Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela

University of Carabobo
Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela

The University of Carabobo is an autonomous, public university of Venezuela located in Valencia, Venezuela. It offers graduate and postgraduate studies in different areas. There are around 52000 students, mostly coming from the central part of the country.The University of Carabobo also has a centre in La Morita, Maracay, Aragua State. Wikipedia.

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Sandoval-Ruiz C.,University of Carabobo
Ingenieria y Universidad | Year: 2017

Introduction: this article presents a finite field multiplier (GF) model, studying the generalized architecture of the LFSR component (linear regression displacement records), in order to generate a concurrent description. Concepts of structural analysis, description of parameterized components, and mathematical treatment of signals have been applied. Method: the design was performed by the tabulation of the terms in the variable time function and the position in the circuit, the components of the modular reduction, thus creating an array of combined operations. this model was described in VHDL, for testing behavior and optimization of hardware. Results: the research established the equations for the implementation of the VHDL model in its generic expression with operator concatenation for the hardware configuration. It is estimated that the hardware resources, a level of logical operators, obtained a 7.89% savings in the energy consumption associated with the signal in the multiplier design by the proposed optimization technique. Conclusions: the model simplified the description of parallel circuits, high performance from a mathematical model approach to hardware description. the proposed method contributes to the field of optimization in the efficient modeling of advanced logic systems, which can be extrapolated to more complex components. © 2017, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.3.3-2 | Award Amount: 7.70M | Year: 2011

The overall concept of this research project is to assemble a consortium of international experts working together to develop new and innovative tools to be applied to the control of dengue in a global context. The core of the application focuses on parallel strategies aimed at: improving diagnosis and clinical management of dengue through two linked work packages designed a) to identify readily available clinical and laboratory parameters and/or viral and immunological markers, that differentiate between dengue and other common febrile illness within 3 days of fever onset, and b) to identify any of the available markers that are predictive of the likelihood of evolving to a more severe disease course assessing the risk of dengue spread though linked work packages focused on a) mapping and modelling techniques to define the current extent of dengue disease globally and to evaluate possible scenarios of spread or risk to previously uninfected regions in the future, and b) developing effective and affordable early warning and outbreak response systems. These four work packages are supported by a fifth work package dedicated to networking and translational activities to ensure that outputs from the various research activities are used to maximal advantage.

Maroli M.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Feliciangeli M.D.,University of Carabobo | Bichaud L.,Aix - Marseille University | Charrel R.N.,Aix - Marseille University | Gradoni L.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2013

Phlebotomine sandflies transmit pathogens that affect humans and animals worldwide. We review the roles of phlebotomines in the spreading of leishmaniases, sandfly fever, summer meningitis, vesicular stomatitis, Chandipura virus encephalitis and Carrión's disease. Among over 800 species of sandfly recorded, 98 are proven or suspected vectors of human leishmaniases; these include 42 Phlebotomus species in the Old World and 56 Lutzomyia species in the New World (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). Based on incrimination criteria, we provide an updated list of proven or suspected vector species by endemic country where data are available. Increases in sandfly diffusion and density resulting from increases in breeding sites and blood sources, and the interruption of vector control activities contribute to the spreading of leishmaniasis in the settings of human migration, deforestation, urbanization and conflict. In addition, climatic changes can be expected to affect the density and dispersion of sandflies. Phlebovirus infections and diseases are present in large areas of the Old World, especially in the Mediterranean subregion, in which virus diversity has proven to be higher than initially suspected. Vesiculovirus diseases are important to livestock and humans in the southeastern U.S.A. and Latin America, and represent emerging human threats in parts of India. Carrión's disease, formerly restricted to regions of elevated altitude in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, has shown recent expansion to non-endemic areas of the Amazon basin. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

Vega D.,University of Carabobo | Almeida D.,University of Carabobo
Journal of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering | Year: 2014

In this paper we introduce AIM-UC, a free application that allows to create graphs related to Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). The input data are files that contain 3D grid of electron density, in some known formats: CUBE from gaussian, grd from DMol and CHGCAR from VASP. Also it supports wave function files from AIMPAC. The application calculates 2D regular grids (electron densities and its laplacians) in a plane positioned by the user. By using bicubic interpolation and the Newton-Raphson method, the critical points at the plane can be calculated, and the gradient field and molecular graph can also be generated using the Cash-Karp Runge-Kutta method. It also permits plotting the electron density and its negative laplacian on the selected plane. Moreover, for both 2D grids, it is possible to calculate the contour maps using the "Marching Squares" algorithm. This application also permits finding the critical points in the 3D space. The output consist of plain text files and images in PNG, BMP and EPS (encapsulated post script) formats. AIM-UC was programmed in C++, using the GUI toolkit FLTK (fast light toolkit) and OpenGL (open graphic library). © 2014-IOS Press.

