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Halvari A.E.M.,University of Oslo | Halvari H.,University of Business and Social Sciences | Bjornebekk G.,The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development | Deci E.L.,University of Rochester
Health Psychology | Year: 2012

Objective: The present study tested the hypotheses that: (a) a dental intervention designed to promote dental care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, would positively predict perceived clinician autonomy support and patient autonomous motivation for the project, increases in autonomous motivation for dental home care, perceived dental competence, and dental behaviors, and decreases in both dental plaque and gingivitis over 5.5 months; and (b) the self-determination theory process model with the intervention and individual differences in autonomy orientation positively predicting project autonomous motivation and increases in perceived dental competence, both of which would be associated with increases in dental behavior, which would, in turn, lead to decreased plaque and gingivitis. Methods: A randomized two-group experiment was conducted at a dental clinic with 141 patients (Mage = 23.31 years, SD = 3.5), with pre- and postmeasures (after 5.5 months) of motivation variables, dental behaviors, dental plaque, and gingivitis. Results: Overall, the experimental and hypothesized process models received strong support. The effect sizes were moderate for dental behavior, large for autonomous motivation for the project and perceived competence, and very large for perceived autonomy support, dental plaque, and gingivitis. A structural equation model supported the hypothesized process model. Conclusions: Considering the very large effects on reductions in dental plaque and gingivitis, promoting dental care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, has important practical implications for dental treatment, home care, and health. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Olsson I.,Innlandet Hospital Trust | Sorebo O.,University of Business and Social Sciences | Dahl A.A.,University of Oslo
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Background: Patients suspected of personality disorders (PDs) by general practitioners are frequently referred to psychiatric outpatient clinics (POCs). In that setting an effective screening instrument for PDs would be helpful due to resource constraints. This study evaluates the properties of The Iowa Personality Disorder Screen (IPDS) as a screening instrument for PDs at a POC.Methods: In a cross-sectional design 145 patients filled in the IPDS and were examined with the SCID-II interview as reference. Various case-findings properties were tested, interference of socio-demographic and other psychopathology were investigated by logistic regression and relationships of the IPDS and the concept of PDs were studied by a latent variable path analysis.Results: We found that socio-demographic and psychopathological factors hardly disturbed the IPDS as screening instrument. With a cut-off ≥4 the 11 items IPDS version had sensitivity 0.77 and specificity 0.71. A brief 5 items version showed sensitivity 0.82 and specificity 0.74 with cut-off ≥ 2. With exception for one item, the IPDS variables loaded adequately on their respective first order variables, and the five first order variables loaded in general adequately on their second order variable.Conclusion: Our results support the IPDS as a useful screening instrument for PDs present or absent in the POC setting. © 2011 Olssøn et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Sorebo O.,University of Business and Social Sciences
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2014

The main purpose of the present study is to help managers cope with the negative effects of technostress on employee use of ICT. Drawing on transaction theory of stress (Cooper, Dewe, & O'Driscoll, 2001) and information systems (IS) continuance theory (Bhattacherjee, 2001) we investigate the effects of technostress on employee intentions to extend the use of ICT at work. Our results show that factors that create and inhibit technostress affect both employee satisfaction with the use of ICT and employee intentions to extend the use of ICT. Our findings have important implications for the management of technostress with regard to both individual stress levels and organizational performance. A key implication of our research is that managers should implement strategies for coping with technostress through the theoretical concept of technostress inhibitors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parra A.,University of Business and Social Sciences | Paul L.E.,Nucleo de Investigacion en Psicologia Anomala
Revista Argentina de Clinica Psicologica | Year: 2010

There seems to be a link between schizotypal symptoms and spiritual experience whereby, in the normal population, individuals with spiritual experiences also indicate relatively high levels of experiences and schizotypal thinking. However, positive features of schizotypy are dominant, for example, magical ideation and unusual perceptual experiences, which are substantially opposite of negative symptoms such as anhedonia, emotional difficulties and interpersonal deficits. For this study, compared to a sample of psychology students" not spiritual" (N = 71) and "spiritual" (N = 131) of both sexes, 24% males and 76% women, age range 17-57 years (average = 24.31, SD = 6.78). Spirituality here is defined as the set of thoughts, ideas, and attitudes unstructured associated with the mystical feeling of unity, not linked to any religious doctrine. There are three hypotheses: (1) you will find a significant difference in positive symptoms of schizotypy between the two groups of students, but (2) will be no significant difference in the negative, and (3) that usually associated with paranormal experiences schizotypy (such as telepathy, see auras, out of body experiences, sense of presence and see apparitions) correlate positively and significantly with positive symptoms of schizotypy rather than the negatives. We found a significant difference in positive symptoms of schizotypy among the group of students 'spiritual' (Mean = 14.32) and "spiritual" (Mean = 12.63) (p = .02) but not significant for negative symptoms, was found further that all paranormal experiences correlated significantly with positive symptoms of schizotypy (telepathy r = .25, see the aura r = 15, out of body experiences r = 25, r = sense of presence 33, and see apparitions r = 28, all p <.001, two tailed). Although paranormal phenomena such as telepathy and see the aura is not correlated with negative symptoms of schizotypy, however, found a significant correlation between out of body experience (r = .07, p = .03), sense of presence (r = 11, p = .002) and see apparitions (r = .12, p <.001, two tailed) with negative symptoms, although substantially lower than in the positive symptoms. Possibly mild schizotypal beliefs and experiences may not only be pathological, but positive and beneficial to the individual. © 2010 Fundación AIGLÉ.

