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Wand R.,University of Business and Technology | Leuthold F.,Economy Energy
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

This paper examines the potential effects of Germany's feed-in tariff policy for small roof-top solar PV systems installed between 2009 and 2030. Employing a partial equilibrium approach, we evaluate the policy by weighing the benefits from induced learning and avoided environmental externalities against the social costs of promoting residential PV. We use a dynamic optimization model that maximizes social welfare by accounting for learning-by-doing, technology diffusion, and yield-dependent demand. We find a wide range of effects on welfare, from net social costs of 2014. million. € under a " business as usual" scenario to 7586. million. € of net benefits under the positive prospects of PV's development. Whereas the " business as usual" scenario underestimates actual price reductions, the positive scenario mirrors recent price developments and feed-in tariffs in the German residential PV market. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Tseng M.-L.,University of Business and Technology | Chiu A.S.F.,De La Salle University - Manila
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

There has been an increasing interest towards firms' environmental sustainability activities to improve practices in their supply chain. Stringent environmental regulations in Europe and US challenge manufacturers to comply with these without losing their competitiveness. This study illustrates the case of a printed circuit board manufacturer in Taiwan that seeks to implement green supply chain management (GSCM) and selects a green supplier to meet its requirements. Choosing the suitable supplier is a key strategic direction in eliminating environmental impact on supply chain management for manufacturing firms. The firm's criteria and supplier selection need to be unified as a system to improve the firm's performance. This study identified the appropriate environmental and non-environmental GSCM criteria for the case firm and developed the following selection method: (i) evaluate the weights of criteria and alternatives as described both by qualitative and quantitative information; and (ii) rank alternative suppliers using a grey relational analysis. The result shows Alternative 3 ranks first among the four evaluated suppliers and demonstrated strong performance in the top three important criteria, namely, environmental management systems, profitability of supplier and relationship supplier closeness. Additionally, the perception weights on criteria itself are same as the most top five in weighted alternative. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

New technologies have been recognized as key drivers for corporate profitability and growth in todays fast changing environments, especially in new materials field. However, little has been done in discussing the technology diffusion on the topic of new materials. In this study, we investigate the diffusion of advanced ceramic powders technology using patent citation data. We also adopt the sales data of the advanced ceramic powders for measuring the new material diffusion. At last we analyze the relationship between technology diffusion and material diffusion through the Bass diffusion model. The results show that the diffusion of technology through patent citation could be successfully explained by empirical analysis for which the Bass diffusion model was adopted. Furthermore, we can find out if technology diffusion can be the leading indicator of a new materials diffusion before its launching which is before the commercialization of the patent. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Undoubtedly, no specific method exists to measure the cost of displeasure among employees due to unpleasant or non-ergonomic work conditions. Despite the financial impact of these hidden costs on organizations' performance, these types of expenses are usually ignored. The intangible costs are insubstantial and represent expenses that have no common quantity or labeled value attached to them. Estimating intangible costs related to work conditions based on stress level among employees is a technique that attempts to formulize a multidimensional relationship between input qualitative variables related to the state of work conditions or work injuries and the monetary value of the hidden costs encountered with them. This technique approaches the problem from a unique standpoint, revealing the concealed effect of the state of disorder of the production system and the stress level among employees that impact the overall efficiency. In addition, the influence of the stress level on the invisible costs of the optimal amount of labor and capital due to reduced ergonomic work conditions will be investigated over both the short run and the long run. Finally, the effect of work conditions on profit-cost-volume and the breakeven quantity will be formulated. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Abrell J.,University of Business and Technology
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment | Year: 2010

This paper analyzes the use of market-based emission regulation instruments to address the carbon dioxide emissions of transportation. Simulations with a static multi-region computable general equilibrium model show that including transportation into the European emission trading system is superior to a closed emission trading system for transportation or a tax-based approach. Furthermore, we show that exempting transportation from emission regulation is the most favorable approach in terms of welfare. This counterintuitive result is due to a large tax-interaction effect caused by high pre-existing fuel taxes in the transport sector. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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