Davis, CA, United States

University of California at Davis

www.ucdavis.edu
Davis, CA, United States

The University of California, Davis , is a public research university located in Davis, California, just west of Sacramento. It encompasses 5,300 acres of land, making it the second largest UC campus in terms of land ownership, after UC Merced. UC Davis also has the third-largest enrollment in the UC System after UCLA and UC Berkeley.The 2015 U.S. News & World Report college rankings named UC Davis as the 9th best public university, 38th nationally, and 4th of the UC schools, following UC Berkeley, UCLA, and UC San Diego. UC Davis is one of 62 members in the Association of American Universities.The Carnegie Foundation classifies UC Davis as a comprehensive doctoral research university with a medical program, and very high research activity. UC Davis faculty includes 23 members of the National Academy of science, 25 members of the American Academy of Arts and science, 17 members of the American Law Institute, 14 members of the Institute of Medicine, and 14 members of the National Academy of Engineering. Among other honors, university faculty, alumni, and researchers have won the Nobel Peace Prize, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Pulitzer Prize, MacArthur Fellowship, National Medal of Science, and Presidential Early Career Award in Science and Engineering.The university has expanded over the past century to include graduate and professional programs in medicine , law, veterinary medicine, education, nursing, and business management, in addition to 90 research programs offered by UC Davis Graduate Studies. UC Davis' School of Veterinary Medicine is the largest in the United States and is ranked second in the nation.The UC Davis Aggies athletic teams compete in the NCAA Division I level, primarily in the Big West Conference as well as the Big Sky Conference and the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. In its first year of full Division I status, 11 UC Davis teams qualified for NCAA post-season competition. Wikipedia.


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Leal W.S.,University of California at Davis
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2013

Our knowledge of the molecular basis of odorant reception in insects has grown exponentially over the past decade. Odorant receptors (ORs) from moths, fruit flies, mosquitoes, and the honey bees have been deorphanized, odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) have been isolated, and the functions of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have been unveiled. OBPs contribute to the sensitivity of the olfactory system by transporting odorants through the sensillar lymph, but there are competing hypotheses on how they act at the end of the journey. A few ODEs that have been demonstrated to degrade odorants rapidly may act in signal inactivation alone or in combination with other molecular traps. Although ORs in Drosophila melanogaster respond to multiple odorants and seem to work in combinatorial code involving both periphery and antennal lobes, reception of sex pheromones by moth ORs suggests that their labeled lines rely heavily on selectivity at the periphery. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Power P.P.,University of California at Davis
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2011

We showed in 2005 that a digermyne, a main group compound with a digermanium core and aromatic substituents, reacted directly with hydrogen at 25 °C and 1 atm to give well-defined hydrogen addition products. This was the first report of a reaction of main group molecules with hydrogen under ambient conditions. Our group and a number of others have since shown that several classes of main group molecules, either alone or in combination, react directly (in some cases reversibly) with hydrogen under mild conditions. Moreover, this reactivity was not limited to hydrogen but also included direct reactions with other important small molecules, including ammonia, boranes, and unactivated olefins such as ethylene. These reactions were largely unanticipated because main group species were generally considered to be too unreactive to effect such transformations.In this Account, we summarize recent developments in the reactions of the multiple bonded and other open shell derivatives of the heavier main group elements with hydrogen, ammonia, olefins, or related molecules. We focus on results generated primarily in our laboratory, which are placed in the context of parallel findings by other researchers. The close relationship between HOMO-LUMO separations, symmetry considerations, and reactivity of the open shell in main group compounds is emphasized, as is their similarity in reactivity to transition metal organometallic compounds.The unexpectedly potent reactivity of the heavier main group species arises from the large differences in bonding between the light and heavy elements. Specifically, the energy levels within the heavier element molecules are separated by much smaller gaps as a result of generally lower bond strengths. In addition, the ordering and symmetries of the energy levels are generally different for their light counterparts. Such differences lie at the heart of the new reactions. Moreover, the reactivity of the molecules can often be interpreted qualitatively in terms of simple molecular orbital considerations. More quantitative explanations are accessible from increasingly sophisticated density functional theory (DFT) calculations.We open with a short description of the background developments that led to this work. These advances involved the synthesis and characterization of numerous new main group molecules involving multiple bonds or unsaturated configurations; they were pursued over the latter part of the last century and the beginning of the new one. The results firmly established that the structures and bonding in the new compounds differed markedly from those of their lighter element congeners. The knowledge gained from this fundamental work provided the framework for an understanding of their structures and bonding, and hence an understanding of the reactivity of the compounds discussed here. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Potassium channels (KChs) are the most diverse ion channels, in part due to extensive combinatorial assembly of a large number of principal and auxiliary subunits into an assortment of KCh complexes. Their structural and functional diversity allows KChs to play diverse roles in neuronal function. Localization of KChs within specialized neuronal compartments defines their physiological role and also fundamentally impacts their activity, due to localized exposure to diverse cellular determinants of channel function. Recent studies in mammalian brain reveal an exquisite refinement of KCh subcellular localization. This includes axonal KChs at the initial segment, and near/within nodes of Ranvier and presynaptic terminals, dendritic KChs found at sites reflecting specific synaptic input, and KChs defining novel neuronal compartments. Painting the remarkable diversity of KChs onto the complex architecture of mammalian neurons creates an elegant picture of electrical signal processing underlying the sophisticated function of individual neuronal compartments, and ultimately neurotransmission and behavior. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Tapley E.C.,University of California at Davis
Current opinion in cell biology | Year: 2013

