic review of the impact of iodine supplementation in populations with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. We searched Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published between January 1966 and April 2013, which investigated the effect of iodine supplementation on maternal and newborn thyroid function, infant neurodevelopment and cognitive performance in school-age children. The quality of studies was graded and eligible trials were evaluated in the meta-analysis. Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and eight observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Controlled trials on infant neurodevelopment were lacking; gestational iodine supplementation reduced maternal thyroid volume and serum thyroglobulin and in some studies prevented a rise in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone. None of the intervention trials recorded an excess frequency of thyroid dysfunction in contrast to observational studies. A pooled analysis of two RCTs which measured cognitive function in school-age children showed modest benefits of iodine supplementation on perceptual reasoning (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.55; 95% CI 0.05, 1.04; P=0.03) and global cognitive index (SMD 0.27; 95% CI 0.10, 0.44; P=0.002) with significant heterogeneity between studies. Iodine supplementation improves some maternal thyroid indices and may benefit aspects of cognitive function in school-age children, even in marginally iodine-deficient areas. Further large prospective controlled studies are urgently required to clarify these findings and quantify the risk/benefits of iodine supplementation in regions previously believed to be iodine sufficient such as the UK. Source


Borodich F.M.,University of Cardiff
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2011

An overview of development of indentation techniques and connections between contact mechanics and methods of extracting mechanical characteristics from indentation data is given. Observed disagreements between the experimental observations and the models of indentation are discussed. It is shown that this disagreement is often caused by violation of hypotheses that are used in the formulation of the appropriate boundary-value contact problems and strictly speaking one cannot apply directly the solutions of Hertz type contact problems to indentation tests employing the sharp indenters. It is shown that commonly used experimental test involving sharp pyramidal and conical indenters may be applied to study plastic properties of materials while this approach is not very accurate for estimations of elastic modulus of the test solid. The recently proposed by Borodich and Galanov non-direct method that employs data of elastically loading of a spherical indenter is described. It is argued that the non-direct method can be used for determination of both the work of adhesion and elastic modulus of the tested material. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications. Source


McEntee J.,University of Cardiff
Local Environment | Year: 2010

The increasingly popular local food movement in the US has experienced wide-scale buy-in on behalf of the general public as well as in academic arenas. However, there have been recent efforts to critique this movement, typically for being inequitable and unfairly geared towards those with above-average financial means. In this article, I examine local food efforts and present a new conceptualisation of food localism. While geographically localised food consumption activities are taking place, some have ideological labels attached to them, whereas others do not. What I have termed contemporary and traditional localisms exist in the same physical but different social space. The contemporary local is represented by current local food initiatives and corresponding aspirations to support local farmers and to promote sustainability through local purchasing behaviour. The traditional local, on the other hand, is similar in that it represents food growing activities that are in close geographical proximity to consumption, but lacks the motivation associated with the contemporary local's programmatic literature; instead, it is guided by a motivation to obtain fresh and affordable food. I substantiate the contemporary/traditional localism framework with qualitative fieldwork findings from Grafton County, New Hampshire, USA, and describe the practical as well as conceptual implications of this framework. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source


Morris R.,University of Cardiff
Stroke Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

Literature about the psychological consequences of stroke in those under 65 is reviewed focussing on services and work. Despite similarities, young and old survivors have different experiences and needs. These are attributable to the effects of stroke on age-normative roles and activities, self-image, and the young person's stage in the life-cycle, especially family and work. Hidden cognitive impairments, a disrupted sense of self, and the incongruity of suffering an older person's disease are salient. Young survivors benefit from services, but experience lack of congruence between their needs and service philosophy, methods, and aims, and consequently have unmet needs. Employment is psychologically salient, and the evidence about return rates, factors that affect return, and the adequacy of employment-related service provision is reviewed. Specific and general recommendations are made for increasing congruence between young survivors' needs and service provision and also for facilitating their return to work. Copyright © 2011 Reg Morris. Source


Fenton A.,University of Liverpool | Viney M.E.,University of Bristol | Lello J.,University of Cardiff
Ecology Letters | Year: 2010

There is great interest in the occurrence and consequences of interspecific interactions among co-infecting parasites. However, the extent to which interactions occur is unknown, because there are no validated methods for their detection. We developed a model that generated abundance data for two interacting macroparasite (e.g., helminth) species, and challenged the data with various approaches to determine whether they could detect the underlying interactions. Current approaches performed poorly - either suggesting there was no interaction when, in reality, there was a strong interaction occurring, or inferring the presence of an interaction when there was none. We suggest the novel application of a generalized linear mixed modelling (GLMM)-based approach, which we show to be more reliable than current approaches, even when infection rates of both parasites are correlated (e.g., via a shared transmission route). We suggest that the lack of clarity regarding the presence or absence of interactions in natural systems may be largely attributed to the unreliable nature of existing methods for detecting them. However, application of the GLMM approach may provide a more robust method of detection for these potentially important interspecific interactions from ecological data. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS. Source


Pidgeon N.,University of Cardiff
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems | Year: 2010

The paper reflects upon the intellectual contribution of both David Blockley and the late Barry Turner to contemporary thinking about organisational accidents and safety cultures in hazardous systems.When they first worked together in the 1980s, events such as the Chernobyl and Challenger accidents highlighted the fact that in seeking the causes of many modern large-scale accidents we must now consider the interaction between technology and organisational failings. Theoretical models also moved on at that time from descriptions of accidents and their causes, in an attempt to specify 'safe' cultures and 'high-reliability' organisations. Recent research has shown us that while effective learning about hazards is a common assumption of such attempts, organisations can still be very resistant to learn the full lessons from past incidents and mistakes. This paper discusses the ways of addressing barriers to learning in high-risk socio-technical systems. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source


Thomson C.H.,University of Manchester | Thomson C.H.,University of Cardiff
International Wound Journal | Year: 2011

Biofilms are known to exist in wounds, and it is suspected that their presence may delay wound healing, especially in chronic wounds; however, the evidence to support or refute this is not yet conclusive. This literature review has found that there is some evidence, both in vitro and in vivo, that the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix protects the biofilm from some inflammatory processes key to wound healing. The mechanisms of these effects and how this translates into clinical practice are still unknown. Strategies to manage biofilms within wounds are being investigated and may include use of silver, surgical debridedment, antibiotics and quorum-sensing inhibitors but no firm conclusions can yet be drawn from these studies. In conclusion, while there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that biofilms do indeed influence aspects of wound healing, there is still a large gap in our understanding of how this affects the wounds of clinical patients or how to improve rates of healing. © 2010 The Author. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc. Source


Barnes R.A.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

Directed therapy aims to target antifungal drugs to patients most likely to have fungal disease and to reduce the use of empirical therapy. The term embraces both pre-emptive therapy, where biomarkers are used to detect early signs of infection before there is clinical disease, and diagnostically driven approaches, which rely on radiological signs to detect early manifestations of clinical disease. Better targeting of drugs can potentially reduce antifungal expenditure, limit the development of resistance and improve outcomes for patients. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source


de Medeiros P.,University of Cardiff
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

Abstract: We investigate the relationship between conformal and spin structure on lorentzian manifolds and see how their compatibility influences the formulation of rigid supersymmetric field theories. In dimensions three, four, six and ten, we show that if the Dirac current associated with a generic spinor defines a null conformal Killing vector then the spinor must obey a twistor equation with respect to a certain connection with torsion. Of the theories we consider, those with classical superconformal symmetry in Minkowski space can be reformulated as rigid supersymmetric theories on any lorentzian manifold admitting twistor spinors. In dimensions six and ten, we also describe rigid supersymmetric gauge theories on bosonic minimally supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds. © 2014, The Author(s). Source


Rogers H.J.,University of Cardiff
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2012

Senescence is a highly regulated process terminating with programmed cell death (PCD). Floral senescence, and in particular petal senescence, forms an interesting model to study this process in that floral lifespan is species specific and linked to biological function. A feature of petal senescence is a rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a change in redox balance. A key question is whether this is merely a consequence of de-regulation of antioxidant systems as cells enter PCD, or whether the rise in ROS may have a regulatory or signalling function. An important division in the physiology of floral senescence is between species in which ethylene is a key regulator, and those in which it appears not to perform an important regulatory role. Another important question we can therefore ask is whether the redox and ROS changes have the same significance in species with different physiologies. Transcriptomic studies in ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive species allow us to further determine whether changes in the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes are transcriptionally regulated during floral senescence. Finally, it is important to assess how a signalling role for ROS or redox status would fit with known plant growth regulator (PGR) control of floral senescence. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Nguyen-Thanh N.,Bauhaus University Weimar | Nguyen-Xuan H.,University of science | Bordas S.P.A.,University of Cardiff | Rabczuk T.,Bauhaus University Weimar
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2011

Isogeometric analysis has become a powerful alternative to standard finite elements due to its flexibility in handling complex geometries. One of the major drawbacks of NURBS-based isogeometric finite elements is the inefficiency of local refinement. In this study, we present an alternative to NURBS-based isogeometric analysis that allows for local refinement. The idea is based on polynomial splines and exploits the flexibility of T-meshes for local refinement. The shape functions satisfy important properties such as non-negativity, local support and partition of unity. Several numerical examples are used to demonstrate the reliability of the present method. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Solomon C.,Salzburger Landeskliniken SALK | Collis R.E.,University of Wales | Collins P.W.,University of Cardiff
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2012

Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major risk factor for maternal morbidity and mortality. PPH has numerous causative factors, which makes its occurrence and severity difficult to predict. Underlying haemostatic imbalances such as consumptive and dilutional coagulopathies may develop during PPH, and can exacerbate bleeding and lead to progression to severe PPH. Monitoring coagulation status in patients with PPH may be crucial for effective haemostatic management, goal-directed therapy, and improved outcomes. However, current PPH management guidelines do not account for the altered baseline coagulation status observed in pregnant patients, and the appropriate transfusion triggers to use in PPH are unknown, due to a lack of high-quality studies specific to this area. In this review, we consider the evidence for the use of standard laboratory-based coagulation tests and point-of-care viscoelastic coagulation monitoring in PPH. Many laboratory-based tests are unsuitable for emergency use due to their long turnaround times, so have limited value for the management of PPH. Emerging evidence suggests that viscoelastic monitoring, using thrombelastography- or thromboelastometry-based tests, may be useful for rapid assessment and for guiding haemostatic therapy during PPH. However, further studies are needed to define the ranges of reference values that should be considered 'normal' in this setting. Improving awareness of the correct application and interpretation of viscoelastic coagulation monitoring techniques may be critical in realizing their emergency diagnostic potential. © 2012 The Author [2012]. Source


Fagerland M.W.,University of Oslo | Newcombe R.G.,University of Cardiff
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2013

The inverse hyperbolic sine transformation can be used to shorten the standard delta logit interval for the odds ratio and the delta log interval for the relative risk. As it stands, this transformation does not provide sufficient coverage. A pseudo-frequency modification is suggested and evaluated. The modification achieves an improvement in coverage for both the odds ratio and the relative risk and a further improvement in interval width for the odds ratio. We also find that another closed form interval, called MOVER-R Wilson, which is based on the method of variance estimates recovery, performs well. When the more complex and software demanding intervals, such as the asymptotic score, are unavailable, the adjusted inverse sinh intervals and MOVER-R Wilson provide two simple approaches to interval estimation of the odds ratio and the relative risk. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Zowawi H.M.,University of Queensland | Zowawi H.M.,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences | Balkhy H.H.,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences | Walsh T.R.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2013

Infections due to Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The extent of antibiotic resistance in GNB in countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), namely, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, and Bahrain, has not been previously reviewed. These countries share a high prevalence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing GNB, most of which are associated with nosocomial infections. Well-known and widespread β-lactamases genes (such as those for CTX-M-15, OXA-48, and NDM-1) have found their way into isolates from the GCCstates. However, less common and unique enzymes have also been identified. These include PER-7, GES-11, and PME-1. Several potential risk factors unique to the GCC states may have contributed to the emergence and spread of β-lactamases, including the unnecessary use of antibiotics and the large population of migrant workers, particularly from the Indian subcontinent. It is clear that active surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in the GCC states is urgently needed to address regional interventions that can contain the antimicrobial resistance issue. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Schernthaner G.,Rudolfstiftung Hospital | Currie C.J.,University of Cardiff | Schernthaner G.-H.,Medical University of Vienna
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

