Calabar, Nigeria
Calabar, Nigeria

The University of Calabar - also known as UNICAL - is a university situated in Calabar, Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria. It is one of Nigeria's second generation universities. The University of Calabar was a campus of the University of Nigeria until 1975. The architecture was designed by John Elliott. It was established by decree to fulfill this traditional mandate, its motto “Knowledge for Service”.The Vice Chancellor is Prof James Epoke. The Registrar is Dr. Mrs. Julia Omang. The University of Calabar was one of the foremost Nigerian Universities to automate students' registration processes through the College Portal, and has taken a step further to automate her alumni relations which includes an online transcript request and processing first of its kind in the country.The male students are known as Malabites, while the female students are Malabresses. The male hostel is called Malabo. This was a result of challenges faced by the students at a time which coincided with the suffering experienced in Malabo by Nigerian deportees from Equatorial Guinea at the time. Wikipedia.

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Okafor I.M.,University of Calabar
Nigerian journal of physiological sciences : official publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria | Year: 2017

Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Iron deficiency is one of the major causes of anaemia in pregnancy.  Inadequate iron intake during pregnancy can be dangerous to both baby and mother. Iron status of pregnant women was assessed in two rural and one urban communities in Cross River State Nigeria. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, red cell count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio were measured in plasma/serum of 170 pregnant women within the age range of 15-45 years. Seventy participants were from antenatal clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar (urban community), 50 from St Joseph Hospital Ikot Ene (rural community) in Akpabuyo Local Government Area and the remaining 50 from University of Calabar Teaching Hospital   extension clinic in Okoyong (rural community), Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River state. The prevalence of   anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia were found to be significantly higher among pregnant women from the two rural communities when compared to the urban community. it was also observed that  the prevalence of  anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia   were significantly higher (p<0.05) among pregnant women from Akpabuyo   38(76.00%),   20(40.00%),   23(46.0%)   ,   16(32.00%)   respectively followed   by  Okoyong 24(48.0%),  20(40.0%),  16(32.0%),  6(12.0)     and  then  those  from     Calabar  14(20%), 12(17.90%) , 14(20.0%).  The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly reduced in pregnant women from the two rural communities. Serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation showed no significant difference while total iron binding capacity and soluble transferrin receptor significantly increased among pregnant women from Okoyong when compared to those from Calabar. It was also shown that pregnant women in their third trimesters and multigravidae had the highest prevalence of iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia while prevalence of iron deficiency and anaemia were higher in primigravidae and the pregnant women in their second trimester. In conclusion, this study has shown that the prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia are higher among pregnant women in the rural communities when compared to those in the urban areas.

Oringanje C.,University of Calabar
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder involving a defect in the red blood cells due to its sickled hemoglobin. The main therapeutic interventions include preventive and supportive measures. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantations are carried out with the aim of replacing the defective cells and their progenitors (hematopoietic (i.e. blood forming) stem cells) in order to correct the disorder. To determine whether stem cell transplantation can improve survival and prevent symptoms and complications associated with sickle cell disease. To examine the risks of stem cell transplantation against the potential long-term gain for people with sickle cell disease. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register complied from electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (updated each new issue of The Cochrane Library) and quarterly searches of MEDLINE.Unpublished work was identified by searching the abstract books of major conference proceedings and we conducted a search of the website: of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 16 August 2012. Randomized controlled and quasi-randomized studies that compared any method of stem cell transplantation with either each other or with any of the preventive or supportive interventions (e.g. periodic blood transfusion, use of hydroxyurea, antibiotics, pain relievers, supplemental oxygen) in people with sickle cell disease irrespective of the type of sickle cell disease, gender and setting. No relevant trials were identified. Ten trials were identified by the initial search and none for the update. None of these trials were suitable for inclusion in this review. Reports on the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation improving survival and preventing symptoms and complications associated with sickle cell disease are currently limited to observational and other less robust studies. No randomized controlled trial assessing the benefit or risk of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations was found. Thus, this systematic review identifies the need for a multicentre randomized controlled trial assessing the benefits and possible risks of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations comparing sickle status and severity of disease in people with sickle cell disease.

