Buenos Aires, Argentina

University of Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires, Argentina

The University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and the second largest university by enrollment in Latin America. Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires, it consists of 13 departments, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini, Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria.Entry to any of the available programmes of study in the university is open to anyone with a secondary school degree; in most cases, students who have successfully completed high school must pass a first year called CBC, which stands for Ciclo Básico Común . Only upon completion of this first year may the student enter the chosen school; until then, they must attend courses in different buildings, and have up to 3 years to finish the 6 or 7 subjects assigned in two groups of 3 or 4. Each subject is of one semester duration . If someone passes all 6 subjects in their respective semester, the CBC will take only one year. Potential students of economics, instead, take a 2-year common cycle, the "CBG" , comprising 12 subjects.The UBA has no central campus. A centralized Ciudad Universitaria was started in the 1960s, but contains only two schools, with the others at different locations in Buenos Aires. Access to the university is free of charge for everyone, including foreigners. However, the postgraduate programs charge tuition fees that can be covered with research scholarships for those students with outstanding academic performance.The university has produced more Nobel Prize laureates than any other Spanish-speaking institution. It is currently the best ranked Argentine university in college and university rankings, present at number 197 of the Top Universities 2008 and at number 151-200 of the 2010 Shanghai Jiao Tong University ranking. According to the 2010 University Ranking by Academic Performance , the university is the best in Argentina and the 247th in the world, and, according to TopUniversities, it is the 46th best university in the world taking into account employer reputation. Wikipedia.