An updated algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy for the management of hyperglycemia has been published as a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (32). According to this position statement, "pioglitazone appeared to have a modest benefit on CV events as a secondary outcome in one large trial involving patients with overtmacrovascular disease." In the proposed algorithm, pioglitazone monotherapy can be considered an alternative to metformin monotherapy if metformin cannot be used (not tolerated or is contraindicated), as a combination therapy if monotherapy with metformin alone does not achieve/maintain an HbA1c target, or a triple combination therapy, provided that oral agents with complementary mechanisms of action are used. Thus, pioglitazone remains an effective and useful antidiabetes drug with a unique insulin-sensitizing action. However, the clinical use of pioglitazone is currently under scrutiny because of safety issues and because of the availability of newer drugs (DPP-4 inhibitors, glucagonlike peptide-1 receptor agonists, and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors). None of these newer drug classes target insulin resistance, however. At the moment, the most insulinresistant patientsdidentifiable by an increased waist circumference, low HDL cholesterol level, and fatty liverdmay be the best candidates for treatment with pioglitazone. In addition, patients with a high risk or history of CVD are also likely to benefit from pioglitazone. It is our belief that pioglitazone represents an important therapeutic option in people with T2DM and that more commonly used regimens are both less effective and more likely to result in worse safety outcomes. So, to answer our original question: yes, we still need pioglitazone for the treatment of T2DM. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Kinnersley P.,University of Cardiff
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Achieving informed consent is a core clinical procedure and is required before any surgical or invasive procedure is undertaken.  However, it is a complex process which requires patients be provided with information which they can understand and retain, opportunity to consider their options, and to be able to express their opinions and ask questions.  There is evidence that at present some patients undergo procedures without informed consent being achieved. To assess the effects on patients, clinicians and the healthcare system of interventions to promote informed consent for patients undergoing surgical and other invasive healthcare treatments and procedures. We searched the following databases using keywords and medical subject headings: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 5, 2012), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1950 to July 2011), EMBASE (OvidSP) (1980 to July 2011) and PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1806 to July 2011). We applied no language or date restrictions within the search. We also searched reference lists of included studies. Randomised controlled trials and cluster randomised trials of interventions to promote informed consent for patients undergoing surgical and other invasive healthcare procedures. We considered an intervention to be intended to promote informed consent when information delivery about the procedure was enhanced (either by providing more information or through, for example, using new written materials), or if more opportunity to consider or deliberate on the information was provided. Two authors assessed the search output independently to identify potentially-relevant studies, selected studies for inclusion, and extracted data. We conducted a narrative synthesis of the included trials, and meta-analyses of outcomes where there were sufficient data. We included 65 randomised controlled trials from 12 countries involving patients undergoing a variety of procedures in hospitals. Nine thousand and twenty one patients were randomised and entered into these studies. Interventions used various designs and formats but the main data for results were from studies using written materials, audio-visual materials and decision aids. Some interventions were delivered before admission to hospital for the procedure while others were delivered on admission.Only one study attempted to measure the primary outcome, which was informed consent as a unified concept, but this study was at high risk of bias.  More commonly, studies measured secondary outcomes which were individual components of informed consent such as knowledge, anxiety, and satisfaction with the consent process.  Important but less commonly-measured outcomes were deliberation, decisional conflict, uptake of procedures and length of consultation.Meta-analyses showed statistically-significant improvements in knowledge when measured immediately after interventions (SMD 0.53 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.69) I(2) 73%), shortly afterwards (between 24 hours and 14 days) (SMD 0.68 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.93) I(2) 85%) and at a later date (15 days or more) (SMD 0.78 (95% CI 0.50 to 1.06) I(2) 82%). Satisfaction with decision making was also increased (SMD 2.25 (95% CI 1.36 to 3.15) I(2) 99%) and decisional conflict was reduced (SMD -1.80 (95% CI -3.46 to -0.14) I(2) 99%). No statistically-significant differences were found for generalised anxiety (SMD -0.11 (95% CI -0.35 to 0.13) I(2) 82%), anxiety with the consent process (SMD 0.01 (95% CI -0.21 to 0.23) I(2) 70%) and satisfaction with the consent process (SMD 0.12 (95% CI -0.09 to 0.32) I(2) 76%). Consultation length was increased in those studies with continuous data (mean increase 1.66 minutes (95% CI 0.82 to 2.50) I(2) 0%) and in the one study with non-parametric data (control 8.0 minutes versus intervention 11.9 minutes, interquartile range (IQR) of 4 to 11.9 and 7.2 to 15.0 respectively). There were limited data for other outcomes.In general, sensitivity analyses removing studies at high risk of bias made little difference to the overall results.  Informed consent is an important ethical and practical part of patient care.  We have identified efforts by researchers to investigate interventions which seek to improve information delivery and consideration of information to enhance informed consent.  The interventions used consistently improve patient knowledge, an important prerequisite for informed consent.  This is encouraging and these measures could be widely employed although we are not able to say with confidence which types of interventions are preferable. Our results should be interpreted with caution due to the high levels of heterogeneity associated with many of the main analyses although we believe there is broad evidence of beneficial outcomes for patients with the pragmatic application of interventions. Only one study attempted to measure informed consent as a unified concept. Source


Staffurth J.,University of Cardiff
Clinical Oncology | Year: 2010

Aims: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a development of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy that offers improvements in dosimetry in many clinical scenarios. Here we review the clinical evidence for IMRT and present ongoing or unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Methods: We identified randomised and non-randomised comparative studies of IMRT and conventional radiotherapy using MEDLINE, hand-searching Radiotherapy and Oncology and the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics and the proceedings of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meetings. The metaRegister of Controlled Trials was searched to identify completed-unpublished, ongoing and planned RCTs. Results: Sixty-one studies comparing IMRT and conventional radiotherapy were identified. These included three RCTs in head and neck cancer (205 patients) and three in breast cancer (664 patients) that had reported clinical outcomes; these were all powered for toxicity-related end points, which were significantly better with IMRT in each trial. There were 27 additional non-randomised studies in head and neck (1119 patients), 26 in prostate cancer (>5000 patients), four in breast cancer (875 patients) and nine in other tumour sites. The results of these studies supported those of the RCTs with benefits reported in acute and late toxicity, health-related quality of life and tumour control end points. Twenty-eight completed-unpublished, ongoing or planned RCTs incorporating IMRT were identified, including at least 12,310 patients, of which 15 compared conventional radiotherapy within IMRT as a randomisation or pre-planned stratification. Discussion: Inverse-planned IMRT maintains parotid saliva production and reduces acute and late xerostomia during radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer, reduces late rectal toxicity in prostate cancer patients allowing safe dose escalation and seems to reduce toxicity in several other tumour sites. Forward-planned IMRT reduces acute toxicity and improves late clinician-assessed cosmesis compared with conventional tangential breast radiotherapy. © 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Source


Whitmarsh L.,University of Cardiff | Whitmarsh L.,Tyndall Center for Climate Change Research | Whitmarsh L.,Center for Business Relationships
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2011

While scientific consensus and political and media messages appear to be increasingly certain, public attitudes and action towards the issue do not appear to be following suit. Popular and academic debate often assumes this is due to ignorance or misunderstanding on the part of the public, but some studies have suggested political beliefs and values may play a more important role in determining belief versus scepticism about climate change. The current research used two representative postal surveys of the UK public to: measure scepticism and uncertainty about climate change; determine how scepticism varies according to individual characteristics, knowledge and values; and examine how scepticism has changed over time. Findings show denial of climate change is less common than the perception that the issue has been exaggerated. Scepticism was found to be strongly determined by individuals' environmental and political values (and indirectly by age, gender, location and lifestyle) rather than by education or knowledge. Between 2003 and 2008, public uncertainty about climate change has remained remarkably constant, although belief that claims about the issue are exaggerated has doubled over that period. These results are interpreted with reference to psychological concepts of motivated reasoning, confirmation bias and 'finite pool of worry'. Implications for communication and policy are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Corner A.,University of Cardiff | Randall A.,Center for Alternative Technology
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2011

Social marketing is the systematic application of marketing concepts and techniques to achieve specific behavioural goals relevant to the social good. Social marketing approaches are becoming increasingly popular among governmental and non-governmental actors seeking to engage the public on climate change. The effectiveness of social marketing in achieving specific behavioural goals is empirically well-supported. However, in the first systematic critique of social marketing as a strategy for engaging the public on climate change, we present evidence that social marketing alone is insufficient to build support for the more ambitious policy changes and interventions that constitute a proportional response to climate change. In some circumstances, social marketing approaches may even be counterproductive. We describe some alternative approaches for engaging the public, which may provide governmental and non-governmental actors with additional or preferable tools for promoting public engagement with climate change. Given the scale of the challenge, it seems critical that those seeking to engage the public are equipped with the most effective strategies available - a goal that this paper seeks to contribute to. We conclude that acknowledging the limitations of social marketing - and exploring alternative methods of engaging the public - is an urgent task for climate change communication researchers and practitioners. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Attfield R.,University of Cardiff
Environmental Values | Year: 2011

In response to Alan Holland's 'Darwin and the meaning in life' (Environmental Values 18: 503-518) I argue that there can be room in a Darwinian world for talk of value, in the sense of interpersonal reasons to promote, preserve or cherish some of the states of that world, or to be glad about those states. Darwinian theorists can recognise a range of intrinsically valuable states of affairs, from the pleasure or the happiness of creatures to their flourishing, and need not discard axiology in general. The context of the passage criticised by Holland is explained to show that I was attempting to supply a vocabulary (such as 'reasons to be glad') usable by religious sceptics as well as believers, for comparing worlds with parasitism and predation and worlds without them; the shape of such comparisons is further delineated. Reasons for being tentative about trans-world comparisons are also supplied. © 2011 The White Horse Press. Source


Miele M.,University of Cardiff
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2011

Happiness is an elusive concept, it brings about ideas of ecstasy, contentment, delight but also health and strength, pouvoir and puissance? a state of mind and body that is precarious and contingent. How to give form and substance to an idea that is otherwise difficult to conceive? What is happiness for a chicken? What is it like to be a chicken today? Free-range certification offers a powerful interpretation of animals' happiness in the context of farming, and it does so by providing a particular translation of the 'natural' in the domesticated environment of farming. But it also offers a specific definition of materiality, in the form of the body of the animal, presented as an expression of her/his quality of life in the juiciness and other organoleptic qualities of her/his flesh or eggs. In this paper, I present the results of an on-farm assessment of the welfare of free-range chickens in the UK, carried out by adopting the Welfare Quality ® protocol. This is a new evaluation of the on-farm welfare of animals that encompasses many aspects of animals' lives, including animals' negative and positive emotions. It suggests that animals' 'happiness' can be measured and can become part of an overall score of welfare, but it also addresses the complexities of the interpretation of the emotional states of animals. I propose that this case contributes to the debate on 'material politics' and the invention of animals' happiness can be seen as a political technique that affects human-non-humananimal relations. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors. Source


Shahin Y.,Royal Infirmary | Cockcroft J.R.,University of Cardiff | Chetter I.C.,Royal Infirmary
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2013

Background The aim was to investigate the effect of ramipril on clinical parameters in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Methods Patients with intermittent claudication were randomized to receive ramipril or placebo for 24 weeks in a double-blind study. Outcome measures were walking distance, arterial stiffness measurement and quality of life (QoL). Results A total of 33 patients were included (25 men; mean(s.d.) age 64·6(7.8) years); 14 received ramipril and 19 placebo. After 24 weeks, ramipril improved maximum treadmill walking distance by an adjusted mean (95 per cent confidence interval, c.i.) of 131 (62 to 199) m (P = 0·001), improved treadmill intermittent claudication distance by 122 (56 to 188) m (P = 0·001) and improved patient-reported walking distance by 159 (66 to 313) m (P = 0·043) compared with placebo. Ramipril reduced carotid femoral pulse wave velocity by -1·47 (95 per cent c.i. -2·40 to -0·57) m/s compared with placebo (P = 0·002). Resting ankle: brachial pressure index (ABPI) improved slightly in both ramipril and placebo groups (0·02 (95 per cent c.i. -0·08 to 0·11) versus 0·03 (-0·05 to 0·10); P = 0·830). Ramipril had a slight, non-significant effect on QoL physical domains compared with placebo. Conclusion Ramipril improved walking distance in patients with claudication; however, this improvement was not related to improved ABPI but might have been due to ramipril reducing arterial stiffness. Registration number: NCT01037530 (http://www.clinicaltrials. gov). Improves walking distance © 2013 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Lewis J.,University of Cardiff
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