Akpan-Idiok A.U.,University of Calabar
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

The aim of this research was to study the physicochemical properties, degradation rates and vulnerability potential of coastal plain soils and suggest appropriate management strategies. Twenty composite soil samples (0-15 and 15-30 cm) collected from agricultural lands at ten locations in Akpabuyo Local Government Area of Cross River State of Nigeria were studied. The soils were characterized as follows: texture of loamy sand surface overlying sandy loam subsurface; pH (4.9-5.2), organic carbon (4.2-26.5 g kg-1), total nitrogen (0.4-2.2 g kg-1), carbon-nitrogen ratio (11-18), available P (45-73 mg kg-1), effective Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) (2.63-5.52 cmol kg-1), base saturation (39-92%), Ca:Mg ratio (1.50-3.00) and Mg:K ratio (2.94-20.00). The Sou Degradation Rate (SDR)/Vulnerability potential (Vp) weighted values of texture (4/2), soil pH^oi (5/1), organic carbon (4/2), total nitrogen (1/5) and effective cation exchange capacity (2/4) showed susceptibility of the soils to degradation or vulnerability. The soils could be managed by liming, planting of acid tolerant species and adopting appropriate cultural practices. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

Ikpeme I.A.,University of Calabar
African health sciences | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Pyogenic osteomyelitis is still frequently seen in the developing world and the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis presents a considerable challenge despite advances in microbiological techniques, antibiotics and surgical techniques. Acute haematogenous osteomyelitis is commoner in children. RESULTS: In the pre-antibiotic era, mortality rate was high and progression to chronic osteomyelitis was common. A near similar scenario still exists in many developing countries due to the combination of inappropriate and/or inadequate antibiotic therapy, delayed presentation and unorthodox interventions by traditional healers. DISCUSSION: Chronic osteomyelitis may result from poorly treated or untreated acute osteomyelitis, open fractures, surgery for an array of orthopaedic conditions and from contiguous spread from infected soft tissue as may occur in diabetic foot infections. A large array of treatment techniques hinged on sequestrectomy/ debridement, management of dead space, improvement of oxygenation and perfusion to ischaemic tissue exist. Despite these, total eradication of disease is difficult. CONCLUSION: This article summarizes the pathology and methods of management available for pyogenic osteomyelitis. In its acute and chronic forms, the disease is likely to remain prevalent in the developing world until issues of ignorance, poverty and prompt access to appropriate and efficacious medical care are addressed.

Oyo-Ita A.,University of Calabar
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Injury to the abdomen can be blunt or penetrating. Abdominal injury can damage internal organs such as the liver, spleen, kidneys, and intestine. There are controversies about the best approach to manage abdominal injuries. To assess the effects of surgical and non-surgical interventions in the management of abdominal trauma. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, issue 1), MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), and ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) all until January 2012; CINAHL until January 2009. We also searched the reference lists of all eligible studies and the trial registers and in January 2012. Randomised controlled trials of surgical and non surgical interventions among patients with abdominal injury who are haemodynamically stable and with no signs of peritonitis. Two review authors independently applied the search criteria. One study involving participants with penetrating abdominal injury met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two authors using a standard data extraction form. One study including 51 participants with moderate risk of bias was included. Participants were randomised to surgery or an observation protocol. There were no deaths among the participants. Seven participants had complications; 5 (18.5%) in the surgical group and 2 (8.3%) in the non-surgical group; the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.42; Fischer's exact). Among the 27 who had surgery six (22.2%) surgeries were negative laparotomies, and 15 (55.6%) were non-therapeutic. Based on the findings of one study involving 51 participants, which was at moderate risk of bias, there is no evidence to support the use of surgery over observation for people with abdominal trauma.

Meremikwu M.M.,University of Calabar
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