Caceres G. J.L.,University of Carabobo
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental | Year: 2011

The incidence of malaria in Bolívar state in the decade 2001-2010 was 235,288 cases. Since 2001, when it produced 4998 (21.4% of malaria in Venezuela), the state has registered a continue trend, resulting an increase of 795.2% to 2010, when 39,744 were diagnosed cases (86.5% of the national malaria), their highest historical impact, and its parasite formula 78.3% to P. vivax, 19.6% P. falciparum, 0.1% P. malariae and 2% of mixed infections (P. vivax + P. falciparum). The municipality Sifontes, had the highest incidence in 2010, bringing his parish of San Isidro, 15,767 cases: 73.9% of the disease in the municipality, Bolívar State 39.7% and 34.9% of the country, with an IPA 658 per thousand inhabitants. Contribute to incidence increase: budget deficiencies, administrative and logistics of the program, poor diagnostic access and covering, incomplete treatments, unsupervised control activities, lack of decision making and situational analysis nonexistent. It is important to resume the form of technical teams responsible for program management in the areas of management and vigilance, develop technical expertise and resources at local level with community participation.

The adipose tissue of obese subjects is infiltrated by more macrophages that in normal-weigth subjects. These macrophages are probably attracted to the adipose tissue due to the death of adipocyte hipertrophy or by the secretion of proinflammatory citokynes. During obesity, the adipose tissue releases adipokines like TNF-α and IL-6, promoting a proinflammatory environment. The release of TNF-α and IL-6 is higher in visceral adipose tissue than in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Among the most commonly described adipose tissue inflammatory factors associated with insulin resistance are TNF-α and IL-6, which are positively correlated with adipocyte size. During obesity, the adipose tissue releases adipokines like TNF-α and IL-6, promoting a proinflammatory environment. The release of TNF-α and IL-6 is higher in visceral adipose tissue than in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Among the most commonly described adipose tissue inflammatory factors associated with insulin resistance are TNF-α and IL-6, which are positively correlated with adipocyte size. During obesity, there is a state of oxidative stress with high levels of reactive oxygen species, which has been defined as the link between obesity and insulin resistence which keeps the inflammatory environment due the activation of transcription factor NF-kB, which is involved in induced expression of the cytokine proinflammatory gene. © 2012 Federacion Bioquimica de la Provincia de Buenos Aires.

Marti-Carvajal A.J.,University of Carabobo
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Avascular necrosis of bone is a frequent and severe complication of sickle cell disease and its treatment is not standardised. To determine the impact of any surgical procedure compared with other surgical interventions or non-surgical procedures, on avascular necrosis of bone in people with sickle cell disease in terms of efficacy and safety. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional trials were sought from the reference lists of papers identified by the search strategy.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 21 February 2012. Randomised clinical trials comparing specific therapies for avascular necrosis of bone in people with sickle cell disease. Each author independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Since only one trial was identified, meta-analysis was not possible. One trial (46 participants) was eligible for inclusion. After randomisation eight participants were withdrawn, mainly because they declined to participate in the trial. Data were analysed for 38 participants at the end of the trial. After a mean follow up of three years, hip core decompression and physical therapy did not show clinical improvement when compared with physical therapy alone using the score from the original trial (an improvement of 18.1 points for those treated with intervention therapy versus an improvement of 15.7 points with control therapy). There was no significant statistical difference between groups regarding major complications (hip pain, relative risk (RR) 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56 to 1.60; vaso-occlusive crises, RR 1.14 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.80); and acute chest syndrome, RR 1.06 (95% CI 0.44 to 2.56)). This trial did not report results on mortality or quality of life. We found no evidence that adding hip core decompression to physical therapy achieves clinical improvement in people with sickle cell disease with avascular necrosis of bone compared to physical therapy alone. However, we highlight that our conclusion is based on one trial with high attrition rates. Further randomised controlled trials are necessary to evaluate the role of hip-core depression for this clinical condition. Endpoints should focus on participants' subjective experience (e.g. quality of life and pain) as well as more objective 'time-to-event' measures (e.g. mortality, survival, hip longevity). The availability of participants to allow adequate trial power will be a key consideration for endpoint choice.