Diabetes-related foot ulceration is a major contributor to morbidity in diabetes. Diabetic foot ulcers are partly a consequence of abnormal foot pressures and pressure relief is a widely used treatment for healing diabetes-related plantar foot ulcers, but the most effective method for healing is unclear. To determine the effects of pressure-relieving interventions on the healing of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. For this update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 2 November 2012); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10); Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October Week 4 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, October 31, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2012 Week 43); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 1 November 2012). There were no restrictions based on language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effects of pressure-relieving interventions on the healing of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. Data from eligible trials were extracted, and summarised using a data extraction sheet, by two review authors independently. Fourteen trials (709 participants) met the inclusion criteria for the review. One study compared two different types of non-removable casts with no discernable difference between the groups. Seven studies (366 participants) compared non-removable casts with removable pressure-relieving devices. In five of those studies non-removable casts were associated with a statistically significant increase in the number of ulcers healed compared with the removable device (RR 1.17 95% CI 1.01 to 1.36: P value = 0.04).Two studies (98 participants) found that significantly more ulcers healed with non-removable casts than with dressings alone. Achilles tendon lengthening combined with a non-removable cast in one study resulted in significantly more healed ulcers at 7 months than non-removable cast alone (RR 2.23; 95% CI 1.32 to 3.76). More ulcers remained healed at two years in this group (RR 3.41; 95% CI 1.42 to 8.18).Other comparisons included surgical debridement of ulcers; felt fitted to the foot; felted foam dressings and none of these showed a statistically significant treatment effect in favour of the intervention. Non-removable, pressure-relieving casts are more effective in healing diabetes related plantar foot ulcers than removable casts, or dressings alone. Non-removable devices, when combined with Achilles tendon lengthening were more successful in one forefoot ulcer study than the use of a non-removable cast alone. Source


Hadjivassiliou M.,Royal Hallamshire Hospital | Sanders D.S.,Royal Hallamshire Hospital | Grunewald R.A.,Royal Hallamshire Hospital | Woodroofe N.,Sheffield Hallam University | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2010

Gluten sensitivity is a systemic autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations. This disorder is characterised by abnormal immunological responsiveness to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Coeliac disease, or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is only one aspect of a range of possible manifestations of gluten sensitivity. Although neurological manifestations in patients with established coeliac disease have been reported since 1966, it was not until 30 years later that, in some individuals, gluten sensitivity was shown to manifest solely with neurological dysfunction. Furthermore, the concept of extraintestinal presentations without enteropathy has only recently become accepted. In this Personal View, we review the range of neurological manifestations of gluten sensitivity and discuss recent advances in the diagnosis and understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying neurological dysfunction related to gluten sensitivity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Davies S.,University of Cardiff
International Journal of Public Sector Management | Year: 2011

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to trace the origin and development of the increased use of the voluntary sector in the delivery of public services in the UK and to identify both the threats and opportunities that this policy poses. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses government documents to examine policies and models for change. This is located within a discussion of the literature around the developing role of the voluntary sector in public service provision against the backdrop of wider neo-liberal public sector reform. Findings: New Labour laid the basis for a major expansion in the use of the voluntary sector in public service provision as part of its public service reform programme. It did so with a range of sometimes contradictory justifications. The policy is now being extended by the new coalition government. Research limitations/implications: The process of change outlined in the paper is continuing, so it is not possible to make conclusive statements regarding its impact. Further research will be required to monitor the effects. Practical implications: Alerting the voluntary sector organisations to the potential problems of large-scale involvement in public service provision may assist them in retaining their independence and effectiveness. Originality/value: The paper contributes to a necessary (and overdue) assessment of the impact of the changed role of the voluntary sector in public service provision on the sector itself, the services provided and the surrounding framework of accountability. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Nguyen V.P.,University of Cardiff
Advances in Engineering Software | Year: 2014

An open source program to generate zero-thickness cohesive interface elements in existing finite element discretizations is presented. This contribution fills the gap in the literature that, to the best of the author's knowledge, there is no such program exists. The program is useful in numerical modeling of material/structure failure using cohesive interface elements. The program is able to generate one/two dimensional, linear/quadratic cohesive elements (i) at all inter-element boundaries, (ii) at material interfaces and (iii) at grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. Algorithms and utilization of the program is discussed. Several two dimensional and three dimensional fracture mechanics problems are given including debonding process of material interfaces, multiple delamination of composite structures, crack propagation in polycrystalline structures. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Bisson J.I.,University of Cardiff
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a distressing condition, which is often treated with psychological therapies. Earlier versions of this review, and other meta-analyses, have found these to be effective, with trauma-focused treatments being more effective than non-trauma-focused treatments. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005 and updated in 2007. To assess the effects of psychological therapies for the treatment of adults with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). For this update, we searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) all years to 12th April 2013. This register contains relevant randomised controlled trials from: The Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). In addition, we handsearched the Journal of Traumatic Stress, contacted experts in the field, searched bibliographies of included studies, and performed citation searches of identified articles. Randomised controlled trials of individual trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TFCBT), eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), non-trauma-focused CBT (non-TFCBT), other therapies (supportive therapy, non-directive counselling, psychodynamic therapy and present-centred therapy), group TFCBT, or group non-TFCBT, compared to one another or to a waitlist or usual care group for the treatment of chronic PTSD. The primary outcome measure was the severity of clinician-rated traumatic-stress symptoms. We extracted data and entered them into Review Manager 5 software. We contacted authors to obtain missing data. Two review authors independently performed 'Risk of bias' assessments. We pooled the data where appropriate, and analysed for summary effects. We include 70 studies involving a total of 4761 participants in the review. The first primary outcome for this review was reduction in the severity of PTSD symptoms, using a standardised measure rated by a clinician. For this outcome, individual TFCBT and EMDR were more effective than waitlist/usual care (standardised mean difference (SMD) -1.62; 95% CI -2.03 to -1.21; 28 studies; n = 1256 and SMD -1.17; 95% CI -2.04 to -0.30; 6 studies; n = 183 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between individual TFCBT, EMDR and Stress Management (SM) immediately post-treatment although there was some evidence that individual TFCBT and EMDR were superior to non-TFCBT at follow-up, and that individual TFCBT, EMDR and non-TFCBT were more effective than other therapies. Non-TFCBT was more effective than waitlist/usual care and other therapies. Other therapies were superior to waitlist/usual care control as was group TFCBT. There was some evidence of greater drop-out (the second primary outcome for this review) in active treatment groups. Many of the studies were rated as being at 'high' or 'unclear' risk of bias in multiple domains, and there was considerable unexplained heterogeneity; in addition, we assessed the quality of the evidence for each comparison as very low. As such, the findings of this review should be interpreted with caution. The evidence for each of the comparisons made in this review was assessed as very low quality. This evidence showed that individual TFCBT and EMDR did better than waitlist/usual care in reducing clinician-assessed PTSD symptoms. There was evidence that individual TFCBT, EMDR and non-TFCBT are equally effective immediately post-treatment in the treatment of PTSD. There was some evidence that TFCBT and EMDR are superior to non-TFCBT between one to four months following treatment, and also that individual TFCBT, EMDR and non-TFCBT are more effective than other therapies. There was evidence of greater drop-out in active treatment groups. Although a substantial number of studies were included in the review, the conclusions are compromised by methodological issues evident in some. Sample sizes were small, and it is apparent that many of the studies were underpowered. There were limited follow-up data, which compromises conclusions regarding the long-term effects of psychological treatment. Source


Duncan R.,University of Cardiff | Vicent M.J.,Research Center Principe Felipe
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2010

N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugates containing doxorubicin designed in the late 1970s/early 1980s as anticancer polymer therapeutics were the first synthetic polymer-based anticancer conjugates to enter clinical trial beginning in 1994. Early clinical results were promising, confirming activity in chemotherapy refractory patients and the safety of HPMA copolymers as a new polymer platform in this setting. Subsequent Phase I/II trials have investigated conjugates containing paclitaxel (PNU 166945), camptothecin (PNU 166148) (both failed in clinical trials underlining the importance of rational design), and most recently HPMA-copolymer platinates (AP5280 and then AP5346-ProLindacTM) entered Phase II clinical development. There are a growing array of second generation HPMA copolymer-based systems involving combination therapy, incorporating putative targeting ligands, having an ever more complex architecture, and both drug and protein conjugates are being proposed as novel treatments for diseases other than cancer. Despite their promise, and the success of polymeric drugs and polymer-protein conjugates, no polymer-drug conjugate (HPMA copolymer-based or otherwise) has yet entered routine clinical use. It is timely to reflect on the progress made over the last 30 years, the relative merits of HPMA copolymers as a platform compared to other polymeric carriers, and comment on their future potential as polymer-based nanomedicines into the 21st century in comparison with the many alternative strategies now emerging for creation of nanopharmaceuticals. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Jones D.K.,University of Cardiff
Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Year: 2010

This article reviews some of the key factors influencing the accuracy and precision of quantitative metrics derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data. It focuses on the study pipeline beginning at the choice of imaging protocol, through preprocessing and model fitting up to the point of extracting quantitative estimates for subsequent analysis. The aim was to provide the newcomers to the field with sufficient knowledge of how their decisions at each stage along this process might impact on precision and accuracy, to design their study/approach, and to use diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging in the clinic. More specifically, emphasis is placed on improving accuracy and precision. I illustrate how careful choices along the way can substantially affect the sample size needed to make an inference from the data. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Mustafa M.,University of Cardiff
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Psychological symptoms are associated with metastatic breast cancer. This is the basis for exploring the impact of psychological interventions on psychosocial and survival outcomes. One early study appeared to show significant survival and psychological benefits from psychological support while subsequent studies have revealed conflicting results. This review is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004 and previously updated in 2007. To assess the effects of psychological interventions on psychosocial and survival outcomes for women with metastatic breast cancer. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO), online trials and research registers in June/July 2011. Further potentially relevant studies were identified from handsearching references of previous trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses.  Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs of psychological interventions, which recruited women with metastatic breast cancer. Outcomes selected for analyses were overall survival, psychological outcomes, pain, quality of life, condition-specific outcome measures, relationship and social support measures, and sleep quality. Studies were excluded if no discrete data were available on women with metastatic breast cancer.  Two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of the studies using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. Where possible, authors were contacted for missing information. Data on the nature and setting of the intervention, relevant outcome data, and items relating to methodological quality were extracted. Meta-analyses was performed using a random-effects or fixed-effect Mantel-Haenszel model, depending on expected levels of heterogeneity. Ten RCTs with 1378 women were identified. Of the seven RCTs on group psychological interventions, three were on cognitive behavioural therapy and four were on supportive-expressive group therapy. The remaining three studies were individual based and the types of psychological interventions were not common to either cognitive behavioural or supportive-expressive therapy. A clear pattern of psychological outcomes could not be discerned as a wide variety of outcome measures and durations of follow-up were used in the included studies. The overall effect of the psychological interventions across six studies, on one-year survival, favoured the psychological intervention group with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 1.99). Pooled data from four studies did not show any survival benefit at five-years follow-up (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.42 to 2.52). There was evidence of a short-term benefit for some psychological outcomes and improvement in pain scores. Psychological interventions appear to be effective in improving survival at 12 months but not at longer-term follow-up, and they are effective in reducing psychological symptoms only in some of the outcomes assessed in women with metastatic breast cancer. However, findings of the review should be interpreted with caution as there is a relative lack of data in this field, and the included trials had reporting or methodological weaknesses and were heterogeneous in terms of interventions and outcome measures.   Source


Lane E.L.,University of Cardiff
International Review of Neurobiology | Year: 2011

Clinical trials evaluating transplantation of fetal tissue for the treatment of Parkinson's disease identified the unexpected side effect of abnormal movements in the 'off' l-DOPA state. Termed graft-induced dyskinesia (GID), various hypotheses have been put forward as to their cause but unfortunately the significant differences in clinical trial protocols and lack of a truly representative animal model has hindered the search for a conclusive basis for their appearance. Likely causative factors have been identified through careful examination of patient data and the use of amphetamine-induced dyskinesia in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. New trials being planned in Europe hope to avoid GID, whilst maximizing on the functional benefit that can be afforded by this treatment approach but questions still remain as to the underlying mechanism. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Wells P.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

