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Santa Barbara, CA, United States

The University of California, Santa Barbara is a public research university and one of the 10 general campuses of the University of California system. The main campus is located on a 1,022-acre site near Goleta, California, United States, 8 miles from Santa Barbara and 100 miles northwest of Los Angeles. Tracing its roots back to 1891 as an independent teachers' college, UCSB joined the University of California system in 1944 and is the third-oldest general-education campus in the system.UCSB is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public research universities in the United States. The university is a comprehensive doctoral university and is organized into five colleges and schools offering 87 undergraduate degrees and 55 graduate degrees. UCSB was ranked 40th among "National Universities", 10th among U.S. public universities and 28th among Best Global Universities by U.S. News & World Report 's 2015 rankings. The university was also ranked 37th worldwide by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 41st worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2014.UC Santa Barbara is a "very high activity" research university and spent $233.9 million on research expenditures in the 2012 fiscal year, 91st largest in the United States. UCSB houses twelve national research centers, including the renowned Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics. Current UCSB faculty includes six Nobel Prize laureates, one Fields Medalist, 29 members of the National Academy of science, 27 members of the National Academy of Engineering, and 31 members of the American Academy of Arts and science. UCSB was the No. 3 host on the ARPAnet and was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1995.The UC Santa Barbara Gauchos compete in the Big West Conference of the NCAA Division I. The Gauchos have won NCAA national championships in men's soccer and men's water polo. Wikipedia.

Zhang L.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Accounts of Chemical Research

For the past dozen years, homogeneous gold catalysis has evolved from a little known topic in organic synthesis to a fully blown research field of significant importance to synthetic practitioners, due to its novel reactivities and reaction modes. Cationic gold(I) complexes are powerful soft Lewis acids that can activate alkynes and allenes toward efficient attack by nucleophiles, leading to the generation of alkenyl gold intermediates. Some of the most versatile aspects of gold catalysis involve the generation of gold carbene intermediates, which occurs through the approach of an electrophile to the distal end of the alkenyl gold moiety, and their diverse transformations thereafter. On the other hand, α-oxo metal carbene/carbenoids are highly versatile intermediates in organic synthesis and can undergo various synthetically challenging yet highly valuable transformations such as C-H insertion, ylide formation, and cyclopropanation reactions. Metal-catalyzed dediazotizations of diazo carbonyl compounds are the principle and most reliable strategy to access them. Unfortunately, the substrates contain a highly energetic diazo moiety and are potentially explosive. Moreover, chemists need to use energetic reagents to prepare them, putting further constrains on operational safety.In this Account, we show that the unique access to the gold carbene species in homogeneous gold catalysis offers an opportunity to generate α-oxo gold carbenes if both nucleophile and electrophile are oxygen. Hence, this approach would enable readily available and safer alkynes to replace hazardous α-diazo carbonyl compounds as precursors in the realm of gold carbene chemistry.For the past several years, we have demonstrated that alkynes can indeed effectively serve as precursors to versatile α-oxo gold carbenes. In our initial study, we showed that a tethered sulfoxide can be a suitable oxidant, which in some cases leads to the formation of α-oxo gold carbene intermediates. The intermolecular approach offers excellent synthetic flexibility because no tethering of the oxidant is required, and its reduced form is not tangled with the product. We were the first research group to develop this strategy, through the use of pyridine/quinolone N-oxides as the external oxidants. In this manner, we can effectively make a C-C triple bond a surrogate of an α-diazo carbonyl moiety in various gold catalyses. With terminal alkynes, we demonstrated that we can efficiently trap exclusively formed terminal carbene centers by internal nucleophiles en route to the formation of cyclic products, including strained oxetan-3-ones and azetidin-3-ones, and by external nucleophiles when a P,N-bidentate ligand is coordinated to gold. With internal alkynes, we generated synthetically useful regioselectivities in the generation of the α-oxo gold carbene moiety, which enables expedient formation of versatile enone products. Other research groups have also applied this strategy en route to versatile synthetic methods. The α-oxo gold carbenes appear to be more electrophilic than their Rh counterpart, which many chemists have focused on in a large array of excellent work on metal carbene chemistry. The ease of accessing the reactive gold carbenes opens up a vast area for developing new synthetic methods that would be distinctively different from the known Rh chemistry and promises to generate a new round of "gold rush". © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Treu T.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics

Strong lensing is a powerful tool to address three majorastrophysical issues: understanding the spatial distribution of mass at kiloparsec and subkiloparsec scale, where baryons and dark matter interact to shape galaxies as we see them; determining the overall geometry, content, and kinematics of the Universe; and studying distant galaxies, black holes, and active nuclei that are too small or too faint to be resolved or detected with current instrumentation. After summarizing strong gravitational lensing fundamentals, I present a selection of recent important results. I conclude by discussing the exciting prospects of strong gravitational lensing in the nextdecade. © 2010 by Annual Reviews. Source

Heeger A.J.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Advanced Materials

The status of understanding of the operation of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is reviewed. Because the carrier photoexcitation recombination lengths are typically 10 nm in these disordered materials, the length scale for self-assembly must be of order 10-20 nm. Experiments have verified the existence of the BHJ nanostructure, but the morphology remains complex and a limiting factor. Three steps are required for generation of electrical power: i) absorption of photons from the sun; ii) photoinduced charge separation and the generation of mobile carriers; iii) collection of electrons and holes at opposite electrodes. The ultrafast charge transfer process arises from fundamental quantum uncertainty; mobile carriers are directly generated (electrons in the acceptor domains and holes in the donor domains) by the ultrafast charge transfer (≈70%) with ≈30% generated by exciton diffusion to a charge separating heterojunction. Sweep-out of the mobile carriers by the internal field prior to recombination is essential for high performance. Bimolecular recombination dominates in materials where the donor and acceptor phases are pure. Impurities degrade performance by introducing Shockly-Read-Hall decay. The review concludes with a summary of the problems to be solved to achieve the predicted power conversion efficiencies of >20% for a single cell. The operation of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is reviewed. Ultrafast charge transfer arises from fundamental quantum uncertainty as expressed by the uncertainty principle; mobile charges are generated directly by ultrafast charge transfer. Sweep-out of the mobile carriers by the internal field prior to recombination is essential to obtain a high performance, especially a high fill factor. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Langer J.S.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Reports on Progress in Physics

This key-issues review is a plea for a new focus on simpler and more realistic models of glass-forming fluids. It seems to me that we have too often been led astray by sophisticated mathematical models that beautifully capture some of the most intriguing features of glassy behavior, but are too unrealistic to provide bases for predictive theories. As illustrations of what I mean, the first part of this article is devoted to brief summaries of imaginative, sensible, but disparate and often contradictory ideas for solving glass problems. Almost all of these ideas remain alive today, with their own enthusiastic advocates. I then describe numerical simulations, mostly by H Tanaka and coworkers, in which it appears that very simple, polydisperse systems of hard disks and spheres develop long range, Ising-like, bond-orientational order as they approach glass transitions. Finally, I summarize my recent proposal that topologically ordered clusters of particles, in disordered environments, tend to become aligned with each other as if they were two-state systems, and thus produce the observed Ising-like behavior. Neither Tanaka's results nor my proposed interpretation of them fit comfortably within any of the currently popular glass theories. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Tilman D.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Clark M.,University of Minnesota

Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance. Source

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