San Diego, CA, United States
San Diego, CA, United States

The University of California, San Diego , is a public research university located in the La Jolla area of San Diego, California, in the United States. The university occupies 2,141 acres near the coast of the Pacific Ocean with the main campus resting on approximately 1,152 acres . Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego is the seventh oldest of the 10 University of California campuses and offers over 200 undergraduate and graduate degree programs, enrolling about 22,700 undergraduate and 6,300 graduate students. UC San Diego is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public research universities in the United States. UC San Diego was ranked 8th among public universities and 37th among all universities in the United States, and rated the 18th Top World University by U.S. News & World Report 's 2015 rankings.UC San Diego is organized into six undergraduate residential colleges , three graduate schools ), and two professional medical schools UC San Diego is also home to Scripps Institution of Oceanography, one of the first centers dedicated to ocean, earth and atmospheric science research and education.The university operates 19 organized research units , including the Qualcomm Institute , San Diego Supercomputer Center and the Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, as well as eight School of Medicine research units, six research centers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and two multi-campus initiatives, including the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation.The UC San Diego Health System, the region’s only academic health system, provides patient care, conducts medical research and educates future health care professionals. It comprises UC San Diego Medical Center in Hillcrest, UC San Diego Thornton Hospital, Moores Cancer Center, Shiley Eye Center, Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center and Jacobs Medical Center as well as other primary and specialty practices of UC San Diego Medical Group. UC San Diego is also affiliated with several regional research centers, such as the Salk Institute, the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, and the Scripps Research Institute.UC San Diego faculty, researchers, and alumni have won twenty Nobel Prizes, eight National Medals of Science, eight MacArthur Fellowships, two Pulitzer Prizes, and two Fields Medals. Additionally, of the current faculty, 29 have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, 95 to the National Academy of science, 45 to the Institute of Medicine and 106 to the American Academy of Arts and science. Wikipedia.


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Hoffman R.M.,Anticancer, Inc. | Hoffman R.M.,University of California at San Diego
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2015

The majority of human solid tumours do not metastasize when grown subcutaneously in immunocompromised mice; this includes patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. However, orthotopic implantation of intact tumour tissue can lead to metastasis that mimics that seen in patients. These patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) models have a long history and might better recapitulate human tumours than PDX models. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 316.11K | Year: 2015

DESCRIPTION provided by applicant Activation of lung myofibroblasts LMF is responsible for the development of lung fibrosis in chronic lung diseases of all causes and remarkably LMF clearance by apoptosis may prevent development of lung fibrosis and lung injury and possibly allow recovery from reversal of lung fibrosis There is full agreement among tissue fibrosis experts that inhibiting o reversing myofibroblast activation the therapeutic target is critical fr the treatment of lung fibrosis Both preventing progression of lung fibrosis as well as possibly regression of lung fibrosis in spite of continued lung injury as we documented in our pre clinical studies are considered important clinical targets for patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis IPF Finally blocking the progression of lung fibrosis may decrease development of lung cancer The basis for our Research and Development is the development of novel andapos humanizedandapos peptoids not previously reported We created a library using analog synthesis to improve potential pitfalls for human therapy We have performed in a step wise manner assays to select the safest and most efficient andapos humanizedandapos peptoids including apoptosis assays in activated primary human myofibroblasts cell free caspase activation assays lung injury fibrogenesis models preliminary toxicology assays in mice We have developed novel and highly effective anti fibrotic peptoids in animal models with no evidences of immunogenicity in state of the art T cell assays and with exceptional stability in mouse microsomal systems and mouse blood The lead peptoid has excellent solubility in water These features should facilitate administration by inhalation with increased bioavailability to the LMF during clinical trials The proposed compounds markedly inhibit activation of human and mouse myofibroblast in culture These compounds were not toxic in the preliminary toxicology studies including pilot toxicogenomics to mice at least at fold the therapeutic dose The aims that are proposed for this Phase STTR are Specific Aim Efficacy of the Lead Peptoid in Lung Fibrosis Mouse Models Specific Aim Pharmacokinetics Single and Multiple doses in Mice and Stability Assays in vitro in Human Lung Microsomes and Human Plasma There is no medication for the treatment of lung fibrosis in IPF Completion of these tasks for the proposed compounds will allow us proceeding with a Phase STTR and clinical development in patients with IPF PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis IPF through inflammation and injury induce the development of scar tissue in the lung this is called lung fibrosis Excessive lung fibrosis can result in lung dysfunction which accounts for the significant complications and mortality among the population with IPF The personal medical and financial burden of IPF to the USA is substantial as it is associated with a very poor prognosis and high mortality Additional knowledge gained by Xfibra with this work will facilitate the development of medication given by inhalation for the treatment of IPF The inhalation route of administration is simple highly feasible given the exceptional solubility and stability of the therapeutic compound and relatively inexpensive to produce