This paper explores the relationship between diversity, locality, scale and sustainability in human systems. Using examples from brewing, steel production, and printing it suggests mass production economies of scale has peaked, creating new opportunities and challenges for sustainability science. It is concluded that there is a potential research agenda in seeking to understand where, how, why, at what cost and under what conditions smaller scale may yield sustainability advantages. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


White P.A.,University of Cardiff
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2013

How accurate are explicit judgements about familiar forms of object motion, and how are they made? Participants judged the relations between force exerted in kicking a soccer ball and variables that define the trajectory of the ball: launch angle, maximum height attained, and maximum distance reached. Judgements tended to conform to a simple heuristic that judged force tends to increase as maximum height and maximum distance increase, with launch angle not being influential. Support was also found for the converse prediction, that judged maximum height and distance tend to increase as the amount of force described in the kick increases. The observed judgemental tendencies did not resemble the objective relations, in which force is a function of interactions between the trajectory variables. This adds to a body of research indicating that practical knowledge based on experiences of actions on objects is not available to the processes that generate judgements in higher cognition and that such judgements are generated by simple rules that do not capture the objective interactions between the physical variables. © 2013 Copyright The Experimental Psychology Society. Source


Bloor M.,University of Cardiff
Sociology of Health and Illness | Year: 2011

It has long been understood that work directly generates ill health and disability through injuries and occupational exposure to toxic and carcinogenic materials, but the more complex relationship between work and ill health that is seemingly mediated through psychological distress is more controversial. For example, the 'Karasek model', whereby high job demands coupled with limited latitude in decision making were thought to generate ill health, has not been supported in large-scale surveys. This paper postulates an alternative linking mechanism between work and health, namely Mildred Blaxter's concept of 'health capital', and specifically explores the value of the concept in understanding lay theorising about the links between labour intensification and self-perceived health: workers' perceptions that their work has become more effortful may be bracketed with their belief that their continuing employment is demanding accelerating expenditure of their health capital. The argument is illustrated by qualitative interviews with an international sample of seafarers, a proto-typically globalised labour force. © 2011 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Crunelli V.,University of Cardiff | Carmignoto G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2013

Our current knowledge of the role of astrocytes in health and disease states supports the view that many physiological brain functions and neurological diseases are finely tuned, and in certain cases fully determined, by the continuous cross-talk between astrocytes and neurons. This novel way of interpreting brain activity as a dynamic and reciprocal interplay between astrocytic and neuronal networks has also influenced our understanding of epilepsy, not only forcing a reinterpretation of old findings, but also being a catalyst for novel experimentation. In this review, we summarize some of the recent studies that highlight these novel distinct contributions of astrocytes to the expression of convulsive and non-convulsive epileptiform discharges and seizures. The emerging picture suggests a general framework based on bilateral signalling between astrocytes and neurons for a fuller understanding of epileptogenic and epileptic mechanisms in the brain network. Astrocytes potentially represent targets for the development of those novel chemical entities with improved efficacy for the treatment of convulsive and non-convulsive epilepsy that expert groups have recognized as one of the key priorities for the management of epilepsy. © 2013 The Physiological Society. Source


Farewell D.M.,University of Cardiff
Biometrika | Year: 2010

We consider solutions to generalized estimating equations with singular working correlation matrices, of which the estimator of Diggle et al. (2007) is a special case. We give explicit conditions for consistent estimation when the pattern of observations may be informative. In such cases, simulations reveal reduced bias and reduced mean squared error compared with existing alternatives. A study of peritoneal dialysis is used to illustrate the methodology. © 2010 Biometrika Trust. Source


Craddock N.,University of Cardiff | Mynors-Wallis L.,Alderney Hospital
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Psychiatric diagnosis is in the spotlight following the recent publication of DSM-5. In this article we consider both the benefits and limitations of diagnosis in psychiatry. The use of internationally recognised diagnoses, although insufficient alone, is part of a psychiatrist's professional responsibility to provide high-quality, evidence-based care for patients. Source


Menk A.,Robert Bosch GmbH | Menk A.,University of Glasgow | Bordas S.P.A.,University of Cardiff
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2011

The extended finite element method enhances the approximation properties of the finite element space by using additional enrichment functions. But the resulting stiffness matrices can become ill-conditioned. In that case iterative solvers need a large number of iterations to obtain an acceptable solution. In this paper a procedure is described to obtain stiffness matrices whose condition number is close to the one of the finite element matrices without any enrichments. A domain decomposition is employed and the algorithm is very well suited for parallel computations. The method was tested in numerical experiments to show its effectiveness. The experiments have been conducted for structures containing cracks and material interfaces. We show that the corresponding enrichments can result in arbitrarily ill-conditioned matrices. The method proposed here, however, provides well-conditioned matrices and can be applied to any sort of enrichment. The complexity of this approach and its relation to the domain decomposition is discussed. Computation times have been measured for a structure containing multiple cracks. For this structure the computation times could be decreased by a factor of 2. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Bisbas T.G.,University College London | Papadopoulos P.P.,University of Cardiff | Papadopoulos P.P.,Academy of Athens | Viti S.,University College London
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We report on the effects of cosmic rays (CRs) on the abundance of CO in H2 clouds under conditions typical for star-forming galaxies in the universe. We discover that this most important molecule for tracing H2 gas is very effectively destroyed in ISM environments with CR energy densities , a range expected in numerous star-forming systems throughout the universe. This density-dependent effect operates volumetrically rather than only on molecular cloud surfaces (i.e., unlike FUV radiation that also destroys CO), and is facilitated by (a) the direct destruction of CO by CRs and (b) a reaction channel activated by CR-produced He+. The effect we uncover is strong enough to render Milky-Way-type Giant Molecular Clouds very CO-poor (and thus CO-untraceable), even in ISM environments with rather modestly enhanced average CR energy densities of . We conclude that the CR-induced destruction of CO in molecular clouds, unhindered by dust absorption, is perhaps the single most important factor controlling the CO-visibility of molecular gas in vigorously star-forming galaxies. We anticipate that a second-order effect of this CO destruction mechanism will be to make the H2 distribution in the gas-rich disks of such galaxies appear much clumpier in CO J = 1-0, 2-1 line emission than it actually is. Finally we give an analytical approximation of the CO/H2 abundance ratio as a function of gas density and CR energy density for use in galaxy-size or cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, and propose some key observational tests. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source


Napier W.M.,University of Cardiff
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

Intersection with the debris of a large (50-100 km) short-period comet during the Upper Palaeolithic provides a satisfactory explanation for the catastrophe of celestial origin which has been postulated to have occurred around 12 900 BP, and which presaged a return to ice age conditions of duration ∼1300 yr. The Taurid Complex appears to be the debris of this erstwhile comet; it includes at least 19 of the brightest near-Earth objects. Subkilometre bodies in meteor streams may present the greatest regional impact hazard on time-scales of human concern. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 RAS. Source


Owen M.J.,University of Cardiff
Neuron | Year: 2014

Recent findings in psychiatric genetics have crystallized concerns that diagnostic categories used in the clinic map poorly onto the underlying biology. If we are to harness developments in genetics and neuroscience to understand disease mechanisms and develop new treatments, we need new approaches to patient stratification that recognize the complexity and continuous nature of psychiatric traits and that are not constrained by current categorical approaches. Recognizing this, the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH) has developed a novel framework to encourage more research of this kind. The implications of these recent findings and funding policy developments for neuroscience research are considerable. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


The antipsychotic clozapine is uniquely effective in the management of schizophrenia; however, its use is limited by its potential to induce agranulocytosis. The causes of this, and of its precursor neutropenia, are largely unknown, although genetic factors have an important role. We sought risk alleles for clozapine-associated neutropenia in a sample of 66 cases and 5583 clozapine-treated controls, through a genome-wide association study (GWAS), imputed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, exome array and copy-number variation (CNV) analyses. We then combined associated variants in a meta-analysis with data from the Clozapine-Induced Agranulocytosis Consortium (up to 163 cases and 7970 controls). In the largest combined sample to date, we identified a novel association with rs149104283 (odds ratio (OR)=4.32, P=1.79 × 10-8), intronic to transcripts of SLCO1B3 and SLCO1B7, members of a family of hepatic transporter genes previously implicated in adverse drug reactions including simvastatin-induced myopathy and docetaxel-induced neutropenia. Exome array analysis identified gene-wide associations of uncommon non-synonymous variants within UBAP2 and STARD9. We additionally provide independent replication of a previously identified variant in HLA-DQB1 (OR=15.6, P=0.015, positive predictive value=35.1%). These results implicate biological pathways through which clozapine may act to cause this serious adverse effect.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 12 July 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.97. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source


Zhu H.X.,University of Cardiff
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids | Year: 2010

Detailed mathematical derivation and simple closed form results for the size-dependent elastic properties of micro- and nano-sized honeycombs are presented in this paper. The results indicate that at micrometer scale, strain gradient has a dominant effect and at nano-meter scale, surface elasticity dominates the effect on the honeycomb elastic properties. The in-plane elastic properties of a nano- or micro-honeycomb could be controlled to vary over a range of around 10% by adjusting the initial stress in the cell walls by applying an electric potential. In addition, the bending and shear rigidities of some commonly used micro- and nano-structural elements have been obtained and presented in this paper, which could be of important applications in the design of MEMS and NEMS. Crown Copyright © 2010. Source


Powell C.,University of Cardiff
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Asthma exacerbations can be frequent and range in severity from relatively mild to status asthmaticus. The use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) is one of numerous treatment options available during acute exacerbations. While the efficacy of intravenous MgSO(4) has been demonstrated, little is known of the role of inhaled MgSO(4). To determine the efficacy of inhaled MgSO(4) administered in acute asthma on pulmonary functions and admission rates.Specific aims: To quantify the effects of inhaled MgSO(4) i) in addition to inhaled β(2)-agonist, ii) in comparison to inhaled β(2)-agonist alone or iii) in addition to combination treatment with inhaled β(2) -agonist and ipratropium bromide. Randomised controlled trials were identified from the Cochrane Airways Group register of trials in September 2012. These trials were supplemented with trials found in the reference list of published studies, studies found using extensive electronic search techniques, as well as a review of the grey literature and conference proceedings. Randomised (or pseudo-randomised) controlled trials including adults or children with acute asthma were eligible for inclusion in the review. Studies were included if patients were treated with nebulised MgSO(4) alone or in combination with β(2)-agonist and/or ipratropium bromide and were compared with β(2)-agonist alone or inactive control. Trial selection, data extraction and risk of bias were assessed independently by two review authors. Efforts were made to collect missing data from authors. Results are presented as standardised mean differences (SMD) for pulmonary function and risk ratios (RR) for hospital admission; both are displayed with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sixteen trials (21 references) of unclear and high risk of bias were eligible and included 896 patients who were randomised (838 patients completed). Seven of the 16 included studies involved adults exclusively, three included adults and paediatric patients, four studies enrolled paediatric patients and in the remaining two studies the age of participants was not stated.The design, definitions, intervention and outcomes were different in all 16 studies; this heterogeneity made direct comparisons difficult (see additional tables 1-3).The overall risk of bias among the included studies was variable and this is reflected in the 'Summary of findings' table with most outcomes being judged as only moderate or less.Inhaled magnesium sulfate in addition to inhaled β(2)-agonistThere was no statistically significant improvement in pulmonary function when inhaled MgSO(4) and β(2)-agonist was compared with β(2)-agonist alone (SMD 0.23; 95% CI -0.27 to 0.74; three studies, n = 188); however, there was considerable between study heterogeneity. There was no clear advantage in terms of hospital admissions (RR 0.76 95% CI 0.49, 1.16; four studies, n = 249), and there were no serious adverse events reported.Inhaled magnesium sulfate versus inhaled β(2)-agonistThe results of pulmonary function in three studies that compared inhaled MgSO(4) versus β(2)-agonist were too heterogeneous to combine; however, two of the studies found poorer lung function on MgSO(4). There was no significant difference in terms of hospital admissions in a single small study when MgSO(4) was compared to β(2)-agonist (RR 0.53 95% CI 0.05, 5.31; one study, n = 33), and there were no serious adverse events reported.Inhaled magnesium sulfate in addition to inhaled β(2)-agonist and ipratropiumA further comparison has been included in the 2012 update of this review of MgSO(4) given in addition to inhaled ipratropium and β(2)-agonist therapy (as recommended by the GINA guidelines). Source


