San Diego, CA, United States

University of California at San Diego

www.ucsd.edu/
San Diego, CA, United States

The University of California, San Diego , is a public research university located in the La Jolla area of San Diego, California, in the United States. The university occupies 2,141 acres near the coast of the Pacific Ocean with the main campus resting on approximately 1,152 acres . Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego is the seventh oldest of the 10 University of California campuses and offers over 200 undergraduate and graduate degree programs, enrolling about 22,700 undergraduate and 6,300 graduate students. UC San Diego is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public research universities in the United States. UC San Diego was ranked 8th among public universities and 37th among all universities in the United States, and rated the 18th Top World University by U.S. News & World Report 's 2015 rankings.UC San Diego is organized into six undergraduate residential colleges , three graduate schools ), and two professional medical schools UC San Diego is also home to Scripps Institution of Oceanography, one of the first centers dedicated to ocean, earth and atmospheric science research and education.The university operates 19 organized research units , including the Qualcomm Institute , San Diego Supercomputer Center and the Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, as well as eight School of Medicine research units, six research centers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and two multi-campus initiatives, including the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation.The UC San Diego Health System, the region’s only academic health system, provides patient care, conducts medical research and educates future health care professionals. It comprises UC San Diego Medical Center in Hillcrest, UC San Diego Thornton Hospital, Moores Cancer Center, Shiley Eye Center, Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center and Jacobs Medical Center as well as other primary and specialty practices of UC San Diego Medical Group. UC San Diego is also affiliated with several regional research centers, such as the Salk Institute, the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, and the Scripps Research Institute.UC San Diego faculty, researchers, and alumni have won twenty Nobel Prizes, eight National Medals of Science, eight MacArthur Fellowships, two Pulitzer Prizes, and two Fields Medals. Additionally, of the current faculty, 29 have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, 95 to the National Academy of science, 45 to the Institute of Medicine and 106 to the American Academy of Arts and science. Wikipedia.

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Patent
Tdw Group and University of California at San Diego | Date: 2017-01-25

Provided are chimeric arginine deiminases, including pegylated chimeric arginine deiminases, and related compositions and methods of use thereof, including methods of treating cancer.


Described herein are hydrogel-based nanoparticles which release nitric oxide (NO) or other bioactive forms of NO including nitrosothiols, nitrofatty acids and dinitrogen trioxide into stored red blood cells (RBCs). Also provided herein is a method for using hydrogel-based nanoparticles to supplement stored RBCs with NO to enhance red blood cell (RBC) storage time, improve survivability in circulation, minimize toxicity associated with transfusion, and improve transfusion safety by eliminating infective organisms in stored blood.


Qian H.,University of California at San Diego
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Direct conversion of somatic cells into neurons holds great promise for regenerative medicine. However, neuronal conversion is relatively inefficient in human cells compared to mouse cells. It has been unclear what might be the key barriers to reprogramming in human cells. We recently elucidated an RNA program mediated by the polypyrimidine tract binding protein PTB to convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into functional neurons. In human adult fibroblasts (HAFs), however, we unexpectedly found that invoking the documented PTB–REST–miR-124 loop generates only immature neurons. We now report that the functionality requires sequential inactivation of PTB and the PTB paralog nPTB in HAFs. Inactivation of nPTB triggers another self-enforcing loop essential for neuronal maturation, which comprises nPTB, the transcription factor BRN2, and miR-9. These findings suggest that two separate gatekeepers control neuronal conversion and maturation and consecutively overcoming these gatekeepers enables deterministic reprogramming of HAFs into functional neurons. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.


Spitzer N.C.,University of California at San Diego
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2012

For many years it has been assumed that the identity of the transmitters expressed by neurons is stable and unchanging. Recent work, however, shows that electrical activity can respecify neurotransmitter expression during development and in the mature nervous system, and an understanding is emerging of the molecular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent transmitter respecification. Changes in postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor expression accompany and match changes in transmitter specification, thus enabling synaptic transmission. The functional roles of neurotransmitter respecification are beginning to be understood and appear to involve homeostatic synaptic regulation, which in turn influences behaviour. Activation of this novel form of plasticity by sensorimotor stimuli may provide clinical benefits. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Nitz D.A.,University of California at San Diego
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2012

