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Halvari A.E.M.,University of Oslo | Halvari H.,University of Business and Social Sciences | Bjornebekk G.,The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development | Deci E.L.,University of Rochester
Health Psychology | Year: 2012

Objective: The present study tested the hypotheses that: (a) a dental intervention designed to promote dental care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, would positively predict perceived clinician autonomy support and patient autonomous motivation for the project, increases in autonomous motivation for dental home care, perceived dental competence, and dental behaviors, and decreases in both dental plaque and gingivitis over 5.5 months; and (b) the self-determination theory process model with the intervention and individual differences in autonomy orientation positively predicting project autonomous motivation and increases in perceived dental competence, both of which would be associated with increases in dental behavior, which would, in turn, lead to decreased plaque and gingivitis. Methods: A randomized two-group experiment was conducted at a dental clinic with 141 patients (Mage = 23.31 years, SD = 3.5), with pre- and postmeasures (after 5.5 months) of motivation variables, dental behaviors, dental plaque, and gingivitis. Results: Overall, the experimental and hypothesized process models received strong support. The effect sizes were moderate for dental behavior, large for autonomous motivation for the project and perceived competence, and very large for perceived autonomy support, dental plaque, and gingivitis. A structural equation model supported the hypothesized process model. Conclusions: Considering the very large effects on reductions in dental plaque and gingivitis, promoting dental care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, has important practical implications for dental treatment, home care, and health. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Kristiansen E.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences | Halvari H.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences | Halvari H.,University of Business and Social Sciences | Roberts G.C.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M age=25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Dumbili E.W.,University of Business and Social Sciences
Journal of Substance Use | Year: 2016

Background: Alcohol consumption among youths and its related problems are increasing in Nigeria. Whilst one of the reasons for this is due to the marketing activities of the transnational alcohol corporations, there are no written national alcohol control policies that regulate alcohol marketing in Nigeria. Methods: This article draws on in-depth interviews with 31 Nigerian university students (aged 19–23 years) to explore the extent to which the “Gulder Ultimate Search” (GUS) reality television show influences alcohol consumption amongst GUS contestants, television audiences and those who participate in GUS promotional activities. Results: The results show that GUS was very popular amongst students and their knowledge of the reality show was high, to the extent that they were able to identify the particular alcohol company that sponsors the reality television program, the number of contestants that compete for the prizes in each season, and what can be won by the contestants or television viewers. GUS influences the drinking behaviors of contestants because one of the criteria for participation is to present 10 or more recently used “cans” of “Gulder beer” during the screening exercise. GUS also appears to influence the drinking behaviors of television viewers and those who participate in promotions due to product placement, direct advertisements and promotional activities that accompany the “Fan-Based Edition” aspect of GUS. Conclusion: Overall, GUS is a disguised marketing strategy to promote brand awareness, and to increase sales and consumption. Alcohol control policies that regulate event sponsorship and promote public health should be implemented in Nigeria. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

OBJECTIVE:: To analyze the challenges encountered during surgical quality improvement interventions, and explain the relative success of different intervention strategies. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA:: Understanding why and how interventions work is vital for developing improvement science. The S3 Program of studies tested whether combining interventions addressing culture and system was more likely to result in improvement than either approach alone. Quantitative results supported this theory. This qualitative study investigates why this happened, what aspects of the interventions and their implementation most affected improvement, and the implications for similar programs. METHODS:: Semistructured interviews were conducted with hospital staff (23) and research team members (11) involved in S3 studies. Analysis was based on the constant comparative method, with coding conducted concurrently with data collection. Themes were identified and developed in relation to the program theory behind S3. RESULTS:: The superior performance of combined intervention over single intervention arms appeared related to greater awareness and ability to act, supporting the S3 hypothesis. However, we also noted unforeseen differences in implementation that seemed to amplify this difference. The greater ambition and more sophisticated approach in combined intervention arms resulted in requests for more intensive expert support, which seemed crucial in their success. The contextual challenges encountered have potential implications for the replicability and sustainability of the approach. CONCLUSIONS:: Our findings support the S3 hypothesis, triangulating with quantitative results and providing an explanatory account of the causal relationship between interventions and outcomes. They also highlight the importance of implementation strategies, and of factors outside the control of program designers. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Dumbili E.W.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University | Williams C.,University of Business and Social Sciences
Addiction Research and Theory | Year: 2016

Despite the growing alcohol marketing activities of the transnational alcohol industries in Nigeria, little research has focussed on their effects on Nigerian youths. This study explores students’ awareness of electronic and outdoor alcohol advertisement on campus and around students’ off-campus residential and leisure sites, and the extent to which they perceive it to affect their drinking. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with male and female undergraduate students (aged 19-23 years) from a south-eastern Nigerian university. Alcohol advertisements on television, posters, billboards and the branded fences of bars are common on campus and around students’ off-campus residential and leisure spaces. While students were exposed to television alcohol advertisements aired during football games, movies and news hours, they regularly saw point-of-sale and other outdoor advertisements on and around the campus. Students demonstrated sophisticated levels of awareness of alcohol advertisements, to the extent that they ‘identified’ brand names, vividly described the advertising messages they had seen and named specific bars, restaurants and other sites where they had seen alcohol advertisements regularly. While alcohol advertisement influenced men to consume new products, it also affected their brand preference on a permanent basis. Although alcohol advertisements appear not to have influenced the women, it is argued that this was because they were exposed to the advertisements of alcoholic brands that are categorised as ‘men’s alcohol’ in Nigeria. The results suggest that while effective monitoring of electronic and outdoor advertisements should be reinforced, policymakers may consider replacing self-regulation with evidence-based alcohol control regulatory measures in Nigeria. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

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