Jagsi R.,University of Business and Social Sciences
Academic Medicine | Year: 2017
PURPOSE: Understanding the careers of recent career development awardees is essential to guide interventions to ensure gender equity and success in academic medicine. METHOD: In 2010–2011 (T1) and 2014 (T2), 1,719 clinician–researchers who received new K08 and K23 awards in 2006–2009 were longitudinally surveyed. Multivariable analyses evaluated the influence of factors on success, including demographics, job characteristics, work environment, priorities, and domestic responsibilities. RESULTS: Of 1,275 respondents at T1, 1,066 (493 women; 573 men) responded at T2. Men and women differed in job characteristics, work environment, priorities, and domestic responsibilities. By T2, women had less funding (mean $780,000 vs. $1,120,000, P = .002) and published fewer papers (mean 33 vs. 45). Using a composite measure that considered funding, publications, or leadership to define success, 53.5% (264/493) of women and 67.0% (384/573) of men were successful. Gender differences in success persisted after accounting for other significant predictors—K award type, specialty, award year, work hours, funding institute tier, feeling responsible for participating in department/division administration, importance of publishing prolifically, feeling responsible for contributing to clinical care, importance of publishing high-quality research, collegiality of the mentoring relationship, adequacy of research equipment, and departmental climate. A significant interaction existed between K award type and gender; the gender difference in success was most pronounced among K23 researchers (among whom the odds ratio for females = 0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Men and women continue to have different experiences and career outcomes, with important implications for the design of interventions to promote equity and success. © 2017 by the Association of American Medical Colleges
Pietrelli A.,University of Business and Social Sciences |
Pietrelli A.,University of Buenos Aires |
Lopez-Costa J.,University of Buenos Aires |
Goni R.,University of Business and Social Sciences |
And 3 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2012
Recent research involving human and animals has shown that aerobic exercise of moderate intensity produces the greatest benefit on brain health and behavior. In this study we investigated the effects on cognitive function and anxiety-related behavior in rats at different ages of aerobic exercise, performed regularly throughout life. We designed an aerobic training program with the treadmill running following the basic principles of human training, and assuming that rats have the same physiological adaptations. The intensity was gradually adjusted to the fitness level and age, and maintained at 60-70% of maximum oxygen consumption (max.VO 2). In middle age (8 months) and old age (18 months), we studied the cognitive response with the radial maze (RM), and anxiety-related behaviors with the open field (OF) and the elevated plus maze (EPM). Aerobically trained (AT) rats had a higher cognitive performance measured in the RM, showing that exercise had a cumulative and amplifier effect on memory and learning. The analysis of age and exercise revealed that the effects of aerobic exercise were modulated by age. Middle-aged AT rats were the most successful animals; however, the old AT rats met the criteria more often than the middle-aged sedentary controls (SC), indicating that exercise could reverse the negative effects of sedentary life, partially restore the cognitive function, and protect against the deleterious effects of aging. The results in the OF and EPM showed a significant decrease in key indicators of anxiety, revealing that age affected most of the analyzed variables, and that exercise had a prominent anxiolytic effect, particularly strong in old age. In conclusion, our results indicated that regular and chronic aerobic exercise has time and dose-dependent, neuroprotective and restorative effects on physiological brain aging, and reduces anxiety-related behaviors. © 2011 IBRO.
Lee S.-Y.,University of Business and Social Sciences
Advanced Science Letters | Year: 2016
This study estimates and analyzes a Cobb-Douglas production function of Korean accounting firms, representing the relation between total revenues and human resource inputs of accounting firms for the 1997–2012 period. This relation is moderated by contextual variables including the mix of service revenues, the level of service concentration, the number of offices, the status of incumbent big firms with Big N affiliation, and the status of incumbent local firms without Big N affiliation that may affect a firm’s revenue generation. Four major findings emerge from this study. First, I find that scale economies exist in the Korean accounting industry, but not scope economies. Second, I document that non-auditing services including taxation and management advisory services are more productive than traditional auditing services in revenue generation. Third, I report that the number of offices is negatively associated with a firm’s revenue generation. Fourth, I demonstrate that incumbent big firms with Big N affiliation outperform the other groups of firms in generating revenues because of brand name reputation or provision of quality-differentiated services. © 2016 American Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.
Halvari A.E.M.,University of Oslo |
Halvari H.,University of Business and Social Sciences |
Bjornebekk G.,The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development |
Deci E.L.,University of Rochester
Health Psychology | Year: 2012
Objective: The present study tested the hypotheses that: (a) a dental intervention designed to promote dental care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, would positively predict perceived clinician autonomy support and patient autonomous motivation for the project, increases in autonomous motivation for dental home care, perceived dental competence, and dental behaviors, and decreases in both dental plaque and gingivitis over 5.5 months; and (b) the self-determination theory process model with the intervention and individual differences in autonomy orientation positively predicting project autonomous motivation and increases in perceived dental competence, both of which would be associated with increases in dental behavior, which would, in turn, lead to decreased plaque and gingivitis. Methods: A randomized two-group experiment was conducted at a dental clinic with 141 patients (Mage = 23.31 years, SD = 3.5), with pre- and postmeasures (after 5.5 months) of motivation variables, dental behaviors, dental plaque, and gingivitis. Results: Overall, the experimental and hypothesized process models received strong support. The effect sizes were moderate for dental behavior, large for autonomous motivation for the project and perceived competence, and very large for perceived autonomy support, dental plaque, and gingivitis. A structural equation model supported the hypothesized process model. Conclusions: Considering the very large effects on reductions in dental plaque and gingivitis, promoting dental care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, has important practical implications for dental treatment, home care, and health. © 2012 American Psychological Association.