Marti-Carvajal A.J.,University of Carabobo
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Mortality from upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver disease is high. Recombinant human activated factor VII (rHuFVIIa) has been suggested for patients with liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of rHuFVIIa in patients with liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (December 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2011), MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011), EMBASE (1980 to December 2011), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to December 2011), and LILACS (December 2011). We sought additional randomised trials from the reference lists of the trials and reviews identified through the electronic searches. Randomised clinical trials. Outcome data from randomised clinical trials were extracted and were presented using random-effects model meta-analyses. Data on the risk of bias in the included trials were also extracted. We included two trials with 493 randomised participants with various Child-Pugh scores. The trials had a low risk of bias. The rHuFVIIa administration did not reduce the risk of mortality within five days (21/288 (7.3%) versus 15/205 (7.3%); risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 1.64, I(2) = 49%) and within 42 days (5/286 (1.7%) versus 36/205 (17.6%); RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.87, I(2) = 55%) when compared with placebo. Trial sequential analysis demonstrated that there is sufficient evidence to exclude that rHuFVIIa decreases mortality by 80%, but there is insufficient evidence to exclude smaller effects. The rHuFVIIa did not increase the risk of adverse events by number of patients (218/297 (74%) and 164/210 (78%); RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.04, I(2) = 1%), serious adverse events by adverse events reported (164/590 (28%) versus 123/443 (28%); RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.11, I(2) = 0%), and thromboembolic adverse events (16/297 (5.4%) versus 14/210 (6.7%); RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.60, I(2) = 0%) when compared with placebo. We found no evidence to support or reject the administration of rHuFVIIa for patients with liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Further adequately powered randomised clinical trials are needed in order to evaluate the proper role of rHuFVIIa for treating upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver disease. Although the results are based on trials with low risk of bias, the heterogeneity and the small sample size result in rather large confidence intervals that cannot exclude the possibility that the intervention has some beneficial or harmful effect. Further trials with alow risk of bias are required to make more confident conclusions about the effects of the intervention.

Marti-Carvajal A.J.,University of Carabobo
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Sepsis is a common and frequently fatal condition. Human recombinant activated protein C (APC) has been used to reduce the high rate of death by severe sepsis or septic shock. This is an update of a Cochrane review (originally published in 2007 and updated in 2008). We assessed the clinical effectiveness and safety of APC for the treatment of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. For this updated review we searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 6); MEDLINE (1966 to June 2010); EMBASE (1980 to July 1, 2010); BIOSIS (1965 to July 1, 2010); CINAHL (1982 to 16 June 2010) and LILACS (1982 to 16 June 2010). There was no language restriction. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of APC for severe sepsis in adults and children. We excluded studies on neonates. We considered all-cause mortality at day 28, at the end of study follow up, and hospital mortality as the primary outcomes. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We estimated relative risks (RR) for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using the I(2) statistic. We used a random-effects model. We identified one new RCT in this update. We included a total of five RCTs involving 5101 participants. For 28-day mortality, APC did not reduce the risk of death in adult participants with severe sepsis (pooled RR 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.22; P = 0.82, I(2) = 68%). APC use was associated with an increased risk of bleeding (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.00; P = 0.01, I(2) = 0%). In paediatric patients, APC did not reduce the risk of death (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.46; P = 0.93). Although the included trials had no major limitations most of them modified their original completion or recruitment protocols. This updated review found no evidence suggesting that APC should be used for treating patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Additionally, APC is associated with a higher risk of bleeding. Unless additional RCTs provide evidence of a treatment effect, policy-makers, clinicians and academics should not promote the use of APC.Warning: On October 25th 2011, the European Medicines Agency issued a press release on the worldwide withdrawal of Xigris (activated protein C / drotrecogin alfa) from the market by Eli Lilly due to lack of beneficial effect on 28-day mortality in the PROWESS-SHOCK study. Furthermore, Eli Lily has announced the discontinuation of all other ongoing clinical trials. The final results of the PROWESS-SHOCK study are expected to be published in 2012. This systematic review will be updated when results of the PROWESS-SHOCK or other trials are published.

The presence of the genus Cryptotis in the Serrania del Litoral (north of Venezuela), is known only by a specimen collected in El Junquito more than 40 years ago, referred by this time to C. thomasi. Recently, two new specimens were collected in a locality near to the first finding (approximately 15 km). With the revision and morphological comparison (skull and body) of the three specimens now available, it was determined that this population represents a new species belonging to the C. thomasi group, and can be differentiated by the following combination of characteristics: philtrum with a long and thin wart, extending from the base of the rhinarium to the mouth; toes with well developed granular scales juxtaposed and arranged in three longitudinal lines; tail with large scales (26 cm); lacrimal foramen wide and deep; angular process straight, short and wide; high coronoid process and tilted forward. This population represents the second species of Cryptotis with non-Andean distribution in South America, and increases to five the number of endemic mammals of the Cordillera de la Costa, Venezuelan ecoregion that currently faces serious problems of conservation by habitat loss. © SAREM, 2013.

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