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Kalantar-Zadeh K.,University of California Medical Center | Kalantar-Zadeh K.,University of California at Los Angeles | Ikizler T.A.,Vanderbilt Medical Center
Journal of Renal Nutrition | Year: 2013

In individuals with chronic kidney disease, surrogates of protein-energy wasting, including a relatively low serum albumin and fat or muscle wasting, are by far the strongest death risk factor compared with any other condition. There are data to indicate that hypoalbuminemia responds to nutritional interventions, which may save lives in the long run. Monitored, in-center provision of high-protein meals and/or oral nutritional supplements during hemodialysis is a feasible, inexpensive, and patient-friendly strategy despite concerns such as postprandial hypotension, aspiration risk, infection control and hygiene, dialysis staff burden, diabetes and phosphorus control, and financial constraints. Adjunct pharmacologic therapies can be added, including appetite stimulators (megesterol, ghrelin, and mirtazapine), anabolic hormones (testosterone and growth factors), antimyostatin agents, and antioxidative and anti-inflammatory agents (pentoxiphylline and cytokine modulators), to increase efficiency of intradialytic food and oral supplementation, although adequate evidence is still lacking. If more severe hypoalbuminemia (<3.0 g/dL) not amenable to oral interventions prevails, or if a patient is not capable of enteral interventions (e.g., because of swallowing problems), then parenteral interventions such as intradialytic parenteral nutrition can be considered. Given the fact that meals and supplements during hemodialysis would require only a small fraction of the funds currently used for dialysis patients this is also an economically feasible strategy. © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

Napoli E.,University of California at Davis | Song G.,University of California at Davis | Wong S.,University of California at Davis | Hagerman R.,University of California at Davis | And 2 more authors.
Cerebellum | Year: 2016

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late onset neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by tremors, ataxia, impaired coordination, and cognitive decline. While all FXTAS individuals are carriers of a 55–200 CGG expansion at the 5′-UTR of the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1), also known as premutation, not all carriers develop FXTAS symptoms and some display other types of psychological/emotional disorders (e.g., autism, anxiety). The goal of this study was to investigate whether the mitochondrial dysfunction previously observed in fibroblasts from older premutation individuals (>60 years) was already present in younger (17–48 years), non-FXTAS-affected carriers and to identify the type and severity of the bioenergetic deficit. Since FXTAS affects mostly males, while females account for a small part of the FXTAS-affected population displaying less severe symptoms, only fibroblasts from males were evaluated in this study. Based on polarographic and enzymatic measurements, a generalized OXPHOS deficit was noted accompanied by increases in the matrix biomarker citrate synthase, oxidative stress (as increased mtDNA copy number and deletions), and mitochondrial network disruption/disorganization. Some of the outcomes (ATP-linked oxygen uptake, coupling, citrate synthase activity, and mitochondrial network organization) strongly correlated with the extent of the CGG expansion, with more severe deficits observed in cell lines carrying higher CGG number. Furthermore, mitochondrial outcomes can identify endophenotypes among carriers and are robust predictors of the premutation diagnosis before the onset of FXTAS, with the potential to be used as markers of prognosis and/or as readouts of pharmacological interventions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Bays H.E.,Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center | Jones P.H.,Baylor College of Medicine | Jacobson T.A.,Emory University | Cohen D.E.,Harvard University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Lipidology | Year: 2016

Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2 part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents the contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on published data through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2 part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on CVD; and finally, (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the full report of part 1. © 2016 National Lipid Association.

Lin P.,Aesthetic and Plastic Surgery Institute | Cinat M.,University of California Medical Center | Cinat M.,University of California
Journal of Burn Care and Research | Year: 2010

The authors report on a case of a healthy 29-year-old man with deep burns to his legs and feet totaling 4% TBSA who underwent successful skin grafting. He developed chronic pain in his graft site over his right ankle. Two and a half years after his graft had healed, he lost the graft because of herpes zoster infection. Zoster involving a skin graft is a rare entity, but its early recognition and treatment may prevent the loss of the graft. © 2010 by the American Burn Association.

Shamirian S.,University of California | Nalbandian A.,University of California | Khare M.,University of California | Castellani R.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | And 2 more authors.
Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders | Year: 2015

Hereditary inclusion body myopathy is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by rimmed vacuoles and by the presence of filamentous cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions. Inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia is a progressive autosomal dominant disorder associated with a mutation in valosin-containing protein (VCP) with typical onset of symptoms in the 30s. APOE e4 is a major risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects memory, thinking, behavior, and emotion as a result of the excessive buildup and decreased clearance of b-amyloid proteins resulting in the appearance of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In conclusion, we report a unique patient with an APOE e4/APOE e4 genotype and atypical VCP disease associated with early Alzheimer disease and severe vision impairment. Future studies will elucidate the interaction of VCP mutations and APOE e4 alleles in understanding common mechanisms in AD and VCP disease. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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