Pearson P.J.G.,University of Cardiff | Foxon T.J.,University of Leeds
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Recent efforts to promote a transition to a low carbon economy have been influenced by suggestions that a low carbon transition offers challenges and might yield economic benefits comparable to those of the previous industrial revolutions. This paper examines these arguments and the challenges facing a low carbon transition, by drawing on recent thinking on the technological, economic and institutional factors that enabled and sustained the first (British) industrial revolution, and the role of 'general purpose technologies' in stimulating and sustaining this and subsequent industrial transformation processes that have contributed to significant macroeconomic gains. These revolutions involved profound, long drawn-out changes in economy, technology and society; and although their energy transitions led to long-run economic benefits, they took many decades to develop. To reap significant long-run economic benefits from a low carbon transition sooner rather than later would require systemic efforts and incentives for low carbon innovation and substitution of high-carbon technologies. We conclude that while achieving a low carbon transition may require societal changes on a scale comparable with those of previous industrial revolutions, this transition does not yet resemble previous industrial revolutions. A successful low carbon transition would, however, amount to a different kind of industrial revolution. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Owen M.J.,University of Cardiff
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2012

There is accumulating evidence for shared genetic as well as environmental risk between intellectual disability and other conditions with a neurodevelopmental basis such as autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy and schizophrenia. These can be conceived as lying along a continuum of genetically and environmentally induced neurodevelopmental causality. Source


Coxall H.K.,University of Cardiff | Coxall H.K.,University of Stockholm | Wilson P.A.,UK National Oceanography Center
Paleoceanography | Year: 2011

The onset of sustained Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) marks a pivotal change in Earth's climate, but our understanding of this event, particularly the role of the carbon cycle, is limited. To help address this gap we present the following paleoceanographic proxy records from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1218 in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP): (1) stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) records generated in epifaunal benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides spp.) to improve (double the resolution) the previously published records; (2) δ18O and δ13C records measured on Oridorsalis umbonatus, a shallow infaunal species; and (3) a record of benthic foraminifera accumulation rate (BFAR). Our new isotope data sets confirm the existence at Site 1218 of a two-step δ18O increase. They also lend support to the hypothesized existence of a late Eocene transient δ18O increase and early Oligocene Oi-1a and Oi-1b glacial maxima. Our record of BFAR indicates a transient (∼500 kyr) twofold to threefold peak relative to baseline Oligocene values associated with the onset of Antarctic glaciation that we attribute to enhanced biological export production in the EEP. This takes the same general form as the history of opal accumulation in the Southern Ocean, suggesting strong high-to-low-latitude oceanic coupling. These findings appear to lend support to the idea that the EOT δ13C excursion is traceable to increased organic carbon (Corg) burial. Paradoxically, early Oligocene sediments in the EEP are extremely Corg-poor, and proxy records of atmospheric pCO 2 indicate a transient increase associated with the EOT. Copyright © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union. Source


Carneiro G.,University of Cardiff
Marine Policy | Year: 2011

This paper reviews the evidence of the impacts of marine management interventions on human development and well-being reported in marine management literature in the past two decades. Documents dealing with fisheries, aquaculture, marine conservation and coastal zone management are assessed in terms of the methodologies used, the human development dimensions considered, and the results reported. The choice of dimensions for defining human development in this literature is contrasted with proposals from the literature on the capability and human development approaches. Possible areas for future research are discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Rozanowska M.B.,University of Cardiff
Photochemistry and Photobiology | Year: 2012

Light-induced injury to the retina resembles many features of several retinal degenerative diseases, particularly age-related macular degeneration. This Symposium-in-Print on Retinal Photodamage discusses the mechanisms involved and protective strategies to increase the retinal resistance to damage and/or to counteract its deleterious effects. Recent results help explaining the wavelength dependence of susceptibility of the retina to photodamage and different sites of the initial injury for shorter- and longer-wavelength light. Still, there are many unanswered questions pointing toward next directions in research so as to increase the understanding of the responses of the retina to photodamage and help to develop effective therapeutic approaches for retinal degenerations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology. Source


Evans J.,Loughborough University | Davies B.,University of Cardiff
Sport, Education and Society | Year: 2014

How might Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy (PESP) communities in the UK, Europe, Australasia and elsewhere go about researching the implications of neoliberalism and increasing privatisation of Education for the entitlements of young people to a common, comprehensive, high quality, equitable Physical Education (PE)? Our analyses suggest that research attention to the politics of identity, essentially, how pupils are positioned within institutions in ‘relation to’ various discourses, cultures and values given by the curriculum, pedagogical and assessment practices of schooling and Initial Teacher Education Physical Education (ITEPE) is a necessary but insufficient research agenda if the profession's project is social justice and pursuit of democratic ideals. The paper calls for some refocusing and expansion of sociological and educational research interests so that equal regard is paid to the political economy of education including ‘relations between’ PE and the new forms of governance and school organisation now featuring in countries across the globe. Together these relations within and between are altering the education landscape in new and unpredictable ways, including how social, cultural and physical capital is distributed and ‘consumed’ in and through PE in schools and ITEPE. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Wirth T.,University of Cardiff
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Se-ing and doing: Isoselenazoles are novel, very potent antioxidant derivatives offering remarkable cytoprotection to human cells. Synthetically available in only a few steps, these compounds have the potential to fight diseases caused by oxidative stress. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Cherednichenko K.D.,University of Cardiff
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids | Year: 2010

Using an averaging procedure for large ensembles of dislocations, a basic but mathematically non-trivial modelling framework is developed for the transport of dislocation densities in a macroscopically homogeneous and isotropic film of a crystalline solid subjected to uniform shear. It has the form of a system of nonlinear, non-local partial differential equations of the first order with a source-type right-hand side. The solution to this system is studied numerically, and the associated average stress is evaluated as a function of time. The resulting stress-strain relations exhibit a size effect similar to those that previously motivated strain-gradient plasticity theories. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Guerra-Santin O.,University of Cardiff | Itard L.,Technical University of Delft
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2012

Governments have developed energy performance regulations in order to lower energy consumption in the housing stock. Most of these regulations are based on the thermal quality of the buildings. In the Netherlands, the energy efficiency for new buildings is expressed as the EPC (energy performance coefficient). Studies have indicated that energy regulations are successful in lowering the energy consumption in residential buildings. However, the actual energy consumption is usually different from the expected energy consumption. This paper explores the effectiveness of energy performance regulations in lowering the energy consumption of dwellings built in the Netherlands after 1996. The effect of the EPC and thermal characteristics on energy consumption was determined by statistical analyses of data on actual energy consumption. The results showed that energy reductions are seen in dwellings built after the introduction of energy performance regulations. However, results suggest that to effectively reduce energy consumption, the tightening of the EPC in not enough. Policies aimed at controlling the construction quality and changing occupant behaviour are also necessary to achieve further energy reductions. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Kaehne A.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities | Year: 2010

The paper presents the findings of a study of transition protocols (for adolescents leaving school and entering the general marketplace) in place for intellectual disability partnerships in 22 local authorities in Wales. The study consisted of a survey of existing protocols and a documentary analysis of the content of the obtained protocols. The author outlines the relevant legal and policy context of school to marketplace transition in England and Wales, then reviews the results of the survey of all 22 Welsh local authorities, and presents the findings of a documentary content analysis. The results highlight the difficulties in formulating effective protocols for transition partnerships at the local authority level. Criteria applied in the documentary analysis have been, among others, person-centered planning, involvement of young people and carers, accessibility of the protocol, and the inclusion of external agencies in transition planning. The analysis shows wide-ranging discrepancies in the quality and content of transition protocols across Wales. © 2010 International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Understanding the climate and location aspects are usually the first step in energy applications - from buildings to renewable energy. With so many of the renewable energy sources being significantly dependent on weather, it is essential that the temporal and geospatial variability and distribution of climatic design parameters are investigated for effective planning and operation. ASHRAE-HOF is the most widely used climatic design conditions database for building energy and HVAC professionals, but gaps exist in the literature on the geospatial and temporal distributions of the HOF dataset. This research explored geospatial distributions of key HOF (2009) climatic parameters: temperature (dry-bulb, wet-bulb, dew-point and mean) and degree-days at various temporal scales. Identified spatial variability illustrate the effects of latitude, elevation, landuse and nearest coastline. Observed trends agree with conventional wisdom; however, sparse coverage in populated areas such as Africa and Asia diminish the versatility of the database. Variations in temperature exist, even between closely spaced sites - emphasizing the need to use location-specific data for enhancing the accuracy of the weather-related analysis. Moreover, latitudinal similarities in the distribution offer potential in identifying candidate locations for reciprocal transfer of knowledge on environmental design and operation. © 2016 The Author. Source


White-Cooper H.,University of Cardiff
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2011

Spermatogenesis is a complex and ordered differentiation process in which the spermatogonial stem cell population gives rise to primary spermatocytes that undergo two successive meiotic divisions followed by a major biochemical and structural reorganization of the haploid cells to generate mature elongate spermatids. The transcriptional regulatory programs that orchestrate this process have been intensively studied in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and mouse. Genetic and biochemical approaches have identified the factors involved and revealed mechanisms of action that are unique to male germ cells. In a well-studied example, cofactors and pathways distinct from those used in somatic tissues mediate the action of CREM in male germ cells. But perhaps the most striking feature concerns the paralogs of somatically expressed transcription factors and of components of the general transcription machinery that act in distinct regulatory mechanisms in both Drosophila and murine spermatogenesis. Source


Owen M.J.,University of Cardiff
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2012

From the perspective of those of us working on the genetics of schizophrenia, recent progress in identifying specific genetic risk factors at highly robust levels of statistical significance has been striking. However, the prevailing response among other schizophrenia researchers and some funders, families, and sufferers is often one of disappointment. In particular, it is often claimed that these discoveries explain only a small proportion of the genetic risk and hence tell us little about the nature of schizophrenia. The purpose of this article is to persuade you that recent genetic findings, while only revealing the tip of a complex genetic iceberg, already have profound implications for our general understanding of the classification and pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related disorders and that these have implications for schizophrenia research of all kinds. © 2012 The Author. Source


Lazarus E.D.,University of Cardiff | McGill B.J.,University of Maine, United States
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by longdistance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted- colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale. © 2014 Lazarus, McGill. Source


Hilgart J.S.,University of Cardiff
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

The recognition of an inherited component to breast cancer has led to an increase in demand for information, reassurance, and genetic testing, which has resulted in the creation of genetic clinics for familial cancer. The first step for patients referred to a cancer genetic clinic is a risk assessment. To evaluate the impact of cancer genetic risk-assessment services on patients at risk of familial breast cancer. The specialised register maintained by the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group was searched on 16th February 2005. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, CENTRAL, DARE, ASSIA, Web of Science, SIGLE and LILACS. The original searches covered the period 1985 to February 2005. We also handsearched relevant journals. For this review update the search was repeated through to April 2011. We considered trials looking at interventions for cancer genetic risk-assessment services for familial breast cancer for inclusion. Trials assessed outcomes such as understanding of risk, satisfaction and psychological well-being. We excluded studies if they concerned cancers other than breast cancer or if participants were not at risk of inherited breast cancer. We also excluded trials concerning the provision of general cancer genetic information or education as this review was concerned with the delivery of genetic risk assessment. Participants could be individuals of any age or gender, with or without a known BRCA mutation, but without a previous history of breast cancer or any other serious illness. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Additional information was sought from investigators as necessary. Due to the heterogeneity of both the interventions and outcomes, we reported data descriptively. In this review update, we included five new trials, bringing the total number of included studies to eight. The included trials (pertaining to 10 papers), provided data on 1973 participants and assessed the impact of cancer genetic risk assessment on outcomes including perceived risk of inherited cancer, and psychological distress. This review suggests that cancer genetic risk-assessment services help to reduce distress, improve the accuracy of the perceived risk of breast cancer, and increase knowledge about breast cancer and genetics. The health professional delivering the risk assessment does not appear to have a significant impact on these outcomes. This review found favourable outcomes for patients after risk assessment for familial breast cancer. However, there were too few papers to make any significant conclusions about how best to deliver cancer genetic risk-assessment services. Further research is needed assessing the best means of delivering cancer risk assessment, by different health professionals, in different ways and in alternative locations. Source