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

DESCRIPTION provided by applicant Dysbiosis refers to a condition with microbial imbalances within the human microbiome Yogurts are the best examples of using fermenting gut bacteria to rebalance the gut dysbiosis Our results demonstrate for the first time that Staphylococcus epidermidis S epidermidis a commensal bacterium of the human skin functions as a probiotic microorganism that employs fermentation to restrain the over growth of Propionibacterium acnes a skin opportunistic bacterium associated with acne vulgaris Like microbial competition in a ripening fruit we envision that S epidermidis and P acnes within an acne microenvironment compete with each other for the same carbon source of fermentation To intensify the ability of S epidermidis to andquot beatandquot out its competitor P acnes the a lactose monohydrate ALM a selective fermentation initiator will be used to exclusively trigger the fermentation of S epidermidis The concept of using S epidermidis fermentation against P acnes will be applied for {development of post antibiotic adjuvant therapy for treatment of acne vulgairs A short chain fatty acid SCFA with antimicrobial activity in the fermentative metabolites of S epidermidis will be formulated with clindamycin a commonly prescribed topical antibiotic for acne vulgaris The effects of SCFA on the suppression of P acnes growth and reduction of required doses of clindamycin will be investigated {We have recently obtained acne biopsies in collaboration with Dr Tissa R Hata a Director of the Dermatology Clinical Trials Unit at University of California San Diego UCSD These acne biopsies have been used to establish ex vivo acne explants The effectiveness of SCFA or the SCFA clindamycin combination on suppression of P acnes growth and reduction of pro inflammatory cytokines will be tested by using ex vivo acne explants } Three Specific Aims are proposed to validate our hypothesis In Specific Aim we will identify a SCFA for selectively eliminating P acnes without inhibiting S epidermidis {measure the concentrations of SCFAs in human ex vivo acne explants and determine an effective concentration of SCFA for suppression of P acnes growth In Specific Aim we will validate the essential role of probiotic S epidermidis in the inhibitio of P acnes growth in acne lesions compare the potency of SCFA against P acnes to that of antibiotic and develop SCFA as an antibiotic adjuvant In Specific Aim we will explore the possible disruptive effects of SCFA on skin commensals and examine the cytotoxicities of SCFA with without clindamycin to skin cells } In addition to developing a novel acne therapeutic { SCFA as post antibiotic adjuvant therapy } we emphasize the notion that {combination of antibiotics with probiotic derived metabolites may greatly reduce the side effects of antibiotics for treatment of acne vulgaris } PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Dysbiotic acne vulgaris is associated with the over growth of Propionibacterium acnes P acnes Our results have demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis S epidermidis a Gram positive bacterium co existed with P acnes in an acne lesion can exploit the carbohydrate fermentation to inhibit the growth of P acnes Our approach here is to selectively amplify the fermentation activity of S epidermidis to rebalance the acne dysbiosis {and develop short chain fatty acids main ferment metabolites as post antibiotic adjuvant therapy for treatment of acne vulgaris }


Okumura C.Y.M.,Occidental College | Nizet V.,University of California at San Diego
Annual Review of Microbiology | Year: 2014

