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San Francisco, CA, United States

The University of California, San Francisco , is a center of health science research, patient care, and education; located in San Francisco, California, and is widely regarded as one of the world's leading universities in health science.Though one of the 10 campuses of the University of California, it is the only University of California campus dedicated solely to graduate education, and in health and biomedical science. Some of UCSF's treatment centers include kidney transplants and liver transplantation, radiology, neurosurgery, neurology, oncology, ophthalmology, gene therapy, women's health, fetal surgery, pediatrics, and internal medicine. With a work force of 22,800 people and annual economic impact of $2 billion, UCSF is San Francisco's second largest employer.Founded in 1873, the mission of UCSF is to serve as a "public university dedicated to saving lives and improving health." The UCSF Medical Center is consistently ranked among the top 10 hospitals in the United States by U.S. News & World Report, who also ranked UCSF's medical school as one of the top 10 in a number of specialties, including a specialty program in AIDS medical care ranked first in the country. Wikipedia.

Giudice L.C.,University of California at San Francisco
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

A healthy 25-year-old woman presents with worsening dysmenorrhea, pain of recent onset in the left lower quadrant, and dyspareunia. She has regular menstrual cycles, and her last menstrual period was 3 weeks before presentation. How should this patient be evaluated and treated? Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Brodsky F.M.,University of California at San Francisco
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

Clathrin is considered the prototype vesicle coat protein whose self-assembly mediates sorting of membrane cargo and recruitment of lipid modifiers. Detailed knowledge of clathrin biochemistry, structure, and interacting proteins has accumulated since the first observation, almost 50 years ago, of its role in receptor-mediated endocytosis of yolk protein. This review summarizes that knowledge, and focuses on properties of the clathrin heavy and light chain subunits and interaction of the latter with Hip proteins, to address the diversity of clathrin function beyond conventional receptor-mediated endocytosis. The distinct functions of the two human clathrin isoforms (CHC17 and CHC22) are discussed, highlighting CHC22's specialized involvement in traffic of the GLUT4 glucose transporter and consequent role in human glucose metabolism. Analysis of clathrin light chain function and interaction with the actin-binding Hip proteins during bacterial inflection defines a novel actin-organizing function for CHC17 clathrin. By considering these diverse clathrin functions, along with intracellular sorting roles and inflluences on mitosis, further relevance of clathrin function to human health and disease is established. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Prusiner S.B.,University of California at San Francisco
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2013

Prions are proteins that acquire alternative conformations that become self-propagating. Transformation of proteins into prions is generally accompanied by an increase in β-sheet structure and a propensity to aggregate into oligomers. Some prions are beneficial and perform cellular functions, whereas others cause neurodegeneration. In mammals, more than a dozen proteins that become prions have been identified, and a similar number has been found in fungi. In both mammals and fungi, variations in the prion conformation encipher the biological properties of distinct prion strains. Increasing evidence argues that prions cause many neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, and Lou Gehrig's diseases, as well as the tauopathies. The majority of NDs are sporadic, and 10% to 20% are inherited. The late onset of heritable NDs, like their sporadic counterparts, may reflect the stochastic nature of prion formation; the pathogenesis of such illnesses seems to require prion accumulation to exceed some critical threshold before neurological dysfunction manifests. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Julius D.,University of California at San Francisco
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

Nociception is the process whereby primary afferent nerve fibers of the somatosensory system detect noxious stimuli. Pungent irritants from pepper, mint, and mustard plants have served as powerful pharmacological tools for identifying molecules and mechanisms underlying this initial step of pain sensation. These natural products have revealed three members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel familymdashTRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1mdashas molecular detectors of thermal and chemical stimuli that activate sensory neurons to produce acute or persistent pain. Analysis of TRP channel function and expression has validated the existence of nociceptors as a specialized group of somatosensory neurons devoted to the detection of noxious stimuli. These studies are also providing insight into the coding logic of nociception and how specification of nociceptor subtypes underlies behavioral discrimination of noxious thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli. Biophysical and pharmacological characterization of these channels has provided the intellectual and technical foundation for developing new classes of analgesic drugs. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Fang M.C.,University of California at San Francisco
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to develop a risk stratification score to predict warfarin-associated hemorrhage. Optimal decision making regarding warfarin use for atrial fibrillation requires estimation of hemorrhage risk. We followed up 9,186 patients with atrial fibrillation contributing 32,888 person-years of follow-up on warfarin, obtaining data from clinical databases and validating hemorrhage events using medical record review. We used Cox regression models to develop a hemorrhage risk stratification score, selecting candidate variables using bootstrapping approaches. The final model was internally validated by split-sample testing and compared with 6 published hemorrhage risk schemes. We observed 461 first major hemorrhages during follow-up (1.4% annually). Five independent variables were included in the final model and weighted by regression coefficients: anemia (3 points), severe renal disease (e.g., glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min or dialysis-dependent, 3 points), age ≥75 years (2 points), prior bleeding (1 point), and hypertension (1 point). Major hemorrhage rates ranged from 0.4% (0 points) to 17.3% per year (10 points). Collapsed into a 3-category risk score, major hemorrhage rates were 0.8% for low risk (0 to 3 points), 2.6% for intermediate risk (4 points), and 5.8% for high risk (5 to 10 points). The c-index for the continuous risk score was 0.74 and 0.69 for the 3-category score, higher than in the other risk schemes. There was net reclassification improvement versus all 6 comparators (from 27% to 56%). A simple 5-variable risk score was effective in quantifying the risk of warfarin-associated hemorrhage in a large community-based cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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