The University of California, Irvine , is a public research university located in Irvine, California, and one of the 10 general campuses in the University of California system. UCI has over 30,000 students, 1,100 faculty members and 9,000 staff. Times Higher Education in 2013 ranked UC Irvine 1st among all US universities and 5th among the top 100 global universities under 50 years old.UC Irvine is considered a Public Ivy and offers 80 undergraduate degrees and 98 graduate and professional degrees. The university is designated as having very high research activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, and in fiscal year 2012 had $350 million in research and development expenditures according to the National Science Foundation. UC Irvine became a member of the Association of American Universities in 1996, and is the youngest university to hold membership. The university also administers the UC Irvine Medical Center, a large teaching hospital, and its affiliated health science system in the city of Orange; the University of California, Irvine, Arboretum; and a portion of the University of California Natural Reserve System.UCI was one of three new UC campuses established in the 1960s to accommodate growing enrollments across the UC system. A site in Orange County was identified in 1959, and in the following year the Irvine Company sold the University of California 1,000 acres of land for one dollar to establish the new campus. President Lyndon B. Johnson dedicated the campus in 1964.The UC Irvine Anteaters compete in 18 men's and women's sports in the NCAA Division I as members of the Big West Conference and the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. The Anteaters have won 28 national championships in nine different team sports, 64 Anteaters have won individual national championships, and 53 Anteaters have competed in the Olympics. Wikipedia.
Lander A.D.,University of California at Irvine
Cell | Year: 2011
Systems biology seeks not only to discover the machinery of life but to understand how such machinery is used for control, i.e., for regulation that achieves or maintains a desired, useful end. This sort of goal-directed, engineering-centered approach also has deep historical roots in developmental biology. Not surprisingly, developmental biology is currently enjoying an influx of ideas and methods from systems biology. This Review highlights current efforts to elucidate design principles underlying the engineering objectives of robustness, precision, and scaling as they relate to the developmental control of growth and pattern formation. Examples from vertebrate and invertebrate development are used to illustrate general lessons, including the value of integral feedback in achieving set-point control; the usefulness of self-organizing behavior; the importance of recognizing and appropriately handling noise; and the absence of "free lunch." By illuminating such principles, systems biology is helping to create a functional framework within which to make sense of the mechanistic complexity of organismal development. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Poulos T.L.,University of California at Irvine
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014
The review focuses on those enzymes that catalyze oxidation reactions and those for which crystal structures are available. There are two broad classes of heme enzyme oxidants: oxygenases that use O2 to oxidize, oxygenate, substrates and peroxidases that use 2O2 to oxidize. The review demonstrates that out of the oxidants molecular oxygen is the most unusual, as O2 is not a reactive molecule despite the oxidation of nearly all biological molecules by O2 being a thermodynamically favorable process. The reason is that there is a large kinetic barrier to these reactions owing to O2 being a paramagnetic molecule so that the reaction between a majority of biological molecules that have paired spins is a spin forbidden process.
Abazajian K.N.,University of California at Irvine
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014
Sterile neutrinos produced through a resonant Shi-Fuller mechanism are arguably the simplest model for a dark matter interpretation of the origin of the recent unidentified x-ray line seen toward a number of objects harboring dark matter. Here, I calculate the exact parameters required in this mechanism to produce the signal. The suppression of small-scale structure predicted by these models is consistent with Local Group and high-z galaxy count constraints. Very significantly, the parameters necessary in these models to produce the full dark matter density fulfill previously determined requirements to successfully match the Milky Way Galaxy's total satellite abundance, the satellites' radial distribution, and their mass density profile, or the "too-big-to-fail problem." I also discuss how further precision determinations of the detailed properties of the candidate sterile neutrino dark matter can probe the nature of the quark-hadron transition, which takes place during the dark matter production. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Feng J.L.,University of California at Irvine
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010
The identity of dark matter is a question of central importance in both astrophysics and particle physics. In the past, the leading particle candidates were cold and collisionless, and typically predicted missing energy signals at particle colliders. However, recent progress has greatly expanded the list of well-motivated candidates and the possible signatures of dark matter. This review begins with a brief summary of the standardmodel of particle physics and its outstanding problems. I then discuss several dark matter candidates motivated by these problems, including weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), superWIMPs, light gravitinos, hidden dark matter, sterile neutrinos, and axions. For each of these, I critically examine the particle physics motivations and present their expected production mechanisms, basic properties, and implications for direct and indirect detection, particle colliders, and astrophysical observations. Upcoming experiments will discover or exclude many of these candidates, and progress may open up an era of unprecedented synergy between studies of the largest and smallest observable length scales. © 2010 by Annual Reviews.