The development of a severe invasive bacterial infection in an otherwise healthy individual is one of the most striking and fascinating aspects of human medicine. A small cadre of gram-positive pathogens of the genera Streptococcus and Staphylococcus stand out for their unique invasive disease potential and sophisticated ability to counteract the multifaceted components of human innate defense. This review illustrates how these leading human disease agents evade host complement deposition and activation, impede phagocyte recruitment and activation, resist the microbicidal activities of host antimicrobial peptides and reactive oxygen species, escape neutrophil extracellular traps, and promote and accelerate phagocyte cell death through the action of pore-forming cytolysins. Understanding the molecular basis of bacterial innate immune resistance can open new avenues for therapeutic intervention geared to disabling specific virulence factors and resensitizing the pathogen to host innate immune clearance. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 124.98K | Year: 2014

The technical innovation proposed here expands upon early research into the viability of additive machining (AM) for liquid rocket engine components and other emerging capabilities to initiate TRL 6 flight test evaluations of candidate applications that could enhance the affordability of a small launch vehicle (SLV) booster stage. University of California, San Diego (USCD) has achieved success in applying 3D AM to fabricate a 200 lbf-thrust LOX/kerosene engine. Concurrently, the Garvey Spacecraft Corporation (GSC) team continues to make progress in the development and flight testing of key elements for a future low-cost nanosat launch vehicle (NLV). These NASA-sponsored NLV designs, concept of operations (CONOPS) and cost metrics based on actual flight operations now serve as references for evaluating emerging technologies like UCSD's AM engine(s) to implement an SLV first stage that achieves the aggressive cost, performance and sizing goals specified in the T1.02 subtopic description. This is exactly the same approach that was followed under a previous NASA STTR that successfully demonstrated a TRL 6 for an advanced CMC-lined ablative engine chamber. Phase I flight testing features a subscale host vehicle, while Phase II then follows with an SLV-scale prototype booster.


Meng Y.S.,University of California at San Diego | Arroyo-De Dompablo M.E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

To meet the increasing demands of energy storage, particularly for transportation applications such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, researchers will need to develop improved lithium-ion battery electrode materials that exhibit high energy density, high power, better safety, and longer cycle life. The acceleration of materials discovery, synthesis, and optimization will benefit from the combination of both experimental and computational methods. First principles (ab Initio) computational methods have been widely used in materials science and can play an important role in accelerating the development and optimization of new energy storage materials. These methods can prescreen previously unknown compounds and can explain complex phenomena observed with these compounds.Intercalation compounds, where Li + ions insert into the host structure without causing significant rearrangement of the original structure, have served as the workhorse for lithium ion rechargeable battery electrodes. Intercalation compounds will also facilitate the development of new battery chemistries such as sodium-ion batteries. During the electrochemical discharge reaction process, the intercalating species travel from the negative to the positive electrode, driving the transition metal ion in the positive electrode to a lower oxidation state, which delivers useful current. Many materials properties change as a function of the intercalating species concentrations (at different state of charge). Therefore, researchers will need to understand and control these dynamic changes to optimize the electrochemical performance of the cell. In this Account, we focus on first-principles computational investigations toward understanding, controlling, and improving the intrinsic properties of five well known high energy density Li intercalation electrode materials: layered oxides (LiMO2), spinel oxides (LiM2O4), olivine phosphates (LiMPO4), silicates-Li2MSiO4, and the tavorite-LiM(XO4)F (M = 3d transition metal elements). For these five classes of materials, we describe the crystal structures, the redox potentials, the ion mobilities, the possible phase transformation mechanisms, and structural stability changes, and the relevance of these properties to the development of high-energy, high-power, low-cost electrochemical systems. These results demonstrate the importance of computational tools in real-world materials development, to optimize or minimize experimental synthesis and testing, and to predict a material's performance under diverse conditions. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Chang J.T.,University of California at San Diego | Wherry E.J.,University of Pennsylvania | Goldrath A.W.,University of California at San Diego
Nature Immunology | Year: 2014

