The University of California, Berkeley , is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. According to the 2014 Academic Ranking of World Universities, the University of California, Berkeley is the fourth best university in the world. It is the most selective – and highest ranked in U.S. News and ARWU – public university in the world for undergraduate education. Aside from its academic prestige, UC Berkeley is also well known for producing a high number of entrepreneurs.The university occupies 1,232 acres on the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay with the central campus resting on 178 acres . Berkeley is the flagship institution of the 10 campus University of California system and one of only two UC campuses operating on a semester calendar, the other being UC Merced.Established in 1868 as the result of the merger of the private College of California and the public Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College in Oakland, Berkeley is the oldest institution in the UC system and offers approximately 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. The University of California has been charged with providing both "classical" and "practical" education for the state's people. Cal co-manages three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories, including the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.Berkeley faculty, alumni, and researchers have won 72 Nobel Prizes , 9 Wolf Prizes, 7 Fields Medals, 18 Turing Awards, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, and 11 Pulitzer Prizes. To date, UC Berkeley scientists have discovered 6 chemical elements of the periodic table . Along with Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley researchers have discovered 16 chemical elements in total – more than any other university in the world. Berkeley is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and continues to have very high research activity with $730.7 million in research and development expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2014. Berkeley physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer was the scientific director of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bomb in the world, which he personally headquartered at Los Alamos, New Mexico, during World War II. Faculty member Edward Teller was the "father of the hydrogen bomb". Former United States Secretary of Energy and Nobel laureate Steven Chu , was Director of Berkeley Lab, 2004–2009.The athletic teams at UC Berkeley are known as the California Golden Bears and are members of both the Pacific-12 Conference and the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in the NCAA. Wikipedia.
University of California at Berkeley and Arizona State University | Date: 2016-11-04
Trenched vertical power field-effect transistors with improved on-resistance and/or breakdown voltage are fabricated. In one or more embodiments, the modulation of the current flow of the transistor occurs in the lateral channel, whereas the voltage is predominantly held in the vertical direction in the off-state. When the device is in the on-state, the current is channeled through an aperture in a current-blocking region after it flows under a gate region into the drift region. In another embodiment, a novel vertical power low-loss semiconductor multi-junction device in III-nitride and non-III-nitride material system is provided. One or more multi-junction device embodiments aim at providing enhancement mode (normally-off) operation alongside ultra-low on resistance and high breakdown voltage.
Feldman D.E.,University of California at Berkeley
Neuron | Year: 2012
In spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), the order and precise temporal interval between presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes determine the sign and magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD). STDP is widely utilized in models of circuit-level plasticity, development, and learning. However, spike timing is just one of several factors (including firing rate, synaptic cooperativity, and depolarization) that govern plasticity induction, and its relative importance varies across synapses and activity regimes. This review summarizes this broader view of plasticity, including the forms and cellular mechanisms for the spike-timing dependence of plasticity, and, the evidence that spike timing is an important determinant of plasticity in vivo. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Jagust W.,University of California at Berkeley
Neuron | Year: 2013
Brain aging is characterized by considerable heterogeneity, including varying degrees of dysfunction in specific brain systems, notably a medial temporal lobe memory system and a frontostriatal executive system. These same systems are also affected by neurodegenerative diseases. Recent work using techniques for presymptomatic detection of disease in cognitively normal older people has shown that some of the late life alterations in cognition, neural structure, and function attributed to aging probably reflect early neurodegeneration. However, it has become clear that these same brain systems are also vulnerable to aging in the absence of even subtle disease. Thus, fundamental systemic limitations appear to confer vulnerability of these neural systems to a variety of insults, including those recognized as typical disease and those that are attributed to age. By focusing on the fundamental causes of neural system vulnerability, the prevention or treatment of a wide range of late-life neural dysfunction might be possible.