Alicea J.,University of California at Irvine
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2012
The 1937 theoretical discovery of Majorana fermions - whose defining property is that they are their own anti-particles - has since impacted diverse problems ranging from neutrino physics and dark matter searches to the fractional quantum Hall effect and superconductivity. Despite this long history the unambiguous observation of Majorana fermions nevertheless remains an outstanding goal. This review paper highlights recent advances in the condensed matter search for Majorana that have led many in the field to believe that this quest may soon bear fruit. We begin by introducing in some detail exotic topological one- and two-dimensional superconductors that support Majorana fermions at their boundaries and at vortices. We then turn to one of the key insights that arose during the past few years; namely, that it is possible to engineer such exotic superconductors in the laboratory by forming appropriate heterostructures with ordinary s-wave superconductors. Numerous proposals of this type are discussed, based on diverse materials such as topological insulators, conventional semiconductors, ferromagnetic metals and many others. The all-important question of how one experimentally detects Majorana fermions in these setups is then addressed. We focus on three classes of measurements that provide smoking-gun Majorana signatures: tunneling, Josephson effects and interferometry. Finally, we discuss the most remarkable properties of condensed matter Majorana fermions - the non-Abelian exchange statistics that they generate and their associated potential for quantum computation. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Allison S.D.,University of California at Irvine
Ecology Letters | Year: 2012
Trait-based models are an emerging tool in ecology with the potential to link community dynamics, environmental responses and ecosystem processes. These models represent complex communities by defining taxa with trait combinations derived from prior distributions that may be constrained by trade-offs. Herein I develop a model that links microbial community composition with physiological and enzymatic traits to predict litter decomposition rates. This approach allows for trade-offs among traits that represent alternative microbial strategies for resource acquisition. The model predicts that optimal strategies depend on the level of enzyme production in the whole community, which determines resource availability and decomposition rates. There is also evidence for facilitation and competition among microbial taxa that co-occur on decomposing litter. These interactions vary with community investment in extracellular enzyme production and the magnitude of trade-offs affecting enzyme biochemical traits. The model accounted for 69% of the variation in decomposition rates of 15 Hawaiian litter types and up to 26% of the variation in enzyme activities. By explicitly representing diversity, trait-based models can predict ecosystem processes based on functional trait distributions in a community. The model developed herein illustrates that traits influencing microbial enzyme production are some of the key controls on litter decomposition rates. Reviews and Syntheses Reviews and Syntheses © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
Principe D.R.,University of California at Irvine
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2014
Several mechanisms underlying tumor progression have remained elusive, particularly in relation to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Although TGF-β initially inhibits epithelial growth, it appears to promote the progression of advanced tumors. Defects in normal TGF-β pathways partially explain this paradox, which can lead to a cascade of downstream events that drive multiple oncogenic pathways, manifesting as several key features of tumorigenesis (uncontrolled proliferation, loss of apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, sustained angiogenesis, evasion of immune surveillance, and metastasis). Understanding the mechanisms of TGF-β dysregulation will likely reveal novel points of convergence between TGF-β and other pathways that can be specifically targeted for therapy.
Borovik A.S.,University of California at Irvine
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011
The functionalization of C-H bonds has yet to achieve widespread use in synthetic chemistry in part because of the lack of synthetic reagents that function in the presence of other functional groups. These problems have been overcome in enzymes, which have metal-oxo active sites that efficiently and selectively cleave C-H bonds. How high-energy metal-oxo transient species can perform such difficult transformations with high fidelity is discussed in this tutorial review. Highlighted are the relationships between redox potentials and metal-oxo basicity on C-H bond activation, as seen in a series of bioinspired manganese-oxo complexes. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Feng J.L.,University of California at Irvine
Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science | Year: 2013
For decades, the unnaturalness of the weak scale has been the dominant problem motivating new particle physics, and weak-scale supersymmetry has been the dominant proposed solution. This paradigm is now being challenged by a wealth of experimental data. In this review, we begin by recalling the theoretical motivations for weak-scale supersymmetry, including the gauge hierarchy problem, grand unification, and WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) dark matter, and their implications for superpartner masses. These are set against the leading constraints on supersymmetry from collider searches, the Higgs boson mass, and low-energy constraints on flavor and CP violation. We then critically examine attempts to quantify naturalness in supersymmetry, stressing the many subjective choices that influence the results both quantitatively and qualitatively. Finally, we survey various proposals for natural supersymmetric models, including effective supersymmetry, focus point supersymmetry, compressed supersymmetry, and R-parity-violating supersymmetry, and summarize their key features, current status, and implications for future experiments. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Grando S.A.,University of California at Irvine
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2014
This Opinion article discusses emerging evidence of direct contributions of nicotine to cancer onset and growth. The list of cancers reportedly connected to nicotine is expanding and presently includes small-cell and non-small-cell lung carcinomas, as well as head and neck, gastric, pancreatic, gallbladder, liver, colon, breast, cervical, urinary bladder and kidney cancers. The mutagenic and tumour-promoting activities of nicotine may result from its ability to damage the genome, disrupt cellular metabolic processes, and facilitate growth and spreading of transformed cells. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are activated by nicotine, can activate several signalling pathways that can have tumorigenic effects, and these receptors might be able to be targeted for cancer therapy or prevention. There is also growing evidence that the unique genetic makeup of an individual, such as polymorphisms in genes encoding nAChR subunits, might influence the susceptibility of that individual to the pathobiological effects of nicotine. The emerging knowledge about the carcinogenic mechanisms of nicotine action should be considered during the evaluation of regulations on nicotine product manufacturing, distribution and marketing. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.