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Manizales, Colombia

The University of Caldas , is a public, coeducational, research university based in Manizales, Caldas, Colombia. It is the most important higher education institution in the Department of Caldas alongside the National University of Colombia. The university was created by ordinance No. 006 of May 24, 1943, by the Departmental Assembly. Its main campus, known also as Campus Universitario Principal , hosts the faculties of Natural and Exact science and Engineering. It also possesses four more campuses: Palogrande Campus which hosts the Faculty of Law and Social science; Sancancio Campus which hosts the Faculty of Agricultural science; Versalles Campus which hosts the Faculty of Health science and the Bellas Artes Campus that hosts the Faculty of Arts and Humanities. The university offers education at undergraduate and postgraduate levels and has been recognized with the level of "Accreditation of High Quality" awarded by the National Accreditation Council for 4 years. Wikipedia.

This paper clarifies the status of the species of the genus Markia White, 1862, also providing new distribution data. It describes M. erinaceus from Peru, M. arizae n.sp. from the Amazonian foothills of Colombia and Ecuador, M. sarriai n.sp. from the Colombian Biogeographic Chocó, M. espinachi n.sp. from Costa Rica; as well as the true male of M. major (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878), clarifying the real distributional range this latter species. M. longivertex n. syn., is proposed as a synonym of M. major. The colour polymorphism in M. hystrix (Westwood, 1844) is discussed and its distribution range is defined. A key to the species of Markia is provided. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

Lizarazo I.,University of Caldas
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation

Fuzzy image segmentation was proposed recently as an alternative GEOBIA method for conducting discrete land cover classification. In this paper, a variant of fuzzy segmentation is applied for continuous land cover change analysis. The method comprises two main stages: (i) estimation of compositional land cover for each data by fuzzy segmentation; and (ii) change analysis using a fuzzy change matrix. The fuzzy segmentation stage outputs fuzzy-crisp and crisp-fuzzy image regions whose spectral and geometric properties are measured to populate the set of predictors used to estimate land cover at single dates. The variant of fuzzy image segmentation is implemented using advanced machine learning techniques and tested in a rapidly urbanizing area using Landsat multi-spectral imagery. Experimental results suggest that the method produces accurate characterization of continuous land cover classes. Thus, the proposed method is potentially useful for enhancing the current GEOBIA perspective which focuses mainly on discrete land cover classifications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Sanin D.,University of Caldas
Plant Ecology and Evolution

Background and aims In a treatment of Serpocaulon for Colombia, a new species was found with pinnatisect laminae, patent rhizome scales and long creeping rhizome. The aim of this paper is to describe this new species and distinguish it from the most morphologically similar one, S. eleutherophlebium. Methods Specimens and digital images from CAUP, CHOCO, COL, CUVC, MO, NY, P and PSO herbaria were studied. From the literature 59 morphological characters were selected (41 were qualitative and eighteen quantitative). The minimum, medium and maximum values were calculated for the quantitative characters, them along with the qualitative characters were used for the description and the key. Its conservation status was assessed using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Key results Serpocaulon obscurinervium D.Sanín sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It resembles S. eleutherophlebium, by pinnatisect laminae, long creeping rhizome, and patent rhizome scales, but it differs by rhizome scales linear-lanceolate (versus subulate), dark orange (versus dark brown), larger size (5.2-(6.3)-8.5 mm) (versus 3.5-(5.1)-7.1 × 0.5-(1.1)-1.7 mm), more areolae per segment, the fertile veinlets are inconspicuous (versus conspicuous), and have trichomes in the blade and rachis (versus trichomes absent). The new species is known from three localities at the western Andes of Colombia and one from the eastern Andes of Ecuador. A key to the Colombian and Ecuadorian species of Serpocaulon with pinnatisect lamina and patent scales is provided. The species is considered as Endangered (EN). © 2014 Botanic Garden Meise and Royal Botanical Society of Belgium. Source

In this paper seven new species are described: Machimoides sofiae n. sp., from the Colombian Andes, Lichenodraculus holgeri n. sp., from the Guiana Shield and Venezuelan Amazon, Markia nicolasi n. sp., from Costa Rica, M. agudeloi n. sp., from Guyana (previously British Guiana) near the border with Suriname, M. bolivarensis n. sp., from the states of Bolívar and Amazonas in Venezuela (located on the Guiana Shield), M. guerreroi n. sp., and M. gaianii n. sp., from the Venezuelan Andes. A female of Apolinaria hygracantha (Karsch, 1896) is described and illustrated. Keys to species of all genera treated here are provided. The distribution of the genera Markia and Machimoides is discussed; for the latter genus discussion focuses on the current status of its species. Description of new species treated herein expands considerably the distribution range of the genera studied, also the generic diagnostic characters are enriched and reinforced. Source

Lizarazo I.,University of Caldas
Remote Sensing Letters

Image objects obtained by segmentation usually provide a much more reliable representation of real world objects than individual pixels. However, in regions with high quality spatial information, image analysis should focus on objects of interest rather than artificial image objects. A simple method for applying this object-oriented approach consists of converting existing vector geographic information system (GIS) data into raster objects. A problem with this method is that it may produce image objects with saw-toothed edges which barely match measured objects boundaries. In order to address such a problem, a method for adjusting boundaries of image objects is proposed. The new method uses a vector square grid for pixel representation. Vector-based image objects exhibit boundaries which better reproduce the shape and appearance of GIS objects. The proposed approach was applied to extract geometric and biophysical properties of agricultural plots from remotely sensed imagery. Results suggest that vector-based image objects provide much more accurate values than raster-based image objects. © 2012 Taylor & Francis. Source

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