The nuclear-cytoskeleton connection influences many aspects of cellular architecture, including nuclear positioning, the stiffness of the global cytoskeleton, and mechanotransduction. Central to all of these processes is the assembly and function of conserved SUN-KASH bridges, or LINC complexes, that span the nuclear envelope. Recent studies provide details of the higher order assembly and targeting of SUN proteins to the inner nuclear membrane. Structural studies characterize SUN-KASH interactions that form the central link of the nuclear-envelope bridge. KASH proteins at the outer nuclear membrane link the nuclear envelope to the cytoskeleton where forces are generated to move nuclei. Significantly, SUN proteins were recently shown to contribute to the progression of laminopathies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Scholey J.M.,University of California at Davis
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

Kinesin-2 was first purified as a heterotrimeric, anterograde, microtubule-based motor consisting of two distinct kinesin-related subunits and a novel associated protein (KAP) that is currently best known for its role in intraflagellar transport and ciliogenesis. Subsequent work, however, has revealed diversity in the oligomeric state of different kinesin-2 motors owing to the combinatorial heterodimerization of its subunits and the coexistence of both heterotrimeric and homodimeric kinesin-2 motors in some cells. Although the functional significance of the homo- versus heteromeric organization of kinesin-2 motor subunits and the role of KAP remain uncertain, functional studies suggest that cooperation between different types of kinesin-2 motors or between kinesin-2 and a member of a different motor family can generate diverse patterns of anterograde intracellular transport. Moreover, despite being restricted to ciliated eukaryotes, kinesin-2 motors are now known to drive diverse transport events outside cilia. Here, I review the organization, assembly, phylogeny, biological functions, and motility mechanism of this diverse family of intracellular transport motors. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Louie A.,University of California at Davis
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2010

The design and challenges in multimodality imaging techniques are studied. One of the conceptually simplest approaches to generating multimodal contrast agents is to encapsulate more than one type of contrast agent into the aqueous phase of liposomes. Each approach relies on some method to disperse the lipid in a solution, typically after drying the lipids, so that the lipids may self-assemble into various forms of lipid spheres with aqueous centers. Tissue penetration can be achieved by modifying the lipid composition to one that allows uptake by cells or fusion to cell membranes and release of core contents. In addition to the use of synthetic lipids to form liposomal carriers, multimodal probes have been constructed by loading multiple types of probes to a naturally occurring lipoprotein vehicle, including low-density lipoprotein (LDL) 20 and high density lipoproteins (HDL). One of the most active areas of multimodality probe research has been in nanomaterials, which have proven to lend themselves well to the mixing required to generate multimodal functionality.


Syvanen M.,University of California at Davis
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2012

The flow of genes between different species represents a form of genetic variation whose implications have not been fully appreciated. Here I examine some key findings on the extent of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) revealed by comparative genome analysis and their theoretical implications. In theoretical terms, HGT affects ideas pertaining to the tree of life, the notion of a last universal common ancestor, and the biological unities, as well as the rules of taxonomic nomenclature. This review discusses the emergence of the eukaryotic cell and the occurrence of HGT among metazoan phyla involving both transposable elements and structural genes for normal housekeeping functions. I also discuss the bacterial pangenome, which provides an important case study on the permeability of species boundaries. An interesting observation about bdelloid rotifers and their reversion to asexual reproduction as it pertains to HGT is included. © 2012 by Annual Reviews.


Crutchfield J.P.,University of California at Davis
Nature Physics | Year: 2012

What is a pattern? How do we come to recognize patterns never seen before? Quantifying the notion of pattern and formalizing the process of pattern discovery go right to the heart of physical science. Over the past few decades physics' view of nature's lack of structure-its unpredictability-underwent a major renovation with the discovery of deterministic chaos, overthrowing two centuries of Laplace's strict determinism in classical physics. Behind the veil of apparent randomness, though, many processes are highly ordered, following simple rules. Tools adapted from the theories of information and computation have brought physical science to the brink of automatically discovering hidden patterns and quantifying their structural complexity.


Power P.P.,University of California at Davis
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012

A study was conducted to investigate stable two-coordinate, open-shell (d 1-d 9) transition metal complexes. Investigations revealed that such two-coordinate complexes were gaining popularity due to their magnetic properties. The first structural characterization of a two-coordinate molecular species in the solid state was investigated in 1985 when the synthesis and structure of the dialkyl Mn{C(SiMe 3) 3} 2 were published. The d 1-d 9 electron configurations predicted on the basis of a simple ligand field approach in linear coordination were demonstrated along with their ground states. Investigations of such two-coordinate transition metal hydrides and halides also provided important insights that were applicable to stable two-coordinate complexes.


Bers D.M.,University of California at Davis
Annual Review of Physiology | Year: 2014

Synchronized SR calcium (Ca) release is critical to normal cardiac myocyte excitation-contraction coupling, and ideally this release shuts off completely between heartbeats. However, other SR Ca release events are referred to collectively as SR Ca leak (which includes Ca sparks and waves as well as smaller events not detectable as Ca sparks). Much, but not all, of the SR Ca leak occurs via ryanodine receptors and can be exacerbated in pathological states such as heart failure. The extent of SR Ca leak is important because it can (a) reduce SR Ca available for release, causing systolic dysfunction; (b) elevate diastolic Cai, contributing to diastolic dysfunction; (c) cause triggered arrhythmias; and (d) be energetically costly because of extra ATP used to repump Ca. This review addresses quantitative aspects and manifestations of SR Ca leak and its measurement, and how leak is modulated by Ca, associated proteins, and posttranslational modifications in health and disease. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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