The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's third-oldest surviving university. It grew out of an association formed by scholars leaving the University of Oxford after a dispute with townsfolk; the two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as "Oxbridge".Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six Schools. The university occupies buildings throughout the town, many of which are of historical importance. The colleges are self-governing institutions founded as integral parts of the university. In the year ended 31 July 2014, the university had a total income of £1.51 billion, of which £371 million was from research grants and contracts. The central university and colleges have a combined endowment of around £4.9 billion, the largest of any university outside the United States. Cambridge is a member of many associations, and forms part of the "golden triangle" of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre. The university is closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as "Silicon Fen".Students' learning involves lectures and laboratory sessions organised by departments, and supervisions provided by the colleges. The university operates eight arts, cultural, and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum and a botanic garden. Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, 8 million of which are in Cambridge University Library which is a legal deposit library. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world. Cambridge is regularly placed among the world's best universities in different university rankings. Beside academic studies, student life is centred on the colleges and numerous pan-university artistic activities, sports clubs and societies.Cambridge has many notable alumni, including several eminent mathematicians, scientists, politicians, and 90 Nobel laureates who have been affiliated with it. Throughout its history, the university has featured in literature and artistic works by numerous authors including Geoffrey Chaucer, E. M. Forster and C. P. Snow. Wikipedia.
University of Cambridge and Cambridge Enterprise Ltd | Date: 2017-07-26
A perineal prostate biopsy apparatus comprising a cannula for reaching a prostate gland of an adult human male through his perineum; and a coaxial needle comprising a hollow needle shaft having an open piercing tip at its distal end and being arranged to lie within the cannula so that the piercing tip protrudes from a distal end of the cannula; and,a stylet adapted to lie within the hollow needle shaft so that a distal tip of the stylet closes the piercing tip of the needle.
Glaxosmithkline and University of Cambridge | Date: 2017-04-19
The present invention relates to a method of treating pre-term labour with retosiban in subjects with conditions resulting in uterine overdistension including polyhydroamnios and multiple gestation. In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of preventing pre-term labour in subjects by the prophylactic administration of retosiban.
Schultz W.,University of Cambridge
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2013
Recent work has advanced our knowledge of phasic dopamine reward prediction error signals. The error signal is bidirectional, reflects well the higher order prediction error described by temporal difference learning models, is compatible with model-free and model-based reinforcement learning, reports the subjective rather than physical reward value during temporal discounting and reflects subjective stimulus perception rather than physical stimulus aspects. Dopamine activations are primarily driven by reward, and to some extent risk, whereas punishment and salience have only limited activating effects when appropriate controls are respected. The signal is homogeneous in terms of time course but heterogeneous in many other aspects. It is essential for synaptic plasticity and a range of behavioural learning situations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Schultz W.,University of Cambridge
Neuron | Year: 2011
How do addictive drugs hijack the brain's reward system? This review speculates how normal, physiological reward processes may be affected by addictive drugs. Addictive drugs affect acute responses and plasticity in dopamine neurons and postsynaptic structures. These effects reduce reward discrimination, increase the effects of reward prediction error signals, and enhance neuronal responses to reward-predicting stimuli, which may contribute to compulsion. Addictive drugs steepen neuronal temporal reward discounting and create temporal myopia that impairs the control of drug taking. Tonically enhanced dopamine levels may disturb working memory mechanisms necessary for assessing background rewards and thus may generate inaccurate neuronal reward predictions. Drug-induced working memory deficits may impair neuronal risk signaling, promote risky behaviors, and facilitate preaddictive drug use. Malfunctioning adaptive reward coding may lead to overvaluation of drug rewards. Many of these malfunctions may result in inadequate neuronal decision mechanisms and lead to choices biased toward drug rewards. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Everitt B.J.,University of Cambridge
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014
This review discusses the evidence for the hypothesis that the development of drug addiction can be understood in terms of interactions between Pavlovian and instrumental learning and memory mechanisms in the brain that underlie the seeking and taking of drugs. It is argued that these behaviours initially are goal-directed, but increasingly become elicited as stimulus-response habits by drug-associated conditioned stimuli that are established by Pavlovian conditioning. It is further argued that compulsive drug use emerges as the result of a loss of prefrontal cortical inhibitory control over drug seeking habits. Data are reviewed that indicate these transitions from use to abuse to addiction depend upon shifts from ventral to dorsal striatal control over behaviour, mediated in part by serial connectivity between the striatum and midbrain dopamine systems. Only some individuals lose control over their drug use, and the importance of behavioural impulsivity as a vulnerability trait predicting stimulant abuse and addiction in animals and humans, together with consideration of an emerging neuroendophenotype for addiction are discussed. Finally, the potential for developing treatments for addiction is considered in light of the neuropsychological advances that are reviewed, including the possibility of targeting drug memory reconsolidation and extinction to reduce Pavlovian influences on drug seeking as a means of promoting abstinence and preventing relapse. © 2014 The Author. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sutherland J.D.,University of Cambridge
Nature Reviews Chemistry | Year: 2017
Understanding how life on Earth might have originated is the major goal of origins of life chemistry. To proceed from simple feedstock molecules and energy sources to a living system requires extensive synthesis and coordinated assembly to occur over numerous steps, which are governed only by environmental factors and inherent chemical reactivity. Demonstrating such a process in the laboratory would show how life can start from the inanimate. If the starting materials were irrefutably primordial and the end result happened to bear an uncanny resemblance to extant biology-for what turned out to be purely chemical reasons, albeit elegantly subtle ones-then it could be a recapitulation of the way that natural life originated. We are not yet close to achieving this end, but recent results suggest that we may have nearly finished the first phase: The beginning. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Schultz W.,University of Cambridge
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2016
Environmental stimuli and objects, including rewards, are often processed sequentially in the brain. Recent work suggests that the phasic dopamine reward prediction-error response follows a similar sequential pattern. An initial brief, unselective and highly sensitive increase in activity unspecifically detects a wide range of environmental stimuli, then quickly evolves into the main response component, which reflects subjective reward value and utility. This temporal evolution allows the dopamine reward prediction-error signal to optimally combine speed and accuracy. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Hines M.,University of Cambridge
Annual Review of Neuroscience | Year: 2011
Convincing evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to the gonadal hormone, testosterone, influences the development of children's sex-typical toy and activity interests. In addition, growing evidence shows that testosterone exposure contributes similarly to the development of other human behaviors that show sex differences, including sexual orientation, core gender identity, and some, though not all, sex-related cognitive and personality characteristics. In addition to these prenatal hormonal influences, early infancy and puberty may provide additional critical periods when hormones influence human neurobehavioral organization. Sex-linked genes could also contribute to human gender development, and most sex-related characteristics are influenced by socialization and other aspects of postnatal experience, as well. Neural mechanisms underlying the influences of gonadal hormones on human behavior are beginning to be identified. Although the neural mechanisms underlying experiential influences remain largely uninvestigated, they could involve the same neural circuitry as that affected by hormones. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Al Olama A.A.,University of Cambridge
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of >10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10-8; 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.