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Caen, France

The University of Caen Lower Normandy, or Caen University is a university in Caen, in France. Wikipedia.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a multifunctional steroid with a broad range of biological effects in humans and animals. DHEA can be converted to multiple oxygenated metabolites in the brain and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms by which DHEA exerts its effects are not well understood. However, evidence that the effects of DHEA are mediated by its oxygenated metabolites has accumulated. This paper will review the panel of oxygenated DHEA metabolites (7, 16 and 17-hydroxylated derivatives) including a number of 5α-androstane derivatives, such as epiandrosterone (EpiA) metabolites. The most important aspects of the oxidative metabolism of DHEA in the liver, intestine and brain are described. Then, this article reviews the reported biological effects of oxygenated DHEA metabolites from recent findings with a specific focus on cancer, inflammatory and immune processes, osteoporosis, thermogenesis, adipogenesis, the cardiovascular system, the brain and the estrogen and androgen receptors. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Several risk factors for depression during pregnancy have already been established. However, very few studies have conducted a multivariate analysis incorporating both the major predictors of depression in women, in accordance with comprehensive developmental models of depression, and specific stressors associated with the biological and psychosocial state of the mother-to-be. We used a cross-sectional cohort design to analyze the associations between prenatal depression and potential risk factors. 693 French-speaking women with singleton pregnancies at 20-28 weeks' gestation were consecutively recruited at Caen University Hospital. Fifty women with missing values were subsequently excluded from the analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Risk factors were either extracted from the computerized obstetric records or assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. The associations between prenatal depression and the potential risk factors were assessed using log-binomial regression models to obtain a direct estimate of relative risk (RR). The following factors were found to be significant in the multivariate analysis: level of education (p<0.001), past psychiatric history (adjusted RR=1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1;2.8, p=0.014), stress related to the health and viability of the fetus (adjusted RR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.6;4.1, p<0.001), and stress related to severe marital conflicts (adjusted RR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.5;3.9, p<0.001) or to serious difficulties at work (adjusted RR=1.6, 95% CI :1.04;2.4, p=0.031). An association was also found with the previous delivery of a child with a major or minor birth defect (adjusted RR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.04;4.0, p=0.038). Univariate analyses revealed a strong association with childhood adversity (parental rejection: RR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.2;2.8, p=0.0055 and family secrets: RR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2;3.1, p=0.0046) and with lack of partner support (RR=0.50, 95% CI: 0.30;0.84, p=0.0086). Our study identifies several risk factors that could easily be assessed in clinical practice. It draws attention to the impact of previously delivering a child with a birth defect. The association with childhood adversity warrants further study. Source

Vernoux J.-P.,University of Caen Lower Normandy
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2011

Shellfish farming is a common industry along European coasts. According to the 2005-2006 data from the French National Shellfish Farming Committee (CNC - Comité National de la Conchyliculture 2010; see Table 1 for a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in this chapter), Spain is the largest shellfish producer in Europe (∼270,000 t) and France ranks second, producing 200,000 t of shellfish annually. France is the leading European oyster producer, with an annual output of 130,000 t of Crassostrea gigas, and ranks fourth in the world after China, Japan, and Korea. The top three European mussel (Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis) producers are Spain (260,000 t), Denmark (80,000 t), and France (65,000 t). For other shellfish, the French annual output level is 15,000 t for king scallops (Pecten maximus) and a few thousand tons for Ruditapes clams (Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum) and cockles (Cerastoderma edule). The economic impact of shellfish farming is considerable; despite fairly long production lead times and difficult operating conditions, shellfish farming generates annual sales of more than 650 million Euros in France, owing to its high added value. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Carreau S.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Hess R.A.,Urbana University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

The role of oestrogens in male reproductive tract physiology has for a long time been a subject of debate. The testis produces significant amounts of oestrogenic hormones, via aromatase, and oestrogen receptors (ERs) a (ESR1) and ERß (ESR2) are selectively expressed in cells of the testis as well as the epididymal epithelium, depending upon species. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the presence and activity of aromatase and ERs in testis and sperm and the potential roles that oestrogens may have in mammalian spermatogenesis. Data show that physiology of the male gonad is in part under the control of a balance of androgens and oestrogens, with aromatase serving as a modulator. ©2010 The Royal Society. Source

Compounds are provided according to Formula (I) as well as their enantiomers and their racemics, their acid salts, their hydrates or their solvation products. Among a large number of possible meanings, X represents a halogen, Y an oxygen atom; all of the coefficients m, n, r and s have the value 1, R represents an ethyl and R a cycloalkyl. The invention also includes Methods of preparing the above compounds and the pharmaceutical compositions containing them also are provided.

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