Sorebo O.,University of Business and Social Sciences
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2014
The main purpose of the present study is to help managers cope with the negative effects of technostress on employee use of ICT. Drawing on transaction theory of stress (Cooper, Dewe, & O'Driscoll, 2001) and information systems (IS) continuance theory (Bhattacherjee, 2001) we investigate the effects of technostress on employee intentions to extend the use of ICT at work. Our results show that factors that create and inhibit technostress affect both employee satisfaction with the use of ICT and employee intentions to extend the use of ICT. Our findings have important implications for the management of technostress with regard to both individual stress levels and organizational performance. A key implication of our research is that managers should implement strategies for coping with technostress through the theoretical concept of technostress inhibitors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kristiansen E.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences |
Halvari H.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences |
Halvari H.,University of Business and Social Sciences |
Roberts G.C.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2012
The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M age=25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Flynn L.C.,University of Business and Social Sciences
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2015
OBJECTIVE:: To analyze the challenges encountered during surgical quality improvement interventions, and explain the relative success of different intervention strategies. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA:: Understanding why and how interventions work is vital for developing improvement science. The S3 Program of studies tested whether combining interventions addressing culture and system was more likely to result in improvement than either approach alone. Quantitative results supported this theory. This qualitative study investigates why this happened, what aspects of the interventions and their implementation most affected improvement, and the implications for similar programs. METHODS:: Semistructured interviews were conducted with hospital staff (23) and research team members (11) involved in S3 studies. Analysis was based on the constant comparative method, with coding conducted concurrently with data collection. Themes were identified and developed in relation to the program theory behind S3. RESULTS:: The superior performance of combined intervention over single intervention arms appeared related to greater awareness and ability to act, supporting the S3 hypothesis. However, we also noted unforeseen differences in implementation that seemed to amplify this difference. The greater ambition and more sophisticated approach in combined intervention arms resulted in requests for more intensive expert support, which seemed crucial in their success. The contextual challenges encountered have potential implications for the replicability and sustainability of the approach. CONCLUSIONS:: Our findings support the S3 hypothesis, triangulating with quantitative results and providing an explanatory account of the causal relationship between interventions and outcomes. They also highlight the importance of implementation strategies, and of factors outside the control of program designers. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Helali F.,University of Business and Social Sciences
Work | Year: 2012
This paper describes the different strategic understanding from getting ergonomics intervention programmes' conversations to 'Tip', including minimizing strategies; tipping point strategies; and maximizing strategies from building ergonomics intervention techniques. Those have indicated to different recognitions: 1) when amplification of the 'problem' is necessary; 2) when amplification of the 'tipping point' is necessary, and 3) when amplification of the 'success' is necessary. The practical applications and implications of the ergonomics intervention techniques are drawn from the findings of framing positive questions: 1) what is successful ergonomics intervention technique right now (Appreciative)? 2) What do we need to change for a better future (Imagine)? 3) How do we do this (Design)? 4) Who takes action and with what consequences (Act)? This requires re-framing of the ergonomics intervention techniques in an appreciative way, because of, the future action needs to be inspired by those things that participants feel are worth valuing, worth celebrating and sustaining. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
Huseby R.,University of Business and Social Sciences
Environmental Ethics | Year: 2013
To what extent does John Rawls' theory of international justice meet the normative challenges posed by climate change? There are two broadly compatible Rawlsian ways of addressing climate change. The first alternative is based on the two principles that Rawls applies to the domains of international and intergenerational justice (the Principle of Assistance, and the Principle of Just Savings). The second alternative starts from Rawls' general theory of international justice, in particular his idea of a Society of Peoples, which is an idealized vision of a peaceful and stable association of peoples that are internally well-ordered, and share a desire to respect and uphold international law. Given (a) the statutes peoples are willing to observe, (b) the defining characteristics of peoples, and (c) the fact that Rawls indicates that his own rendering of international law is incomplete, there may be grounds for proposing an additional statute, or an amendment, to The Law of Peoples, that pertains to climate change and that does not contradict, but rather follows from, the general framework of the theory. The latter alternative provides a more viable account of climate justice than critics has hitherto acknowledged.
Gray D.,University of Business and Social Sciences
Housing Studies | Year: 2015
Using spectral analysis, prices of two Irish house vintages are investigated for hidden periodicities. What emerges is a major periodicity consistent with an Irish business cycle. A further hidden intermediate cycle in second-hand housing, that is common to all areas of Eire but featured not nearly so prominently in new housing, is posited to be related to life events and space stress. By revisiting the housing market more often, the repeat buyer injects additional volatility in house prices. It is proposed that housing policy should be directed at reducing the number of repeat buyers as a means of deflating property bubbles. © 2015 Taylor & Francis