In malaria endemic areas, pre-school children are at high risk of severe and repeated malaria illness. One possible public health strategy, known as Intermittent Preventive Treatment in children (IPTc), is to treat all children for malaria at regular intervals during the transmission season, regardless of whether they are infected or not. To evaluate the effects of IPTc to prevent malaria in preschool children living in endemic areas with seasonal malaria transmission. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (July 2011), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1966 to July 2011), EMBASE (1974 to July 2011), LILACS (1982 to July 2011), mRCT (July 2011), and reference lists of identified trials. We also contacted researchers working in the field for unpublished and ongoing trials. Individually randomized and cluster-randomized controlled trials of full therapeutic dose of antimalarial or antimalarial drug combinations given at regular intervals compared with placebo or no preventive treatment in children aged six years or less living in an area with seasonal malaria transmission. Two authors independently assessed eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the trials. Data were meta-analysed and measures of effects (ie rate ratio, risk ratio and mean difference) are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE methods. Seven trials (12,589 participants), including one cluster-randomized trial, met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in West Africa, and six of seven trials were restricted to children aged less than 5 years.IPTc prevents approximately three quarters of all clinical malaria episodes (rate ratio 0.26; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.38; 9321 participants, six trials, high quality evidence), and a similar proportion of severe malaria episodes (rate ratio 0.27, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.76; 5964 participants, two trials, high quality evidence). These effects remain present even where insecticide treated net (ITN) usage is high (two trials, 5964 participants, high quality evidence).IPTc probably produces a small reduction in all-cause mortality consistent with the effect on severe malaria, but the trials were underpowered to reach statistical significance (risk ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.39, moderate quality evidence).The effect on anaemia varied between studies, but the risk of moderately severe anaemia is probably lower with IPTc (risk ratio 0.71, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.98; 8805 participants, five trials, moderate quality evidence).Serious drug-related adverse events, if they occur, are probably rare, with none reported in the six trials (9533 participants, six trials, moderate quality evidence). Amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine is the most studied drug combination for seasonal chemoprevention. Although effective, it causes increased vomiting in this age-group (risk ratio 2.78, 95% CI 2.31 to 3.35; two trials, 3544 participants, high quality evidence).When antimalarial IPTc was stopped, no rebound increase in malaria was observed in the three trials which continued follow-up for one season after IPTc. In areas with seasonal malaria transmission, giving antimalarial drugs to preschool children (age < 6 years) as IPTc during the malaria transmission season markedly reduces episodes of clinical malaria, including severe malaria. This benefit occurs even in areas where insecticide treated net usage is high.

Oduwole O.,University of Calabar
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Cough causes concern for parents and is a major cause of outpatient visits. It can impact on quality of life, cause anxiety and affect sleep in parents and children. Several remedies, including honey, have been used to alleviate cough symptoms. To evaluate the effectiveness of honey for acute cough in children in ambulatory settings. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2011) which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register; MEDLINE (1950 to December week 4, 2011); EMBASE (1990 to January 2012); CINAHL (1981 to January 2012); Web of Science (2000 to January 2012); AMED (1985 to January 2012); LILACS (1982 to January 2012); and CAB abstracts (2009 to January 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing honey given alone, or in combination with antibiotics, versus nothing, placebo or other over-the-counter (OTC) cough medications to participants aged from two to 18 years for acute cough in ambulatory settings. Two review authors independently screened search results for eligible studies and extracted data on reported outcomes. We included two RCTs of high risk of bias involving 265 children. The studies compared the effect of honey with dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine and 'no treatment' on symptomatic relief of cough using the 7-point Likert scale.Honey was better than 'no treatment' in reducing frequency of cough (mean difference (MD) -1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.53 to -0.60; two studies; 154 participants). Moderate quality evidence suggests honey did not differ significantly from dextromethorphan in reducing cough frequency (MD -0.07; 95% CI -1.07 to 0.94; two studies; 149 participants). Low quality evidence suggests honey may be slightly better than diphenhydramine in reducing cough frequency (MD -0.57; 95% CI -0.90 to -0.24; one study; 80 participants).Adverse events included mild reactions (nervousness, insomnia and hyperactivity) experienced by seven children (9.3%) from the honey group and two (2.7%) from the dextromethorphan group; the difference was not significant (risk ratio (RR) 2.94; 95% Cl 0.74 to 11.71; two studies; 149 participants). Three children (7.5%) in the diphenhydramine group experienced somnolence (RR 0.14; 95% Cl 0.01 to 2.68; one study; 80 participants) but there was no significant difference between honey versus dextromethorphan or honey versus diphenhydramine. No adverse event was reported in the 'no treatment' group. Honey may be better than 'no treatment' and diphenhydramine in the symptomatic relief of cough but not better than dextromethorphan. There is no strong evidence for or against the use of honey.