Carroll H.C.M.(Tim),University of Cardiff
School Psychology International | Year: 2010

Although school psychologists are involved in dealing with the problem of pupil absenteeism at both the individual child and whole school level, one of the possible reasons for their involvement, namely the belief that significant absence from school has an effect on attainments, is actually founded on weak evidence. The literature review presented in this article revealed that, in order to determine the effect of absence on attainments, no satisfactory study had hitherto been conducted in which attainments had been measured before and after a period of absence. However, the results of longitudinal research partially conducted by the present author, reported in this article, do show that absence from school has a significant effect on primary school attainments. In particular, it was found that an absence of half a year between the ages of 7- and 11-years-of-age resulted in a reduction of 0.7 of a year and 1 year in reading and mathematics test scores respectively. The article ends with a consideration of the kind of research which still needs to be conducted in order to provide school psychologists with the information they need to deal successfully with pupil absenteeism problems. © 2010 SAGE Publications. Source


Allen D.,University of Cardiff
Sociology of Health and Illness | Year: 2015

In the face of unprecedented financial and demographic challenges, optimising acute bed utilisation by the proactive management of patient flows is a pressing policy concern in high-income countries. Despite the growing literature on this topic, bed management has received scant sociological attention. Drawing on practice-based approaches, this article deploys ethnographic data to examine bed management from the perspective of UK hospital nurses. While the nursing contribution to bed management is recognised formally in their widespread employment in patient access and discharge liaison roles, nurses at all levels in the study site were enrolled in this organisational priority. Rather than the rational, centrally controlled processes promulgated by policymakers, bed management emerges as a predominantly distributed activity, described here as match-making. An example of micro-level rationing, for the most part, match-making was not informed by explicit criteria nor did it hinge on clearly identifiable decisions to grant or deny access. Rather it was embedded in the everyday practices and situated rationalities through which nurses accomplished the accommodations necessary to balance demand with resources. © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness. Source


Hopfe C.J.,University of Cardiff | Augenbroe G.L.M.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Hensen J.L.M.,TU Eindhoven
Building and Environment | Year: 2013

Building performance assessment is complex, as it has to respond to multiple criteria. Objectives originating from the demands that are put on energy consumption, acoustical performance, thermal occupant comfort, indoor air quality and many other issues must all be reconciled. An assessment requires the use of predictive models that involve numerous design and physical parameters as their inputs. Since these input parameters, as well as the models that operate on them, are not precisely known, it is imprudent to assume deterministic values for them. A more realistic approach is to introduce ranges of uncertainty in the parameters themselves, or in their derivation, from underlying approximations. In so doing, it is recognized that the outcome of a performance assessment is influenced by many sources of uncertainty. As a consequence of this approach the design process is informed by assessment outcomes that produce probability distributions of a target measure instead of its deterministic value. In practice this may lead to a "well informed" analysis but not necessarily to a straightforward, cost effective and efficient design process.This paper discusses how design decision making can be based on uncertainty assessments. A case study is described focussing on a discrete decision that involves a choice between two HVAC system designs. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) including uncertainty information is used to arrive at a rational decision. In this approach, key performance indicators such as energy efficiency, thermal comfort and others are ranked according to their importance and preferences. This process enables a clear group consensus based choice of one of the two options. The research presents a viable means of collaboratively ranking complex design options based on stakeholder's preferences and considering the uncertainty involved in the designs. In so doing it provides important feedback to the design team. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Chaney P.,University of Cardiff
British Journal of Politics and International Relations | Year: 2013

Ageing societies and cohort-based differential turnout present challenges and opportunities in political parties' pursuit of electoral support. This article explores their response with reference to the issue salience of public policy for older people in the manifestos for Westminster and regional elections in the UK, 1945-2011. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of party programmes reveals: (1) a significant increase in issue salience and electoral competition around public policy for older people in the post-war era; (2) a continuing failure to adhere to EC and UN edicts on the need to mainstream older people's equality and welfare across portfolios and policy frames; and (3) the territorialisation of public policy based on inter- and intra-party differences in policy programmes as part of a formative process associated with the political opportunity structures afforded by quasi-federalism. © 2012 Political Studies Association. Source


Baker S.,University of Cardiff | Eckerberg K.,Umea University
Ecology and Society | Year: 2013

Using a simple stages model of the policy process, we explore the politics of ecological restoration using an array of examples drawn across sector, different size and scale, and from different countries. A policy analysis perspective reveals how, at both the program and project levels, ecological restoration operates within a complex and dynamic interplay between technical decision making, ideologies, and interest politics. Viewed through the stages model, restoration policy involves negotiating nature across stages in the policy making process, including agenda setting, policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. The stages model is a useful heuristic devise; however, this linear model assumes that policy makers approach the issue rationally. In practice, ecological restoration policy takes place in the context of different distributions of power between the various public and private actors involved at the different stages of restoration policy making. This allows us to reiterate the point that ecological restoration is best seen not only as a technical task but as a social and political project. © 2013 by the author(s). Source


Byrne A.,University of Cardiff
Advances in Health Sciences Education | Year: 2013

The decision making process is central to the practice of a clinician and has traditionally been described in terms of the hypothetico-deductive model. More recently, models adapted from cognitive psychology, such as the dual process and script theories have proved useful in explaining patterns of practice not consistent with purely cognitive based practice. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of mental workload as a key determinant of the type of cognitive processing used by clinicians. Published research appears to be consistent with 'schemata' based cognition as the principle mode of working for those engaged in complex tasks under time pressure. Although conscious processing of factual data is also used, it may be the primary mode of cognition only in situations where time pressure is not a factor. Further research on the decision making process should be based on outcomes which are not dependant on conscious recall of past actions or events and include a measure of mental workload. This further appears to support the concept of the patient, within the clinical environment, as the most effective learning resource. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Brain T.,University of Cardiff
Safer Communities | Year: 2014

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to review the establishment of this new type of elected official and the conduct of those in office during the first twelve months of their official existence, and to consider whether a compelling case has yet been made for its retention as the principal method of police governance. Design/methodology/approach - The paper will review policy papers and data which preceded and followed the establishment of the office of police and crime commissioner (PCC) in November 2012; review the 2012 elections and their implications, review conduct since, particularly in respect of formal duties, principally setting budgets and police and crime plans; consider the potential for politicisation; and consider whether a case has been made for the retention of the office in future. Findings - The paper concludes that the government has succeeded with PCCs in implementing a major plank of the Conservative party's 2010 manifesto. It can reasonably be anticipated that the Conservatives will promote this record at the next election. However, it is simply too early to tell if PCCs are individually or collectively adding value to the sum of policing in England and Wales. A compelling case for their retention as a means of police governance is therefore yet to be made. On the other hand, Labour has still to determine whether it will offer the electorate an alternative in 2015. Research limitations/implications - With only ten months having elapsed since the first elections, it is early to draw firm conclusions about the effectiveness or, more pertinently, the added value that PCCs have brought to policing. Conversely, the first twelve months was an opportunity for PCCs to make a positive impression and this has not occurred. Practical implications - PCCs ought to be subject to a rigorous appraisal of effectiveness. This is unlikely, for political reasons, to occur. Originality/value - First rigorous review of PCCs based on a review of available data. Copyright © 2014 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Beynon-Davies P.,University of Cardiff
Information and Organization | Year: 2016

The concept of the data structure is part of the accepted and relatively unexplored background of the information disciplines. As such, the data structure is treated largely as a technological artefact, helping to support but somewhat isolated from considerations of institutional order. This paper develops an alternative consideration of the data structure which focuses upon the constitutive capacity of such artefacts within institutional order. This viewpoint builds upon literature from the language/action tradition, the more recent work of John Searle on social ontology as well as the small amount of work which proposes the actability of data structures. To help provide some grip on the slippery notion of institutional order we consider it here in terms of the notion of business patterns. The term business pattern is used to refer to a coherent and repeating sequence of action involving humans, machines (including IT systems) and other artefacts (such as data structures) appropriate to some way of organising. The paper also describes a way of visualising either existing business patterns or envisaged business patterns through the pattern 'language' of pattern comics. We ground our approach using material gathered within a research study of a key routine enacted within a large manufacturing organisation. Within this routine a mismatch was experienced between what the data structures within the production IT system was telling production managers and what was experienced on the ground by production operators. We show how an actability worldview of data structures expressed in terms of business patterns offers a fruitful way of making sense of problem situations such as this. It also suggests important ways of thinking differently about the nature of design in relation to data structures. © 2016 The Author. Source


Sakellariou D.,University of Cardiff
Medical Anthropology: Cross Cultural Studies in Health and Illness | Year: 2015

People living with a disability or illness and health care professionals often have different perspectives on what needs to be done, and why, in order to create a life they can recognize as good. Focusing on home modifications, I explore the enactment of diverging perspectives on the desired good. I show how one couple living with the effects of motor neuron disease in Wales tried to create a way of living. Drawing from a narrative-based study, I explore what happens when there is an interaction of different perspectives of what is considered to be a desirable outcome. I argue that the construction of some expectations as needs, and others as desires, serves to subjugate people to certain technologies. These technologies are those deemed necessary, following a neo-liberal language of cost-effectiveness where desires can be seen as liabilities. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Collishaw S.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2015

Background: Child and adolescent mental health problems are common, associated with wide-ranging functional impairments, and show substantial continuities into adult life. It is therefore important to understand the extent to which the prevalence of mental health problems has changed over time, and to identify reasons behind any trends in mental health. Scope and Methodology: This review evaluates evidence on whether the population prevalence of child and adolescent mental health problems has changed. The primary focus of the review is on epidemiological cross-cohort comparisons identified by a systematic search of the literature (using the Web of Knowledge database). Findings: Clinical diagnosis and treatment of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders increased over recent decades. Epidemiological comparisons of unselected population cohorts using equivalent assessments of mental health have found little evidence of an increased rate of ADHD, but cross-cohort comparisons of rates of ASD are lacking at this time. Findings do suggest substantial secular change in emotional problems and antisocial behaviour in high-income countries, including periods of increase and decrease in symptom prevalence. Evidence from low- and middle-income countries is very limited. Possible explanations for trends in child and adolescent mental health are discussed. The review also addresses how cross-cohort comparisons can provide valuable complementary information on the aetiology of mental illness. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Source


Harding K.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Wound Care | Year: 2015

Innovation in medicine requires unique partnerships between academic research, biotech or pharmaceutical companies, and health-care providers. While innovation in medicine has greatly increased over the past 100 years, innovation in wound care has been slow, despite the fact that chronic wounds are a global health challenge where there is a need for technical, process and social innovation. While novel partnerships between research and the health-care system have been created, we still have much to learn about wound care and the wound-healing processes. © 2015, MA Healthcare Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Fairchild G.,University of Southampton | Van Goozen S.H.M.,University of Cardiff | Calder A.J.,Medical Research Council Cognition | Goodyer I.M.,University of Cambridge
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2013

Background The developmental taxonomic theory proposes that there are two subtypes of antisocial behaviour. The first is a neurodevelopmental disorder which emerges in early childhood and follows a life-course persistent course, whereas the second emerges in adolescence, remits in early adulthood and reflects peer processes such as mimicry of antisocial peers. The aim of this review was to evaluate the developmental taxonomic theory in the light of recent empirical research. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review comparing these subtypes of antisocial behaviour based on searches on PubMed and other scientific databases covering the period from 1993 to 2013. We focused on research encompassing psychiatric epidemiology, personality assessment, neuropsychology, neuroendocrinology, genetics, and structural and functional neuroimaging. Sixty one empirical studies were identified that investigated one of these forms of antisocial behaviour separately or explicitly compared childhood-onset and adolescence-onset forms of antisocial behaviour. Results Empirical research provides support for the hypothesis that life-course persistent antisocial behaviour is a neurodevelopmental disorder which emerges in the transactions between individual vulnerabilities and environmental adversity. In contrast to the developmental taxonomic theory, however, empirical findings suggest that severe antisocial behaviour that emerges in adolescence frequently has a negative prognosis and is rarely limited to the adolescent period. In addition, both forms of antisocial behaviour are associated with emotion processing deficits, changes in brain structure and function, alterations in cortisol secretion, and atypical personality traits (such as increased callous-unemotional traits). Conclusions We conclude that the developmental taxonomic theory is in need of revision, as differences between life-course persistent and adolescence-onset forms of antisocial behaviour appear to be quantitative, rather than qualitative, in nature. In addition, evidence is accumulating that adolescence-onset antisocial behaviour may also be a neurodevelopmental disorder. To account for the similarities between these groups, despite the differences in their age-of-onset, we propose that the quality of the child's early environment moderates the relationship between individual vulnerabilities and the age-of-onset of antisocial behaviour. © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Source