We recorded parietal cortex neurons as rats traversed squared spiral tracks. Spatial firing patterns distinguished the behaviorally identical track segments composing loops, yet recurred with increasing or decreasing amplitude across the five loops composing the full track. These results indicate that parietal cortex neurons simultaneously respond to spatial relationships in multiple external reference frames, a phenomenon that may reflect a neural mechanism for relating parts to a whole. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Aron A.R.,University of California at San Diego
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2011

A better understanding of the neural systems underlying impulse control is important for psychiatry. Although most impulses are motivational or emotional rather than motoric per se, it is research into the neural architecture of motor response control that has made the greatest strides. This article reviews recent developments in the cognitive neuroscience of stopping responses. Most research of this kind has focused on reactive controlthat is, how subjects stop a response outright when instructed by a signal. It is argued that reactive paradigms are limited as models of control relevant to psychiatry. Instead, a set of paradigms is advocated that begins to model proactive inhibitory controlthat is, how a subject prepares to stop an upcoming response tendency. Proactive inhibitory control is generated according to the goals of the subject rather than by an external signal, and it can be selectively targeted at a particular response tendency. This may have wider validity than reactive control as an experimental model for stopping inappropriate responses. © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry.


Rock C.L.,University of California at San Diego
CA: a cancer journal for clinicians | Year: 2012

Cancer survivors are often highly motivated to seek information about food choices, physical activity, and dietary supplements to improve their treatment outcomes, quality of life, and overall survival. To address these concerns, the American Cancer Society (ACS) convened a group of experts in nutrition, physical activity, and cancer survivorship to evaluate the scientific evidence and best clinical practices related to optimal nutrition and physical activity after the diagnosis of cancer. This report summarizes their findings and is intended to present health care providers with the best possible information with which to help cancer survivors and their families make informed choices related to nutrition and physical activity. The report discusses nutrition and physical activity guidelines during the continuum of cancer care, briefly highlighting important issues during cancer treatment and for patients with advanced cancer, but focusing largely on the needs of the population of individuals who are disease free or who have stable disease following their recovery from treatment. It also discusses select nutrition and physical activity issues such as body weight, food choices, food safety, and dietary supplements; issues related to selected cancer sites; and common questions about diet, physical activity, and cancer survivorship. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society, Inc.


Plongthongkum N.,University of California at San Diego
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2014

Chemical modifications of DNA have been recognized as key epigenetic mechanisms for maintenance of the cellular state and memory. Such DNA modifications include canonical 5-methylcytosine (5mC), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxycytosine (5caC). Recent advances in detection and quantification of DNA modifications have enabled epigenetic variation to be connected to phenotypic consequences on an unprecedented scale. These methods may use chemical or enzymatic DNA treatment, may be targeted or non-targeted and may utilize array-based hybridization or sequencing. Key considerations in the choice of assay are cost, minimum sample input requirements, accuracy and throughput. This Review discusses the principles behind recently developed techniques, compares their respective strengths and limitations and provides general guidelines for selecting appropriate methods for specific experimental contexts.


Pasquinelli A.E.,University of California at San Diego
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key gene regulators in diverse biological pathways. These small non-coding RNAs bind to target sequences in mRNAs, typically resulting in repressed gene expression. Several methods are now available for identifying miRNA target sites, but the mere presence of an miRNA-binding site is insufficient for predicting target regulation. Regulation of targets by miRNAs is subject to various levels of control, and recent developments have presented a new twist; targets can reciprocally control the level and function of miRNAs. This mutual regulation of miRNAs and target genes is challenging our understanding of the gene-regulatory role of miRNAs in vivo and has important implications for the use of these RNAs in therapeutic settings. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Cohen S.M.,University of California at San Diego
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012

The development of postsynthetic methods for the chemical modification and functionalization of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF) and related coordination polymers is discussed. Lee and co-workers developed a class of MOF-like coordination solids constructed from Ag(I) ions and rigid nitrile-containing ligands. Fujita and co-workers reported another early example of PSM on an amine-tagged MOF, and described the condensation of an aldehyde with an amine group to produce an imine. Burrows and co-workers defined tag as a group or functionality that is stable and innocent during MOF formation, but that can be transformed by a post-synthetic modification. Fischer and co-workers describes a rare covalent functionalization of the SBUs in a MOF. Covalent PSM of a tagless MOF was obtained by treating MIL-53(Al) with 1,10-ferrocenediyldimethylsilane.

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