Meremikwu M.M.,University of Calabar
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Fever is common in malaria, and drugs and sponging are widely used for symptomatic relief. Some researchers have suggested that fever reduction may prolong malaria illness. We aimed to assess whether treatments to reduce fever in malaria influence the course of the illness. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Trial Register (June 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 6, 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2012); EMBASE (1980 to June 2012) and LILACS (June 2012). We contacted researchers and organisations working in the field to enable us identify other unpublished or ongoing trials. Randomized controlled trials of fever reduction measures in adults or children with confirmed malaria. Inclusion criteria were independently applied by two authors. We extracted data from trials that met our pre-specified criteria using a standard data extraction form. Mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for continuous data. GRADE was used to evaluate and summarize the quality of the evidence. Ten randomized controlled trials with 990 participants including both adults and children met our inclusion criteria. All were small scale trials with methodological limitations and were conducted in a variety of patients. Some trials detected an impact of antipyretic drugs on fever clearance time, while others did not. Regarding parasite clearance,no clear influence of anti-pyresis was demonstrated (six trials, 423 participants, very low quality of evidence). No difference in the number or severity of adverse events between antipyretic drugs and control was detected. We do not know whether antipyretics alter parasite clearance time. Whether further trials are worthwhile to investigate this or not would require a judgement of whether this was an important question to resolve using interventional trials.

Ani O.E.,University of Calabar
Electronic Library | Year: 2010

Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and level of internet access and use by undergraduate students in three Nigerian universities as well as the electronic resources used by these students on the internet. Design/methodology/approach-A questionnaire survey was the research method used for data collection. Questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate students in three public universities in Nigeria: University of Calabar, Calabar; University of Uyo, Uyo, and Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Findings-The findings of the study reveal that the internet is extensively used by undergraduate students in the surveyed universities. There is inequitable access to the internet, as students mostly rely on private/commercial internet cybercafs-both on and off campuses-for their access and use. Access to the internet in the university libraries, departments/faculties and university computer/ICT centers is grossly poor; this is due to lack of poor internet infrastructure and connectivity and non-sustainable internet services in these universities. In spite of the extensive use of the internet, there exists a poor level of use of electronic resources such as the electronic journals and online databases which are essential for learning and research. The findings of the study have also revealed the need for effective user education on internet access and use in university libraries in Nigeria for optimal utilization of electronic information sources. Originality/value-The paper will be useful for those in decision-making roles as it reveals the need for the provision of relevant internet infrastructural facilities in Nigerian universities to enhance equitable and sustainable access to the internet by the students to support their academic activities. © 2010 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.

Bello S.,University of Calabar
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Reduced vitamin A concentration increases the risk of blindness in children infected with the measles virus. Promoting vitamin A supplementation in children with measles contributes to the control of blindness in children, which is a high priority within the World Health Organization (WHO) VISION 2020 The Right to Sight Program. To assess the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in children with measles without prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. We searched CENTRAL (2011, issue 1), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1950 to January 2011), (1974 to January 2011) and LILACS (1985 to January 2011). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in well-nourished children diagnosed with measles but with no prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. Two review authors independently searched the results for eligible studies and extracted data on reported outcomes. We contacted trial authors of the included studies for additional information on unpublished data. We included two RCTs which were clinically heterogenous. We presented the continuous outcomes reported as the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Due to marked clinical heterogeneity we considered it inappropriate to perform a meta-analysis. Two RCTs involving 260 children with measles which compared vitamin A with placebo met the inclusion criteria. Neither study reported blindness or other ocular morbidities as end points. One trial of moderate quality suggested evidence of a significant increase in serum retinol levels in the vitamin A group one week after two doses of vitamin A (MD 9.45 μg/dL; 95% CI 2.19 to 16.71, 17 participants) but not six weeks after three doses of vitamin A (MD 2.56 μg/dL; 95% CI -5.28 to 10.40; 39 participants). There was no significant difference in weight gain six weeks (MD 0.39 kg; -0.04 to 0.82; 48 participants) and six months (MD 0.52 kg; 95% CI -0.08 to 1.12; 36 participants) after three doses of vitamin A. The second trial found no significant difference in serum retinol levels two weeks after a single dose of vitamin A (MD 2.67 μg/dL; 95% CI -0.29 to 5.63, 155 participants). We did not find any trials assessing whether or not vitamin A supplementation in children with measles prevents blindness. However, vitamin A use in children should be encouraged for its proven clinical benefits.

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