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Irvine, CA, United States

The University of California, Irvine , is a public research university located in Irvine, California, and one of the 10 general campuses in the University of California system. UCI has over 30,000 students, 1,100 faculty members and 9,000 staff. Times Higher Education in 2013 ranked UC Irvine 1st among all US universities and 5th among the top 100 global universities under 50 years old.UC Irvine is considered a Public Ivy and offers 80 undergraduate degrees and 98 graduate and professional degrees. The university is designated as having very high research activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, and in fiscal year 2012 had $350 million in research and development expenditures according to the National Science Foundation. UC Irvine became a member of the Association of American Universities in 1996, and is the youngest university to hold membership. The university also administers the UC Irvine Medical Center, a large teaching hospital, and its affiliated health science system in the city of Orange; the University of California, Irvine, Arboretum; and a portion of the University of California Natural Reserve System.UCI was one of three new UC campuses established in the 1960s to accommodate growing enrollments across the UC system. A site in Orange County was identified in 1959, and in the following year the Irvine Company sold the University of California 1,000 acres of land for one dollar to establish the new campus. President Lyndon B. Johnson dedicated the campus in 1964.The UC Irvine Anteaters compete in 18 men's and women's sports in the NCAA Division I as members of the Big West Conference and the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. The Anteaters have won 28 national championships in nine different team sports, 64 Anteaters have won individual national championships, and 53 Anteaters have competed in the Olympics. Wikipedia.

Alicea J.,University of California at Irvine
Reports on Progress in Physics

The 1937 theoretical discovery of Majorana fermions - whose defining property is that they are their own anti-particles - has since impacted diverse problems ranging from neutrino physics and dark matter searches to the fractional quantum Hall effect and superconductivity. Despite this long history the unambiguous observation of Majorana fermions nevertheless remains an outstanding goal. This review paper highlights recent advances in the condensed matter search for Majorana that have led many in the field to believe that this quest may soon bear fruit. We begin by introducing in some detail exotic topological one- and two-dimensional superconductors that support Majorana fermions at their boundaries and at vortices. We then turn to one of the key insights that arose during the past few years; namely, that it is possible to engineer such exotic superconductors in the laboratory by forming appropriate heterostructures with ordinary s-wave superconductors. Numerous proposals of this type are discussed, based on diverse materials such as topological insulators, conventional semiconductors, ferromagnetic metals and many others. The all-important question of how one experimentally detects Majorana fermions in these setups is then addressed. We focus on three classes of measurements that provide smoking-gun Majorana signatures: tunneling, Josephson effects and interferometry. Finally, we discuss the most remarkable properties of condensed matter Majorana fermions - the non-Abelian exchange statistics that they generate and their associated potential for quantum computation. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Poulos T.L.,University of California at Irvine
Chemical Reviews

The review focuses on those enzymes that catalyze oxidation reactions and those for which crystal structures are available. There are two broad classes of heme enzyme oxidants: oxygenases that use O2 to oxidize, oxygenate, substrates and peroxidases that use 2O2 to oxidize. The review demonstrates that out of the oxidants molecular oxygen is the most unusual, as O2 is not a reactive molecule despite the oxidation of nearly all biological molecules by O2 being a thermodynamically favorable process. The reason is that there is a large kinetic barrier to these reactions owing to O2 being a paramagnetic molecule so that the reaction between a majority of biological molecules that have paired spins is a spin forbidden process. Source

Lander A.D.,University of California at Irvine

Systems biology seeks not only to discover the machinery of life but to understand how such machinery is used for control, i.e., for regulation that achieves or maintains a desired, useful end. This sort of goal-directed, engineering-centered approach also has deep historical roots in developmental biology. Not surprisingly, developmental biology is currently enjoying an influx of ideas and methods from systems biology. This Review highlights current efforts to elucidate design principles underlying the engineering objectives of robustness, precision, and scaling as they relate to the developmental control of growth and pattern formation. Examples from vertebrate and invertebrate development are used to illustrate general lessons, including the value of integral feedback in achieving set-point control; the usefulness of self-organizing behavior; the importance of recognizing and appropriately handling noise; and the absence of "free lunch." By illuminating such principles, systems biology is helping to create a functional framework within which to make sense of the mechanistic complexity of organismal development. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Allison S.D.,University of California at Irvine
Ecology Letters

Trait-based models are an emerging tool in ecology with the potential to link community dynamics, environmental responses and ecosystem processes. These models represent complex communities by defining taxa with trait combinations derived from prior distributions that may be constrained by trade-offs. Herein I develop a model that links microbial community composition with physiological and enzymatic traits to predict litter decomposition rates. This approach allows for trade-offs among traits that represent alternative microbial strategies for resource acquisition. The model predicts that optimal strategies depend on the level of enzyme production in the whole community, which determines resource availability and decomposition rates. There is also evidence for facilitation and competition among microbial taxa that co-occur on decomposing litter. These interactions vary with community investment in extracellular enzyme production and the magnitude of trade-offs affecting enzyme biochemical traits. The model accounted for 69% of the variation in decomposition rates of 15 Hawaiian litter types and up to 26% of the variation in enzyme activities. By explicitly representing diversity, trait-based models can predict ecosystem processes based on functional trait distributions in a community. The model developed herein illustrates that traits influencing microbial enzyme production are some of the key controls on litter decomposition rates. Reviews and Syntheses Reviews and Syntheses © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS. Source

Borovik A.S.,University of California at Irvine
Chemical Society Reviews

The functionalization of C-H bonds has yet to achieve widespread use in synthetic chemistry in part because of the lack of synthetic reagents that function in the presence of other functional groups. These problems have been overcome in enzymes, which have metal-oxo active sites that efficiently and selectively cleave C-H bonds. How high-energy metal-oxo transient species can perform such difficult transformations with high fidelity is discussed in this tutorial review. Highlighted are the relationships between redox potentials and metal-oxo basicity on C-H bond activation, as seen in a series of bioinspired manganese-oxo complexes. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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