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Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela

The University of Carabobo is an autonomous, public university of Venezuela located in Valencia, Venezuela. It offers graduate and postgraduate studies in different areas. There are around 52000 students, mostly coming from the central part of the country.The University of Carabobo also has a centre in La Morita, Maracay, Aragua State. Wikipedia.


Caceres G. J.L.,University of Carabobo
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental | Year: 2011

The incidence of malaria in Bolívar state in the decade 2001-2010 was 235,288 cases. Since 2001, when it produced 4998 (21.4% of malaria in Venezuela), the state has registered a continue trend, resulting an increase of 795.2% to 2010, when 39,744 were diagnosed cases (86.5% of the national malaria), their highest historical impact, and its parasite formula 78.3% to P. vivax, 19.6% P. falciparum, 0.1% P. malariae and 2% of mixed infections (P. vivax + P. falciparum). The municipality Sifontes, had the highest incidence in 2010, bringing his parish of San Isidro, 15,767 cases: 73.9% of the disease in the municipality, Bolívar State 39.7% and 34.9% of the country, with an IPA 658 per thousand inhabitants. Contribute to incidence increase: budget deficiencies, administrative and logistics of the program, poor diagnostic access and covering, incomplete treatments, unsupervised control activities, lack of decision making and situational analysis nonexistent. It is important to resume the form of technical teams responsible for program management in the areas of management and vigilance, develop technical expertise and resources at local level with community participation. Source


Caceres G. J.L.,University of Carabobo
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental | Year: 2013

In 2012 Venezuela reported the highest recorded incidence of malaria in its history with 51,264 cases, surpassing the previous high of 5,893 (12.6%) in 1990. Bolivar state increased to 44,180 incidence cases (86.2% of the country), with three municipalities in epidemic and two in alarm status. In Amazonas state, malaria increased and continued to occur mainly in children under 15 years (41.3%) with this group having 39.8% of the incidence of Plasmodium vivax, 50.8%, of Plasmodium falciparum, 82.6% Plasmodium malariae and 47.1% of mixed infections. The Benitez's epidemic and increased cases in four municipalities in Sucre make Bolivar state an high-risk state, given its openness and vulnerability The Massive Radical Cure, accompanied by spatial fogging of insecticide in the 20 localities with the highest incidence in Sifontes municipality could control 48.3% of malaria in the municipality, 34.3% in Bolívar state and 29.6% in the whole country. Venezuela has the knowledge, expertise and trained personnel for implementation of Malaria eradication programme. The future of the disease depends on the health authorities as it is right now driven by a National Programme for Prevention and Control, whose activities are a mixture of eradication and control with very low compliance, and the current results are a negative record. Source


The adipose tissue of obese subjects is infiltrated by more macrophages that in normal-weigth subjects. These macrophages are probably attracted to the adipose tissue due to the death of adipocyte hipertrophy or by the secretion of proinflammatory citokynes. During obesity, the adipose tissue releases adipokines like TNF-α and IL-6, promoting a proinflammatory environment. The release of TNF-α and IL-6 is higher in visceral adipose tissue than in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Among the most commonly described adipose tissue inflammatory factors associated with insulin resistance are TNF-α and IL-6, which are positively correlated with adipocyte size. During obesity, the adipose tissue releases adipokines like TNF-α and IL-6, promoting a proinflammatory environment. The release of TNF-α and IL-6 is higher in visceral adipose tissue than in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Among the most commonly described adipose tissue inflammatory factors associated with insulin resistance are TNF-α and IL-6, which are positively correlated with adipocyte size. During obesity, there is a state of oxidative stress with high levels of reactive oxygen species, which has been defined as the link between obesity and insulin resistence which keeps the inflammatory environment due the activation of transcription factor NF-kB, which is involved in induced expression of the cytokine proinflammatory gene. © 2012 Federacion Bioquimica de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Source


Marti-Carvajal A.J.,University of Carabobo
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Avascular necrosis of bone is a frequent and severe complication of sickle cell disease and its treatment is not standardised. To determine the impact of any surgical procedure compared with other surgical interventions or non-surgical procedures, on avascular necrosis of bone in people with sickle cell disease in terms of efficacy and safety. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional trials were sought from the reference lists of papers identified by the search strategy.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 21 February 2012. Randomised clinical trials comparing specific therapies for avascular necrosis of bone in people with sickle cell disease. Each author independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Since only one trial was identified, meta-analysis was not possible. One trial (46 participants) was eligible for inclusion. After randomisation eight participants were withdrawn, mainly because they declined to participate in the trial. Data were analysed for 38 participants at the end of the trial. After a mean follow up of three years, hip core decompression and physical therapy did not show clinical improvement when compared with physical therapy alone using the score from the original trial (an improvement of 18.1 points for those treated with intervention therapy versus an improvement of 15.7 points with control therapy). There was no significant statistical difference between groups regarding major complications (hip pain, relative risk (RR) 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56 to 1.60; vaso-occlusive crises, RR 1.14 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.80); and acute chest syndrome, RR 1.06 (95% CI 0.44 to 2.56)). This trial did not report results on mortality or quality of life. We found no evidence that adding hip core decompression to physical therapy achieves clinical improvement in people with sickle cell disease with avascular necrosis of bone compared to physical therapy alone. However, we highlight that our conclusion is based on one trial with high attrition rates. Further randomised controlled trials are necessary to evaluate the role of hip-core depression for this clinical condition. Endpoints should focus on participants' subjective experience (e.g. quality of life and pain) as well as more objective 'time-to-event' measures (e.g. mortality, survival, hip longevity). The availability of participants to allow adequate trial power will be a key consideration for endpoint choice. Source


Marti-Carvajal A.J.,University of Carabobo
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Mortality from upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver disease is high. Recombinant human activated factor VII (rHuFVIIa) has been suggested for patients with liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of rHuFVIIa in patients with liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (December 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2011), MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011), EMBASE (1980 to December 2011), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to December 2011), and LILACS (December 2011). We sought additional randomised trials from the reference lists of the trials and reviews identified through the electronic searches. Randomised clinical trials. Outcome data from randomised clinical trials were extracted and were presented using random-effects model meta-analyses. Data on the risk of bias in the included trials were also extracted. We included two trials with 493 randomised participants with various Child-Pugh scores. The trials had a low risk of bias. The rHuFVIIa administration did not reduce the risk of mortality within five days (21/288 (7.3%) versus 15/205 (7.3%); risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 1.64, I(2) = 49%) and within 42 days (5/286 (1.7%) versus 36/205 (17.6%); RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.87, I(2) = 55%) when compared with placebo. Trial sequential analysis demonstrated that there is sufficient evidence to exclude that rHuFVIIa decreases mortality by 80%, but there is insufficient evidence to exclude smaller effects. The rHuFVIIa did not increase the risk of adverse events by number of patients (218/297 (74%) and 164/210 (78%); RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.04, I(2) = 1%), serious adverse events by adverse events reported (164/590 (28%) versus 123/443 (28%); RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.11, I(2) = 0%), and thromboembolic adverse events (16/297 (5.4%) versus 14/210 (6.7%); RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.60, I(2) = 0%) when compared with placebo. We found no evidence to support or reject the administration of rHuFVIIa for patients with liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Further adequately powered randomised clinical trials are needed in order to evaluate the proper role of rHuFVIIa for treating upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver disease. Although the results are based on trials with low risk of bias, the heterogeneity and the small sample size result in rather large confidence intervals that cannot exclude the possibility that the intervention has some beneficial or harmful effect. Further trials with alow risk of bias are required to make more confident conclusions about the effects of the intervention. Source

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