Harding K.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Wound Care | Year: 2015

In recent years, the provision of wound care for patients has dramatically improved through the development of new therapeutic options, allowing for a wide range of wound care therapy choices. In June 2014, an educational International Surgical Wound Forum (ISWF) was held to present current options in wound care to a multidisciplinary group of healthcare providers. Topics included negative pressure wound therapy with instillation and dwell time (NPWTi-d), surgical incision management (SIM), use of NPWT in the management of the open abdomen, epidermal skin harvesting, and advanced wound dressings. This supplement provides in-depth discussion of some of the topics covered at the 2014 ISWF. © 2015, MA Healthcare Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Johnson E.K.,University of Cardiff
Sociology of Health and Illness | Year: 2015

Drawing on a case study conducted in a private residential care home, this article examines the emotional labour of care workers in relation to the moral construction of care and the practical experiences of work. An examination of the company's discursive attempts to construct, manage and demarcate its employees' emotional labour was carried out alongside an exploration of the carers' own interpretations of, and enrolment in, the care-giving role. The potential economic and emotional consequences of these occurrences were a key focus of the inquiry. The study found that carers, encouraged by the company, naturalised their emotional labour, and that this had contradictory consequences. On the one hand it justified the economic devaluation of the carer's work and left her vulnerable to emotional over-involvement and client aggression. On the other, it allowed the worker to defend the moral interests of those within her care and to see when those interests were in conflict with the economic motivations of her employer. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


This paper investigates the controversy around scallop dredging in Cardigan Bay, Wales. The area's scallop fishery was relatively small until the 1980s but has seen dramatic increases in catches in the past five years. Concerns have been raised about the effect of increasing fishing effort, especially for its potential impacts on the Bay's population of bottlenose dolphins, which were the basis of its designation as a Special Area of Conservation. I show that the controversy is not merely about human management of an endangered fish stock, but also involves the actions of scallops, dolphins, the sea, seabed, fishing technologies and regulatory practices. I also show that the events in Cardigan Bay frequently are co-produced by events and actions further afield. These topics are examined through the lens of assemblage theory, with which geographers have yet to widely engage. This emphasizes heterogeneity and emergence, and encourages a focus on processes of (de)territorialization. In the paper, I contrast the territorializing practices of regulatory regimes with the smoothing movements of dolphins, the sea and the seabed, showing how the actions of these nonhumans complicate attributions of environmental harm. Through this, the paper addresses the lack of attention paid to the sea by cultural geographers, particularly through a focus on materiality and multi-dimensionality. © The Author(s) 2012. Source


Background:Mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with a conspicuous local immune infiltrate; however, its relationship with systemic inflammatory responses remains to be determined. The present study aims to examine the relationships and prognostic value of assessment of the local and systemic environment in the context of MMR status in patients with CRC.Methods:The relationship between MMR status, determined using immunohistochemistry, and the local inflammatory cell infiltrate, differential white cell count, neutrophil : platelet score (NPS), neutrophil : lymphocyte ratio and modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), and cancer-specific survival was examined in 228 patients undergoing resection of stage I–III CRC.Results:Thirty-five patients (15%) had dMMR CRC. Mismatch repair deficiency was associated with a higher density of CD3+, CD8+ and CD45R0+ T lymphocytes within the cancer cell nests and an elevated mGPS (mGPS2: 23% vs 9%, P=0.007) and NPS (NPS2: 19% vs 3%, P=0.001). CD3+ density (P<0.001), mGPS (P=0.01) and NPS (P=0.042) were associated with survival independent of MMR status (P=0.367) and stratified 5-year survival of patients with MMR-competent CRC from 94% to 67%, 83% to 46% and 78% to 60% respectively.Conclusions:Mismatch repair deficiency was associated with local and systemic environments, and in comparison with their assessment, dMMR had relatively poor prognostic value in patients with primary operable CRC. In addition to MMR status, local and systemic inflammatory responses should be assessed in these patients.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication 9 February 2016; doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.17 www.bjcancer.com. © 2016 Cancer Research UK Source


Currie C.J.,University of Cardiff | Poole C.D.,Global Epidemiology | Jenkins-Jones S.,Global Epidemiology | Gale E.A.M.,University of Bristol | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE - Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of several types of cancer and with reduced survival after cancer diagnosis. We examined the hypotheses that survival after a diagnosis of solid-tumor cancer is reduced in those with diabetes when compared with those without diabetes, and that treatment with metformin influences survival after cancer diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN ANDMETHODS - Data were obtained from >350 U.K. primary care practices in a retrospective cohort study. All individuals with or without diabetes who developed a first tumor after January 1990 were identified and records were followed to December 2009. Diabetes was further stratified by treatment regimen. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare all-cause mortality from all cancers and from specific cancers. RESULTS - Of 112,408 eligible individuals, 8,392 (7.5%) had type 2 diabetes. Cancer mortality was increased in those with diabetes, compared with those without (hazard ratio 1.09 [95% CI 1.06-1.13]). Mortality was increased in those with breast (1.32 [1.17-1.49]) and prostate cancer (1.19 [1.08-1.31]) but decreased in lung cancer (0.84 [0.77-0.92]). When analyzed by diabetes therapy, mortality was increased relative to nondiabetes in those on monotherapy with sulfonylureas (1.13 [1.05-1.21]) or insulin (1.13 [1.01-1.27]) but reduced in those on metformin monotherapy (0.85 [0.78-0.93]). CONCLUSIONS - This study confirmed that type 2 diabetes was associated with poorer prognosis after incident cancer, but that the association varied according to diabetes therapy and cancer site. Metformin was associated with survival benefit both in comparison with other treatments for diabetes and in comparison with a nondiabetic population. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Sengpiel F.,University of Cardiff
Current Biology | Year: 2014

Over the last 50 years, research into the developmental plasticity of the visual cortex has led to a growing understanding of first the causes and then of the underlying cellular mechanisms of amblyopia or 'lazy eye', the commonest childhood disorder of vision. While it is widely believed that amblyopia cannot be treated successfully after the age of about 7, recent animal studies have demonstrated that visual cortex plasticity can be restored or enhanced later in life, paving the way for new strategies for the treatment of amblyopia that attempt to remove molecular brakes on plasticity. In addition, both animal and human work has established that amblyopia is not simply a monocular deficit, and therefore the most promising new non-invasive approaches force the two eyes to cooperate as opposed to conventional procedures that severely penalise the good eye. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Elwood P.,University of Cardiff | Longley M.,University of South Wales
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2010

Background Medicines are likely to assume an increasingly important role in helping people to remain healthy. But there are few indications as to what information and other support people want when assessing the risks and benefits of medicines; what role they feel government and healthcare professionals should play in informing, advising and encouraging healthy people on the potential benefits and possible risks of prophylactic medicines; and, ultimately, where does the responsibility for maintaining a person's health lie? Methods A Citizens' Jury was convened in October 2006 to consider these issuesagainst the background of healthy living in general. The Jury was a broadly representative group of 16 people drawn from the community.Anumber of experts in clinical medicine, pharmacology and public health gave evidence and were questioned by the jurors. Vascular prophylaxis by a daily low-dose of aspirin was used as a case study throughout the discussions. Results The judgements of the jury included a clear demand for more information on health issues in general and on prophylactic medicines in particular, together with a desire thatthepublic be more closely and openly involved in decision-taking inall matters relevant to health. The jurors were generally receptive to the possible role of medicines in the maintenance of health anda majority argued that people should be presented with evidence on medicines with possible health benefits, even when there is disagreement between experts about efficacy. Conclusion The strategy of the Citizens' Jury, alongside other deliberative methods, could clearly have animportant and valuable role in the formulation of public healthand social policy. Source


McNulty C.A.M.,Public Health England | Francis N.A.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

Several UK resources, including the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), Clinical Knowledge Summaries, the Infection Specialist Library, the HPA Management of Infection Guide, the Map of Medicine and the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) web site, produce primary care antibiotic prescribing guidance. A BSAC 2009 workshop aimed to discuss how guidance could be best translated into practice using public and professional educational programmes. Workshop participants were asked to consider approaches within the context of a behaviour change model, in which readiness to change is recognized as a product of the individual's perception of the importance of change (the 'why' of change; 'Why should I change my antibiotic prescribing') and their confidence that they can achieve a change (the 'how' of change). Participants concluded that antibiotic education campaigns should be repeated during peak prescribing periods, should be located in pharmacies, clinical waiting areas and schools, and should be reinforced verbally during patient consultations for infections. Patients should receive clear information, ideally reinforced with leaflets, about the likely duration of symptoms, self-care and the likely benefits and harms of antibiotics. Education for clinicians needs to focus on increasing awareness of the importance of antibiotic resistance and providing tools to increase confidence in changing their prescribing. Videos are a useful tool for demonstrating good and poor communication skills and approaches to eliciting and addressing patient concerns and expectations. Well-designed patient information can facilitate consultations. Feedback and audit on antibiotic use to clinicians is essential; this can be facilitated by incentive schemes, especially if clinical records link diagnosis with prescriptions. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source


Kitzinger J.,University of Cardiff | Kitzinger C.,University of York
Sociology of Health and Illness | Year: 2013

This article builds on and develops the emerging bioethics literature on the 'window of opportunity' for allowing death by withholding or withdrawing treatment. Our findings are drawn from in-depth interviews with 26 people (from 14 different families) with severely brain injured relatives. These interviews were specifically selected from a larger study on the basis of interviewees' reports that their relatives would not have wanted to be kept alive in their current condition (e.g. in vegetative or minimally conscious states). Our analysis tracks the decision-making processes that have led to the situation in which life-sustaining treatments continue to be delivered to these patients - maintaining them in a state that some families describe as a 'fate worse than death'. We show how the medico-legal 'window of opportunity' for allowing the patient to die structures family experience and fails to deliver optimal outcomes for patients. We end with some suggestions for change. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/JohnWiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Burnett A.K.,University of Cardiff
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Treatment outcomes in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have improved, but optimization and new combinations are needed. We assess three combinations in induction and consolidation. Younger untreated patients with AML (median age, 49 years; range, 0 to 73 years) were randomly allocated to two induction courses of daunorubicin and cytarabine (DA) with or without etoposide (ADE; n = 1983) or ADE versus fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and idarubicin (FLAG-Ida; n = 1268), and to amsacrine, cytarabine, etoposide, and then mitoxantrone/cytarabine (MACE-MidAC) or high-dose cytarabine (n = 1,445) 3 g/m(2) or 1.5 g/m(2) (n = 657) in consolidation, and finally to a fifth course (cytarabine) or not (n = 227). Overall remission rates were similar for DA versus ADE (84% v 86%; P = .14) and ADE versus FLAG-Ida (86% v 85%; P = .7), with more course 1 remissions after FLAG-Ida (77%) reducing relapse (38% v 55%; P < .001) and improving relapse-free survival (45% v 34%; P = .01), overall and in subgroups, but with increased myelosuppression, reducing participation in the consolidation randomization. Overall outcomes were similar between MACE/MidAc and high-dose cytarabine (1.5/3.0 g/m(2)), but cytarabine required less supportive care. MACE/MidAc was superior for high-risk patients. A fifth course provided no benefit. The outcome for recipients of only two FLAG-Ida courses were not different from that with DA/ADE with consolidation. FLAG-Ida is an effective remission induction treatment, with a high complete remission rate after course 1 and reduced relapse. Consolidation with MACE/MidAc is similar overall to high-dose cytarabine, but superior in high-risk patients. Cytarabine at 1.5 g/m(2) is equivalent to a 3 g/m(2) dose. A fifth course is unnecessary. In patients receiving FLAG-Ida (two courses) and cytarabine (two courses), 8-year survival was 63% for patients with intermediate-risk and 95% for those with favorable-risk disease. Source