Immunological memory is a cardinal feature of adaptive immunity and an important goal of vaccination strategies. Here we highlight advances in the understanding of the diverse T lymphocyte subsets that provide acute and long-term protection from infection. These include new insights into the transcription factors, and the upstream 'pioneering' factors that regulate their accessibility to key sites of gene regulation, as well as metabolic regulators that contribute to the differentiation of effector and memory subsets; ontogeny and defining characteristics of tissue-resident memory lymphocytes; and origins of the remarkable heterogeneity exhibited by activated T cells. Collectively, these findings underscore progress in delineating the underlying pathways that control diversification in T cell responses but also reveal gaps in the knowledge, as well as the challenges that arise in the application of this knowledge to rationally elicit desired T cell responses through vaccination and immunotherapy.


Keith B.,University of Pennsylvania | Johnson R.S.,University of California at San Diego | Simon M.C.,University of Pennsylvania
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2012

Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are broadly expressed in human cancers, and HIF1 α and HIF2 α were previously suspected to promote tumour progression through largely overlapping functions. However, this relatively simple model has now been challenged in light of recent data from various approaches that reveal unique and sometimes opposing activities of these HIF α isoforms in both normal physiology and disease. These effects are mediated in part through the regulation of unique target genes, as well as through direct and indirect interactions with important oncoproteins and tumour suppressors, including MYC and p53. As HIF inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical evaluation as cancer therapeutics, a more thorough understanding of the unique roles performed by HIF1 α and HIF2 α in human neoplasia is warranted. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016

Replacement of petroleum based vehicles with fuel cell electric vehicles operating on hydrogen produced from domestically available resources would dramatically decrease emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants as well as reduce dependence on oil from politically volatile regions of the world. One major inhibitor to a hydrogen society is the lack of infrastructure, which requires hydrogen liquefaction refrigeration systems to provide safe and economical storage and transportation of this fuel. Statement of how this problem is being addressed: One of the more promising technologies of interest for hydrogen liquefaction is magnetic refrigeration due to its high efficiency. Magnetic Refrigeration utilizes the magnetocaloric effect (MCE), which is the temperature variation of a magnetic material after exposure to a magnetic field. A critical challenge of developing low cost magnetic refrigerators is the cost and availability of MCE materials, which are typically rare-earth and very expensive. Therefore, the focus of this proposal is to develop rare-earth free or low cost rare-earth MCE materials specifically for hydrogen liquefaction systems. Small changes in the composition of the MCE material shift its MCE response temperature, allowing optimization to the desired temperature range (~20K). The use of nano-grained structures allows broader temperature response range along with increased cooling capacity. During the Phase I effort, nano-grained compositions of low cost Mn-based Heusler alloys, and La-based alloys will be synthesized and optimized for near 20K refrigeration. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The proposed research has the potential to contribute to a fundamental understanding of MCE within nanoscience and also advance the state-of-the-art in refrigeration technologies. The proposed low cost MCE materials would reduce the MCE material cost for these systems by greater than 95%, offering an enormous commercial opportunity ((>$20M annual U.S. gross sales), and opening the door for reliable, low cost, and energy-efficient hydrogen liquefaction systems. Additionally, all working MCE materials developed during this research will be made commercially available for online purchase in small quantities. This will accelerate the development of innovative magnetic refrigeration technologies for all temperature applications: hydrogen liquefaction (20K), nitrogen liquefaction (80K), space applications (100-200K), and room temperature refrigeration and air conditioning. Key Words: Magnetocaloric Materials, Hydrogen Liquefaction, Magnetic Refrigeration, Nanomaterials


Bier E.,University of California at San Diego | De Robertis E.M.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | De Robertis E.M.,University of California at Los Angeles
Science | Year: 2015

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act in dose-dependent fashion to regulate cell fate choices in a myriad of developmental contexts. In early vertebrate and invertebrate embryos, BMPs and their antagonists establish epidermal versus central nervous system domains. In this highly conserved system, BMP antagonists mediate the neural-inductive activities proposed by Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold nearly a century ago. BMPs distributed in gradients subsequently function as morphogens to subdivide the three germ layers into distinct territories and act to organize body axes, regulate growth, maintain stem cell niches, or signal inductively across germ layers. In this Review, we summarize the variety of mechanisms that contribute to generating reliable developmental responses to BMP gradients and other morphogen systems. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.