Park H.,University of California at Berkeley |
Poo M.-M.,University of California at Berkeley
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2013
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-a member of a small family of secreted proteins that includes nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3 and neurotrophin 4-has emerged as a key regulator of neural circuit development and function. The expression, secretion and actions of BDNF are directly controlled by neural activity, and secreted BDNF is capable of mediating many activity-dependent processes in the mammalian brain, including neuronal differentiation and growth, synapse formation and plasticity, and higher cognitive functions. This Review summarizes some of the recent progress in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurotrophin regulation of neural circuits. The focus of the article is on BDNF, as this is the most widely expressed and studied neurotrophin in the mammalian brain. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Wallis J.D.,University of California at Berkeley
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2012
Recent work has emphasized the role that orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has in value-based decision-making. However, it is also clear that a number of discrepancies have arisen when comparing the findings from animal models to those from humans. Here, we examine several possibilities that might explain these discrepancies, including anatomical difference between species, the behavioral tasks used to probe decision-making and the methodologies used to assess neural function. Understanding how these differences affect the interpretation of experimental results will help us to better integrate future results from animal models. This will enable us to fully realize the benefits of using multiple approaches to understand OFC function. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
Guzman M.G.,University of California at Berkeley
Lancet | Year: 2015
Dengue viruses have spread rapidly within countries and across regions in the past few decades, resulting in an increased frequency of epidemics and severe dengue disease, hyperendemicity of multiple dengue virus serotypes in many tropical countries, and autochthonous transmission in Europe and the USA. Today, dengue is regarded as the most prevalent and rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease of human beings. Importantly, the past decade has also seen an upsurge in research on dengue virology, pathogenesis, and immunology and in development of antivirals, vaccines, and new vector-control strategies that can positively impact dengue control and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bachtrog D.,University of California at Berkeley
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2013
The human Y chromosome is intriguing not only because it harbours the master-switch gene that determines gender but also because of its unusual evolutionary history. The Y chromosome evolved from an autosome, and its evolution has been characterized by massive gene decay. Recent whole-genome and transcriptome analyses of Y chromosomes in humans and other primates, in Drosophila species and in plants have shed light on the current gene content of the Y chromosome, its origins and its long-term fate. Furthermore, comparative analysis of young and old Y chromosomes has given further insights into the evolutionary and molecular forces triggering Y-chromosome degeneration and into the evolutionary destiny of the Y chromosome. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Lisch D.,University of California at Berkeley
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2013
For decades, transposable elements have been known to produce a wide variety of changes in plant gene expression and function. This has led to the idea that transposable element activity has played a key part in adaptive plant evolution. This Review describes the kinds of changes that transposable elements can cause, discusses evidence that those changes have contributed to plant evolution and suggests future strategies for determining the extent to which these changes have in fact contributed to plant adaptation and evolution. Recent advances in genomics and phenomics for a range of plant species, particularly crops, have begun to allow the systematic assessment of these questions. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Levine M.,University of California at Berkeley
Cell | Year: 2011
The textbook view of gene activation is that the rate-limiting step is the interaction of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with the gene's promoter. However, studies in a variety of systems, including human embryonic stem cells and the early Drosophila embryo, have begun to challenge this view. There is increasing evidence that differential gene expression often depends on the regulation of transcription elongation via the release of Pol II from the proximal promoter. I review the implications of this mechanism of gene activation with respect to the orderly unfolding of complex gene networks governing animal development. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Hartwig J.F.,University of California at Berkeley
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012
Methods that functionalize C-H bonds can lead to new approaches for the synthesis of organic molecules, but to achieve this goal, researchers must develop site-selective reactions that override the inherent reactivity of the substrates. Moreover, reactions are needed that occur with high turnover numbers and with high tolerance for functional groups if the C-H bond functionalization is to be applied to the synthesis of medicines or materials. This Account describes the discovery and development of the C-H bond functionalization of aliphatic and aromatic C-H bonds with borane and silane reagents. The fundamental principles that govern the reactivity of intermediates containing metal-boron bonds are emphasized and how an understanding of the effects of the ligands on this reactivity led us to broaden the scope of main group reagents that react under mild conditions to generate synthetically useful organosilanes is described. Complexes containing a covalent bond between a transition metal and a three-coordinate boron atom (boryl complexes) are unusually reactive toward the cleavage of typically unreactive C-H bonds.Moreover, this C-H bond cleavage leads to the formation of free, functionalized product by rapid coupling of the hydrocarbyl and boryl ligands. The initial observation of the borylation of arenes and alkanes in stoichiometric processes led to catalytic systems for the borylation of arenes and alkanes with diboron compounds (diborane(4) reagents) and boranes. In particular, complexes based on the Cp*Rh (in which Cp is the cyclopentadienyl anion) fragment catalyze the borylation of alkanes, arenes, amines, ethers, ketals, and haloalkanes. Although less reactive toward alkyl C-H bonds than the Cp*Rh systems, catalysts generated from the combination of bipyridines and iridium(I)-olefin complexes have proven to be the most reactive catalysts for the borylation of arenes. The reactions catalyzed by these complexes form arylboronates from arenes with site-selectivity for C-H bond cleavage that depends on the steric accessibility of the C-H bonds. These complexes also catalyze the borylation of heteroarenes, and the selectivity for these substrates ismore dependent on electronic effects than the borylation of arenes. The products from the borylation of arenes and heteroarenes are suitable for a wide range of subsequent conversions to phenols, arylamines, aryl ethers, aryl nitriles, aryl halides, arylboronic acids, and aryl trifluoroborates. Studies of the electronic properties of the ancillary ligand on the rate of the reaction show that the flat structure and the strong electron-donating property of the bipyridine ligands, along with the strong electron-donating property of the boryl group and the presence of a p-orbital on the metal-bound atom, lead to the increased reactivity of the iridium catalysts. Based on this hypothesis, we studied catalysts containing substituted phenanthroline ligands for a series of additional transformations, including the silylation of C-H bonds. A sequence involving the silylation of benzylic alcohols, followed by the dehydrogenative silylation of aromatic C-H bonds, leads to an overall directed silylation of the C-H bond ortho to hydroxyl functionality. © 2011 American Chemical Society.