The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's third-oldest surviving university. It grew out of an association formed by scholars leaving the University of Oxford after a dispute with townsfolk; the two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as "Oxbridge".Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six Schools. The university occupies buildings throughout the town, many of which are of historical importance. The colleges are self-governing institutions founded as integral parts of the university. In the year ended 31 July 2014, the university had a total income of £1.51 billion, of which £371 million was from research grants and contracts. The central university and colleges have a combined endowment of around £4.9 billion, the largest of any university outside the United States. Cambridge is a member of many associations, and forms part of the "golden triangle" of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre. The university is closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as "Silicon Fen".Students' learning involves lectures and laboratory sessions organised by departments, and supervisions provided by the colleges. The university operates eight arts, cultural, and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum and a botanic garden. Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, 8 million of which are in Cambridge University Library which is a legal deposit library. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world. Cambridge is regularly placed among the world's best universities in different university rankings. Beside academic studies, student life is centred on the colleges and numerous pan-university artistic activities, sports clubs and societies.Cambridge has many notable alumni, including several eminent mathematicians, scientists, politicians, and 90 Nobel laureates who have been affiliated with it. Throughout its history, the university has featured in literature and artistic works by numerous authors including Geoffrey Chaucer, E. M. Forster and C. P. Snow. Wikipedia.
Schultz W.,University of Cambridge
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2015
Rewards are crucial objects that induce learning, approach behavior, choices, and emotions. Whereas emotions are difficult to investigate in animals, the learning function is mediated by neuronal reward prediction error signals which implement basic constructs of reinforcement learning theory. These signals are found in dopamine neurons, which emit a global reward signal to striatum and frontal cortex, and in specific neurons in striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex projecting to select neuronal populations. The approach and choice functions involve subjective value, which is objectively assessed by behavioral choices eliciting internal, subjective reward preferences. Utility is the formal mathematical characterization of subjective value and a prime decision variable in economic choice theory. It is coded as utility prediction error by phasic dopamine responses. Utility can incorporate various influences, including risk, delay, effort, and social interaction. Appropriate for formal decision mechanisms, rewards are coded as object value, action value, difference value, and chosen value by specific neurons. Although all reward, reinforcement, and decision variables are theoretical constructs, their neuronal signals constitute measurable physical implementations and as such confirm the validity of these concepts. The neuronal reward signals provide guidance for behavior while constraining the free will to act. © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Al Olama A.A.,University of Cambridge
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of >10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10-8; 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
Ghahramani Z.,University of Cambridge
Nature | Year: 2015
How can a machine learn from experience? Probabilistic modelling provides a framework for understanding what learning is, and has therefore emerged as one of the principal theoretical and practical approaches for designing machines that learn from data acquired through experience. The probabilistic framework, which describes how to represent and manipulate uncertainty about models and predictions, has a central role in scientific data analysis, machine learning, robotics, cognitive science and artificial intelligence. This Review provides an introduction to this framework, and discusses some of the state-of-the-art advances in the field, namely, probabilistic programming, Bayesian optimization, data compression and automatic model discovery. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Venkitaraman A.R.,University of Cambridge
Science | Year: 2014
Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to common human malignancies, most notably tumors of the breast and ovaries. The proteins encoded by these genes have been implicated in a plethora of biochemical interactions and biological functions, confounding attempts to coherently explain how their inactivation promotes carcinogenesis. Here, I argue that tumor suppression by BRCA1 and BRCA2 originates from their fundamental role in controlling the assembly and activity of macromolecular complexes that monitor chromosome duplication, maintenance, and segregation across the cell cycle. A tumor-suppressive role for the BRCA proteins as "chromosome custodians" helps to explain the clinical features of cancer susceptibility after their inactivation, provides foundations for the rational therapy of BRCA-deficient cancers, and offers general insights into the mechanisms opposing early steps in human carcinogenesis.
Todd J.A.,University of Cambridge
Immunity | Year: 2010
Recent genetic mapping and gene-phenotype studies have revealed the genetic architecture of type 1 diabetes. At least ten genes so far can be singled out as strong causal candidates. The known functions of these genes indicate the primary etiological pathways of this disease, including HLA class II and I molecules binding to preproinsulin peptides and T cell receptors, T and B cell activation, innate pathogen-viral responses, chemokine and cytokine signaling, and T regulatory and antigen-presenting cell functions. This review considers research in the field of type 1 diabetes toward identifying disease mechanisms using genetic approaches. The expression and functions of these pathways, and, therefore, disease susceptibility, will be influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Certain inherited immune phenotypes will be early precursors of type 1 diabetes and could be useful in future clinical trials. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.