Basov D.N.,University of California at San Diego | Averitt R.D.,Boston University | Van Der Marel D.,University of Geneva | Dressel M.,University of Stuttgart | Haule K.,Rutgers University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2011

Studies of the electromagnetic response of various classes of correlated electron materials including transition-metal oxides, organic and molecular conductors, intermetallic compounds with d and f electrons, as well as magnetic semiconductors are reviewed. Optical inquiry into correlations in all these diverse systems is enabled by experimental access to the fundamental characteristics of an ensemble of electrons including their self-energy and kinetic energy. Steady-state spectroscopy carried out over a broad range of frequencies from microwaves to UV light and fast optics time-resolved techniques provides complimentary prospectives on correlations. Because the theoretical understanding of strong correlations is still evolving, the review is focused on the analysis of the universal trends that are emerging out of a large body of experimental data augmented where possible with insights from numerical studies. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Danielson J.R.,University of California at San Diego | Dubin D.H.E.,University of California at San Diego | Greaves R.G.,and Hills Inc. | Surko C.M.,University of California at San Diego
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2015

In recent years, there has been a wealth of new science involving low-energy antimatter (i.e., positrons and antiprotons) at energies ranging from 102 to less than 10-3eV. Much of this progress has been driven by the development of new plasma-based techniques to accumulate, manipulate, and deliver antiparticles for specific applications. This article focuses on the advances made in this area using positrons. However, many of the resulting techniques are relevant to antiprotons as well. An overview is presented of relevant theory of single-component plasmas in electromagnetic traps. Methods are described to produce intense sources of positrons and to efficiently slow the typically energetic particles thus produced. Techniques are described to trap positrons efficiently and to cool and compress the resulting positron gases and plasmas. Finally, the procedures developed to deliver tailored pulses and beams (e.g., in intense, short bursts, or as quasimonoenergetic continuous beams) for specific applications are reviewed. The status of development in specific application areas is also reviewed. One example is the formation of antihydrogen atoms for fundamental physics [e.g., tests of invariance under charge conjugation, parity inversion, and time reversal (the CPT theorem), and studies of the interaction of gravity with antimatter]. Other applications discussed include atomic and materials physics studies and the study of the electron-positron many-body system, including both classical electron-positron plasmas and the complementary quantum system in the form of Bose-condensed gases of positronium atoms. Areas of future promise are also discussed. The review concludes with a brief summary and a list of outstanding challenges. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.93K | Year: 2014

ABSTRACT: In this STTR phase II, HYPRES and University of California San Diego team will demonstrate a small size, weight and power, wideband (2 MHz to 2 GHz) receiver prototype based on SQUID array technology. Our SQUID array designs are based on highly linear bi-SQUID and SQUID cells arranged into a 2-dimensional (2D) array. The 2D arrays are fabricated using high-temperature superconductor Ion Damaged Josephson junction fabrication process suitable for integration of large number of SQUID devices on a single chip. This affords the use of small size robust 70 K cryocoolers and will make overall system suitable for airborne deployment. The wideband receiver prototype comprises a SQUID 2D array chip, a cold low noise amplifier, pre-amplifier to provide signal for modems. The entire system fits into a 11 x 5 x 4 cubic inch cryogenic package with an rf-transparent radome. It draws less than 45 W power. BENEFIT: The SQUID array technology will be leveraged into several application areas: compact and energy-efficient, extremely low noise receivers for satellite and deep space communications, low noise, high sensitivity biomedical imaging systems, secure point-to-point microwave links, biomagnetic sensors, and geomagnetic prospecting, receivers for direction finding and geolocation systems for wide frequency ranges. The small footprint, low noise, high sensitivity, high linearity, high directivity and angular accuracy, wide bandwidth SQUID array systems can be installed on moving platforms as it allows maintaining practical pointing alignment of directional antennas while vehicles and aircraft platforms are in motion. It will fit into platform space limitations to allow the installation of the multiple systems enabling low profiles to maintain a small visual and radar target silhouette; fitting into limited electronics rack space; energy-efficient to meet power production limitations on a moving vehicle (motor driven generators).