Lisle R.J.,University of Cardiff
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2014

New and existing methods for the analysis of finite strains in shear zones involving volume changes are reviewed. By assuming that the wall rocks are undeformed, the position gradients tensor can be determined from data derived from deformed passive markers with or without knowledge of the orientation of cleavage within the shear zone. The new methods are both algebraic and graphical and include those based on off-axis Mohr circles. Application of these methods to deformed sandstones at Marloes Sands reveals important volume changes that would invalidate an approach that assumes simple shear. © The Geological Society of London 2014. Source


Moragues-Faus A.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2014

In some regions, small-scale low productivity farms persist despite modernisation pressures and policy pitfalls. This phenomenon calls for a deeper understanding of the dynamics at play which are largely bypassed in current academic debates, but are regaining momentum given the complex challenges faced by the agricultural sector. Some Mediterranean areas represent a particular case, characterised by a landscape of small farms, managed part-time, extending through high nature value areas, and producing reputable quality products. This research aims to unveil how this type of agriculture is reproduced. Through an enlarged notion of embeddedness this study explores the distinct farmers' strategies and their interdependencies in Alto Palancia County (Spain). For that purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted in three municipalities that sought first to unveil the role of social and territorial embeddedness in reproducing the system, but also revealed the necessary contribution of capital flows from the local and regional economy as well as welfare state transfers. These findings shed light on the nature of part-time farming, which needs to be considered as part of a broader agricultural system. Furthermore, this paper calls for a more place-based and relational analytical framework in order to understand the reproduction of agricultural dynamics. This approach is paramount to assess public policy impacts - which go beyond agricultural policy measures - and improve the design of future interventions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


This article identifies a significant transformation in the role and identity of parents accompanying their child to clinic. This shift is a product of the intersection between paediatric and genetic medicine, where parents play a critical role in providing information about their child, family and ultimately, about themselves. To provide a context for this matrix, two broad areas of sociological inquiry are highlighted. The first is explanations of the role a parent plays in paediatric medicine and the second is the diagnostic process in paediatric genetics and the implications for parent and child identities. Drawing from an ethnographic study of clinical consultations, attention is paid to the changing role of parenthood and the extended role of patienthood in paediatric genetic medicine. © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Linden D.,University of Cardiff
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Biological psychiatry has not yet produced clinically viable biomarkers for any of the major psychiatric diseases, and the past 25 years have not brought any fundamentally new biological treatment principles. I discuss reasons for this slow progress and suggest avenues for the development of biomarkers and the discovery of new treatment targets. Copyright © BJP 2013. Source


Lazarus J.H.,University of Cardiff
British Medical Bulletin | Year: 2011

Advances in understanding the physiology of thyroid function in normal pregnancy have highlighted the importance of the consequences of abnormal function on obstetric outcome and foetal well-being. Pubmed search was done using the terms thyroid and pregnancy. Areas of agreement are the following: gestational normative reference ranges for thyroid function tests are required for proper interpretation of any abnormalities. Measurement of thyroid-stimulating antibodies and antithyroid peroxidase antibodies is useful for diagnosis of thyroid disease in pregnancy. Treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism should be done with propylthiouracil for first trimester only, then carbimazole or methimazole. Patients on levothyroxine require an increase in dosage during gestation. Areas of controversy are the following: total thyroxine (TT4) versus Free T4 (FT4) assays in pregnancy. Screening for thyroid function in early gestation: should it be routinely performed on everyone? What tests are appropriate? Growing points are the following: physiology of thyroxine delivery to the foetus. Establishment of gestational thyroid hormone reference ranges. Evaluation of strategies to screen thyroid function in early pregnancy. Areas timely for developing research are the following: placental thyroid hormone physiology, thyroid hormone therapy and screening thyroid function. © 2011 The Author. Source


Coulson J.M.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Human Hypertension | Year: 2015

Ambulatory blood pressure variability (ABPV) is a predictor of cardiovascular risk in hypertensives. Factors that contribute to ABPV are not well described. This pilot study aimed to investigate the relationship between ABPV and urine catecholamine metabolites in order to rationalise further therapeutic intervention in the management of hypertension. Twenty individuals (14 female), aged from 23 to 71 years, with primary hypertension were identified from referrals to a regional hypertension clinic. Individuals had a 24-h ambulatory blood pressure recording (Del Mar Reynolds), and a 24-h urine collection was analysed for metadrenaline and normetadrenaline by reverse-phase chromatography (Spherisorb ODS2) and electrochemical detection (Coulochem II). Normetadrenaline concentration correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability, r=0.493, P=0.02, and with SBP coefficient of variability, r=0.490, P=0.02. Metadrenaline concentration did not correlate with either SBP variability, r=0.177, P=0.43, or coefficient of variability, r=0.185, P=0.42. A correlation was observed between 24 h urinary normetadrenaline and measures of SBP variability but not 24 h urinary metadrenaline and blood pressure variability. It is hypothesised that sympathetic activity may influence SBP variability. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source


Morgan B.P.,University of Cardiff
Acta neuropathologica communications | Year: 2014

INTRODUCTION: Inflammation and complement activation are firmly implicated in the pathology of multiple sclerosis; however, the extent and nature of their involvement in specific pathological processes such as axonal damage, myelin loss and disease progression remains uncertain. This study aims to bring clarity to these questions.RESULTS: We describe a detailed immunohistochemical study to localise a strategically selected set of complement proteins, activation products and regulators in brain and spinal cord tissue of 17 patients with progressive multiple sclerosis and 16 control donors, including 9 with central nervous system disease. Active, chronic active and chronic inactive multiple sclerosis plaques (35 in total) and non-plaque areas were examined.Multiple sclerosis plaques were consistently positive for complement proteins (C3, factor B, C1q), activation products (C3b, iC3b, C4d, terminal complement complex) and regulators (factor H, C1-inhibitor, clusterin), suggesting continuing local complement synthesis, activation and regulation despite the absence of other evidence of ongoing inflammation. Complement staining was most apparent in plaque and peri-plaque but also present in normal appearing white matter and cortical areas to a greater extent than in control tissue. C1q staining was present in all plaques suggesting a dominant role for the classical pathway. Cellular staining for complement components was largely restricted to reactive astrocytes, often adjacent to clusters of microglia in close apposition to complement opsonised myelin and damaged axons.CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate the ubiquity of complement involvement in multiple sclerosis, suggest a pathogenic role for complement contributing to cell, axon and myelin damage and make the case for targeting complement for multiple sclerosis monitoring and therapy. Source


McEntee J.,University of Cardiff | Agyeman J.,Tufts University
Applied Geography | Year: 2010

The food desert metaphor has been widely used by academics and politicians alike. While there is general agreement on what a food desert is in a relatively vague sense, strategies to identify food deserts, especially in a rural setting, using a systematic method remain undefined. The purpose of this paper is to contribute towards the development of a method for rural food desert identification strategies using the location of food retailers and residential units. We apply a methodologically innovative GIS approach to the primarily rural state of Vermont, USA. Areas of inadequate geographic food access are identified and some are found to overlap with high poverty locations. Aims for future work are identified including fieldwork to validate these findings. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Al-Rawi M.A.,Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board | Jiang W.G.,University of Cardiff
Frontiers in Bioscience | Year: 2011

Lymphangiogenesis remains a fascinating biological process that plays a crucial role in both normal tissue development and several lymphatic diseases. The last few years have witnessed a rapid progression in understanding the development and regulation of the lymphatic system which provided insight on several pathological processes including cancer lymphatic metastasis. Lymphatic vasculature serves as a major route for tumour metastasis. The dissemination of malignant cells to the regional lymph nodes is an early step in the progression of many solid tumours and is an important determinant of staging and prognosis. Lymphangiogenesis is thought to play a pivotal role for cancer cells to metastasise to the regional lymph nodes. Several human solid tumours are now considered to be lymphangiogenic i.e. they have the ability to induce their own lymphatic vessels to establish metastasis. Hence, targeting lymphangiogenesis by developing anti-lymphangiogenic agents might constitute a novel way to prevent lymphatic progression in some tumours. Here, we have reviewed the development of the lymphatic system, the regulation of lymphangiogenesis and explored its relation to several human cancers. Source


Upadhyaya M.,University of Cardiff
Frontiers in Bioscience | Year: 2011

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), often found associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), are aggressive tumors that pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. About 10% of NF1 patients may develop an MPNST, exhibiting a poor prognosis. With no effective treatment available, radical surgery and chemo- and radiotherapy are required to reduce tumor recurrence, metastasis and prolong patient survival. MPNST pathogenesis is poorly understood due mainly to its complex histopathology, but biallelic NF1 gene inactivation is essential for tumor development. There is also no defined molecular signature for MPNST development, although several cell-cycle and signalling regulation genes (CDKN2A, TP53, RB1, EGFR, CD44, PDGFR, PDGFRA, HGF, MET and SOX9) are deregulated. Constitutive activation of several critical cell signalling cascades also occurs in MPNSTs and these may define therapeutic targets. Both preclinical and clinical trials are proposed, most involving a combinatorial therapeutic approach. Multidisciplinary collaborative efforts are clearly essential to fully decipher both the complex molecular basis of MPNST development and to define potential therapeutic targets. Source


A number of analysts have argued that decisions about renewable energy technologies and targets need to be reconciled with the social and environmental contexts in which those technologies are adopted. However, an unresolved issue is how the contextually-embedded qualities of landscape might be represented at the national level, alongside other energy policy considerations like resource availability, economic efficiency and technical feasibility. To explore the dilemmas of this enterprise, this work examines the efforts of the Welsh Assembly Government to develop a spatial planning framework for wind energy. The work examines how particular landscapes became identified as 'acceptable locations' for wind farms, and the consequences. Four sets of findings are discussed: the selectivity with which landscape qualities enter strategic planning rationalities, favouring qualities that are formally demarcated and measurable 'at a distance'; the tendency of the identified strategic search areas for wind to reinforce the degraded status of afforested upland areas; the extent to which the planning framework has rendered certain environmental qualities malleable; and the way that drawing boundaries around acceptable locations for large-scale wind energy development may restrict the scope for future reflexivity in energy policy. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Ward B.D.,University of Cardiff | Gade L.H.,University of Heidelberg
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

Polydentate oxazolines have been employed as highly effective stereodirecting ligands for asymmetric catalysis with metals from across most of the periodic table. Despite their highly versatile coordination chemistry, the use of these ligands tends to be polarised towards late transition metals; their use with early transition metals and the f-elements is significantly less developed. This current article aims to review the coordination chemistry and catalytic applications of Group 3 and lanthanide complexes supported by ligands possessing oxazoline moieties. Oxazoline-containing ligands were first employed in molecular lanthanide catalysis as early as 1997, yet there is still a significant void in the chemical literature in this respect. The ligands generally employed include bis(oxazolinyl)methane ("BOX"), 2,6-bis(oxazolinyl)pyridine ("pybox"), 1,1,1-tris(oxazolinyl)ethane ("trisox"), and others. The complexes are employed in a wide-range of catalytic applications, especially in Lewis acid catalysis, but also in the stereospecific polymerisation of olefins. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Aggleton J.P.,University of Cardiff
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Although anterograde amnesia can occur after damage in various brain sites, hippocampal dysfunction is usually seen as the ultimate cause of the failure to learn new episodic information. This assumption is supported by anatomical evidence showing direct hippocampal connections with all other sites implicated in causing anterograde amnesia. Likewise, behavioural and clinical evidence would seem to strengthen the established notion of an episodic memory system emanating from the hippocampus. There is, however, growing evidence that key, interconnected sites may also regulate the hippocampus, reflecting a more balanced, integrated network that enables learning. Recent behavioural evidence strongly suggests that medial diencephalic structures have some mnemonic functions independent of the hippocampus, which can then act upon the hippocampus. Anatomical findings now reveal that nucleus reuniens and the retrosplenial cortex provide parallel, disynaptic routes for prefrontal control of hippocampal activity. There is also growing clinical evidence that retrosplenial cortex dysfunctions contribute to both anterograde amnesia and the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease, revealing the potential significance of this area for clinical studies. This array of findings underlines the importance of redre