Kristiansen E.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences | Halvari H.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences | Halvari H.,University of Business and Social Sciences | Roberts G.C.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M age=25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Yazan D.M.,University of Business and Social Sciences | Romano V.A.,Polytechnic of Bari | Albino V.,Polytechnic of Bari
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2016

Industrial symbiosis (IS) has gained more attention in the production economics as the pressure on companies increases for the reduction of waste emissions and primary resources consumption. In fact, this has forced companies to provide other companies their wastes as primary resources and vice-versa. These supply circles lead to IS that can mitigate environmental impacts and costs in industrial areas (IA).The aim of this paper is to provide guidelines for the future evolution of IA operating on the basis of IS principles. Given a production network within an IA, perfect IS within the network is defined as a theoretical optimum for IS design where no primary resources is needed from outside and no wastes are discharged outside. Adopting an enterprise input-output approach, the conditions for a perfect IS are found for one-waste and multi-waste cases, and the distance between the states of the actual network and of the related perfect IS is measured.Proposed approach is empirically applied to Santa Croce sull'Arno industrial district of tannery where the recycling of chrome liquors, fleshing, and wastewater are investigated. Results show under which conditions perfect symbiosis is achievable for two waste types. Policy implications are also suggested for the design of IA when IS principles are adopted. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

OBJECTIVE:: To analyze the challenges encountered during surgical quality improvement interventions, and explain the relative success of different intervention strategies. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA:: Understanding why and how interventions work is vital for developing improvement science. The S3 Program of studies tested whether combining interventions addressing culture and system was more likely to result in improvement than either approach alone. Quantitative results supported this theory. This qualitative study investigates why this happened, what aspects of the interventions and their implementation most affected improvement, and the implications for similar programs. METHODS:: Semistructured interviews were conducted with hospital staff (23) and research team members (11) involved in S3 studies. Analysis was based on the constant comparative method, with coding conducted concurrently with data collection. Themes were identified and developed in relation to the program theory behind S3. RESULTS:: The superior performance of combined intervention over single intervention arms appeared related to greater awareness and ability to act, supporting the S3 hypothesis. However, we also noted unforeseen differences in implementation that seemed to amplify this difference. The greater ambition and more sophisticated approach in combined intervention arms resulted in requests for more intensive expert support, which seemed crucial in their success. The contextual challenges encountered have potential implications for the replicability and sustainability of the approach. CONCLUSIONS:: Our findings support the S3 hypothesis, triangulating with quantitative results and providing an explanatory account of the causal relationship between interventions and outcomes. They also highlight the importance of implementation strategies, and of factors outside the control of program designers. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

This paper describes the different strategic understanding from getting ergonomics intervention programmes' conversations to 'Tip', including minimizing strategies; tipping point strategies; and maximizing strategies from building ergonomics intervention techniques. Those have indicated to different recognitions: 1) when amplification of the 'problem' is necessary; 2) when amplification of the 'tipping point' is necessary, and 3) when amplification of the 'success' is necessary. The practical applications and implications of the ergonomics intervention techniques are drawn from the findings of framing positive questions: 1) what is successful ergonomics intervention technique right now (Appreciative)? 2) What do we need to change for a better future (Imagine)? 3) How do we do this (Design)? 4) Who takes action and with what consequences (Act)? This requires re-framing of the ergonomics intervention techniques in an appreciative way, because of, the future action needs to be inspired by those things that participants feel are worth valuing, worth celebrating and sustaining. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Huseby R.,University of Business and Social Sciences
Environmental Ethics | Year: 2013

To what extent does John Rawls' theory of international justice meet the normative challenges posed by climate change? There are two broadly compatible Rawlsian ways of addressing climate change. The first alternative is based on the two principles that Rawls applies to the domains of international and intergenerational justice (the Principle of Assistance, and the Principle of Just Savings). The second alternative starts from Rawls' general theory of international justice, in particular his idea of a Society of Peoples, which is an idealized vision of a peaceful and stable association of peoples that are internally well-ordered, and share a desire to respect and uphold international law. Given (a) the statutes peoples are willing to observe, (b) the defining characteristics of peoples, and (c) the fact that Rawls indicates that his own rendering of international law is incomplete, there may be grounds for proposing an additional statute, or an amendment, to The Law of Peoples, that pertains to climate change and that does not contradict, but rather follows from, the general framework of the theory. The latter alternative provides a more viable account of climate justice than critics has hitherto acknowledged.

Gray D.,University of Business and Social Sciences
Housing Studies | Year: 2015

Using spectral analysis, prices of two Irish house vintages are investigated for hidden periodicities. What emerges is a major periodicity consistent with an Irish business cycle. A further hidden intermediate cycle in second-hand housing, that is common to all areas of Eire but featured not nearly so prominently in new housing, is posited to be related to life events and space stress. By revisiting the housing market more often, the repeat buyer injects additional volatility in house prices. It is proposed that housing policy should be directed at reducing the number of repeat buyers as a means of deflating property bubbles. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

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