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.99K | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT: In this STTR phase II, HYPRES and University of California San Diego team will demonstrate a small size, weight and power Direction Finding (DF) system prototype based on SQUID array technology. High sensitivity, linearity, and wide bandwidth of SQUID arrays antenna sensors will be enable close spacing of smaller antennas even for high frequency (HF) range. Our SQUID array designs are based on highly linear bi-SQUID cells arranged into a 2-dimensional (2D) array using our patented coupling-junction synthesis technique. The 2D arrays are fabricated using high-temperature superconductor Ion Damaged Josephson junction fabrication process suitable for integration of large number of SQUID devices on a single chip. This affords the use of small size robust 70K cryocoolers and will make overall system suitable for airborne deployment. The HF DF system comprises of three antenna channels, each consisting of the bi-SQUID 2D array chip, a cold low noise amplifier, pre-amplifier and digital processing module. The entire system fits into a 12 x 5 x 4 cubic inch cryogenic package with an rf-transparent radome. It draws about 85 W power. BENEFIT: The SQUID array technology will be leveraged into several application areas: compact and energy-efficient direction finding and geolocation systems for wide frequency ranges, compact and extremely low noise receivers for satellite and deep space communications, low noise, high sensitivity biomedical imaging systems, secure point-to-point microwave links, biomagnetic sensors, and geomagnetic prospecting. The small footprint, low noise, high sensitivity, high linearity, high directivity and angular accuracy, wide bandwidth SQUID array systems can be installed on moving platforms as it allows maintaining practical pointing alignment of directional antennas while vehicles and aircraft platforms are in motion. It will fit into platform space limitations to allow the installation of the multiple systems enabling low profiles to maintain a small visual and radar target silhouette; fitting into limited electronics rack space; energy-efficient to meet power production limitations on a moving vehicle (motor driven generators).


Keeling R.F.,University of California at San Diego | Kortzinger A.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Gruber N.,ETH Zurich
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2010

Ocean warming and increased stratification of the upper ocean caused by global climate change will likely lead to declines in dissolved O 2/ in the ocean interior (ocean deoxygenation) with implications for ocean productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, and marine habitat. Ocean models predict declines of 1 to 7% in the global ocean O 2 inventory over the next century, with declines continuing for a thousand years or more into the future. An important consequence may be an expansion in the area and volume of so-called oxygen minimum zones, where O 2 levels are too low to support many macrofauna and profound changes in biogeochemical cycling occur. Significant deoxygenation has occurred over the past 50 years in the North Pacific and tropical oceans, suggesting larger changes are looming. The potential for larger O 2 declines in the future suggests the need for an improved observing system for tracking ocean O 2 changes. © 2010 by Annual Reviews.


Rivera C.M.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Rivera C.M.,University of California at San Diego | Ren B.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Ren B.,University of California at San Diego
Cell | Year: 2013

As the second dimension to the genome, the epigenome contains key information specific to every type of cells. Thousands of human epigenome maps have been produced in recent years thanks to rapid development of high throughput epigenome mapping technologies. In this review, we discuss the current epigenome mapping toolkit and utilities of epigenome maps. We focus particularly on mapping of DNA methylation, chromatin modification state, and chromatin structures, and emphasize the use of epigenome maps to delineate human gene regulatory sequences and developmental programs. We also provide a perspective on the progress of the epigenomics field and challenges ahead. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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