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Scientists have discovered the world's first fluorescent frog by accident while studying the pigment of polka-dot tree frogs found in the forests of Amazon basin. The South American polka dotted tree frog (Hypsiboas punctatus) appears to have dull browny-green skin dotted with red spots under normal light but herpetologist Carlos Taboada, from the University of Buenos Aires in Argentina, and colleagues found that it gives off a greenish-blue glow under ultraviolet light and in dim settings. Unlike in bioluminescent creatures whose light is produced by chemical reactions in their bodies, no chemical reaction occurs in biofluorescent organisms. Instead of giving off light from their own power source, these organisms typically absorb light at short wavelengths, transform it and then re-emit this at longer wavelengths as a different color. Biofluorescent light in animals can be produced and only becomes visible to humans when the fluorescent organism gets illuminated by external sources such as a UV light bulb. Fluorescence is more common in marine creatures such as sharks, fish, corals and is also found in the hawksbill turtle but it is rare in land animals having only previously known in parrots and in some scorpions. Prior to the discovery, biofluorescence in frogs is unheard of. The South American tree frog that Taboada and colleagues studied is the first amphibian discovered to fluoresce. It is not clear why some organisms have the special ability to glow in ultraviolet light albeit scientists have theories which include mate attraction, camouflage, and communication. For the South American fluorescent frogs, researchers suspect their fluorescence is relevant to visual perception. The amphibian's fluorescent molecules give off about 18 percent as much visible light as a full moon which is enough for related frog species to see by. Researchers want to conduct a further study of the photoreceptors found in the frog's eyes to determine if the amphibians use their fluorescence for better vision at night. "In low-light conditions, fluorescence accounts for an important fraction of the total emerging light, largely enhancing brightness of the individuals and matching the sensitivity of night vision in amphibians," the researchers wrote in their study published in journal PNAS. "These results introduce an unprecedented source of pigmentation in amphibians and highlight the potential relevance of fluorescence in visual perception in terrestrial environments." Fluorescence in marine organisms serves different purposes. Fluorescent pigment in shallow water corals acts as sunblock for the organisms as the intense ray of the sun that can cause sunburn to swimmers causes similar damage to corals and the symbiotic algae that live inside them. Scientists also found fluorescence in deep-sea corals. They think that fluorescent pigments in corals that live in deeper waters help produce more light for their symbiotic algae that need it for photosynthesis. A newly-found fluorescent species of polyps in the Red Sea is suspected of using its glow around its mouth to attract prey. The fluorescent flashlights can be seen by other invertebrates at sunset, sunrise and in the moonlight. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--White Ops, the leading provider of human verification technology, and Accenture Interactive, the digital agency of the global professional services firm, today announced the results of a new joint research report on behalf of the Union of Belgian Advertisers (UBA). Using White Ops technology, the “2017 Sophisticated Invalid Traffic Assessment: The State of Ad Fraud in the Belgian Market,” evaluates the level of ad fraud facing Belgian advertisers based on 248 million ad impressions commissioned by UBA members, between January and February 2017. The study concluded that sophisticated invalid traffic (SIVT) – which represents fraudulent traffic from bots – accounted for 2 percent of all desktop traffic. This finding suggests that Belgian advertisers are little affected by this type of fraud, compared to other markets, such as the U.S., where fraudulent levels ranged from 3 to 37 percent, according to prior White Ops research. Although fraud rates remain low, some publishers, campaign types and traffic sources experienced high levels of fraudulent activity. “Ad fraud remains a major challenge that affects the entire digital ecosystem globally,” said Michael Tiffany, CEO of White Ops. “While it is reassuring to see the Belgian market experiencing relatively low levels of fraudulent traffic, we should not rejoice. This study should, on the contrary, give us an opportunity to end cybercriminals. To achieve this, advertisers, agencies, publishers and technology partners must work together to better detect and prevent ad fraud, optimize media investments and ensure a higher level of transparency.” Chris Van Roey, CEO of UBA, added: “Advertisers are worried today about their investments in online media. Their confidence in the sector is under severe strain: lack of brand safety, limitation of viewability, lack of reliable campaign measures, etc. Online ad fraud is also well placed in this agenda. Advertisers invest in digital ads that are ultimately not seen by anyone. At the international level, this fraud has reached extremely high levels. The UBA wanted for its members, and with them, to do its own study to assess the importance of this problem in Belgium. Within the UBA, a working group set up more than a year ago, carried out this study under the guidance of Karim Debbah, UBA Media Manager. Apparently, the results for our market reveal a limited level of fraud.” “Digital advertising fraud is growing year on year at the pace of digital media spend. While helping our clients optimize their digital marketing spends, it seemed paramount for us to run this survey in Belgium to assess the level of fraud affecting the marketing efficiency of our clients. UBA and White Ops were then natural partners to run this initiative and we’re happy today to share its results,” said Wim Decraene, Head of Accenture Interactive for Belgium and Luxembourg. Additional findings from the study indicate that more than 90 percent of desktop-focused advertising came from programmatic and direct campaigns. They also show an uneven distribution of visibility on the Belgian market, unlike other markets, such as the U.S., where botnet operators have developed more sophisticated methods, proving that not all bots are created equal. The findings also showed that 98 percent of traffic, and majority of fraud detected in UBA campaigns, was directed at desktop ads. This figure is consistent with data from the companies surveyed, indicating that advertisers spend more than half of their budget on desktop display and video advertising, and much less on mobile advertising. As mobile is a growing area of investment for all advertisers, it deserves additional monitoring. For more information, download the complete study here. White Ops is the global leader in human verification technology and data integrity. In 2016, White Ops was the first company to receive Media Rating Council (MRC) accreditation for Sophisticated Invalid Traffic (SIVT) detection, paving the way for the industry and offering a full suite solution that includes viewability, brand safety, fraud detection and pre-bid verification. Working with some of the best hackers and ad tech specialists in the world, we’re able to think outside the box and create the best solutions for our clients. To learn more, visit whiteops.com and follow us on Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook. Accenture is a leading global professional services company, providing a broad range of services and solutions in strategy, consulting, digital, technology and operations. Combining unmatched experience and specialized skills across more than 40 industries and all business functions – underpinned by the world’s largest delivery network – Accenture works at the intersection of business and technology to help clients improve their performance and create sustainable value for their stakeholders. With approximately 401,000 people serving clients in more than 120 countries, Accenture drives innovation to improve the way the world works and lives. Visit us at www.accenture.com. Accenture Interactive helps the world’s leading brands transform their customer experiences across the entire customer journey. Through our connected offerings in design, marketing, content and commerce, we create new ways to win in today’s experience-led economy. Accenture Interactive was ranked the world’s largest and fastest-growing digital agency in the latest Ad Age Agency Report. To learn more follow us @accenturesocial and visit www.accenture.com/interactive. UBA is the Belgian organisation made by brands, made for brands. Today, the UBA member community consists of 300 companies who account for the majority of national media investments. As a result, UBA is a unique platform enabling its members to protect the interests of brands and engage in the exchange of knowledge. Through its extensive range of activities and services, UBA stimulates a creative, innovative and transparent communication ecosystem enabling strong and sustainable brands. In the development of its activities and services, UBA consistently implements four strategic principles: inspire, impact, enable and connect. These principles guarantee a relevant service that makes brand builders stronger.

News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: phys.org

An image of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant that was assembled by combining data from five telescopes spanning nearly the entire breadth of the electromagnetic spectrum: the Very Large Array, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope, the XMM-Newton Observatory, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Credit: NASA, ESA, NRAO/AUI/NSF and G. Dubner (University of Buenos Aires) Astronomers have produced a highly detailed image of the Crab Nebula, by combining data from telescopes spanning nearly the entire breadth of the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves seen by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to the powerful X-ray glow as seen by the orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory. And, in between that range of wavelengths, the Hubble Space Telescope's crisp visible-light view, and the infrared perspective of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The Crab Nebula, the result of a bright supernova explosion seen by Chinese and other astronomers in the year 1054, is 6,500 light-years from Earth. At its center is a super-dense neutron star, rotating once every 33 milliseconds, shooting out rotating lighthouse-like beams of radio waves and light—a pulsar (the bright dot at image center). The nebula's intricate shape is caused by a complex interplay of the pulsar, a fast-moving wind of particles coming from the pulsar, and material originally ejected by the supernova explosion and by the star itself before the explosion. This image combines data from five different telescopes: The VLA (radio) in red; Spitzer Space Telescope (infrared) in yellow; Hubble Space Telescope (visible) in green; XMM-Newton (ultraviolet) in blue; and Chandra X-ray Observatory (X-ray) in purple. The new VLA, Hubble, and Chandra observations all were made at nearly the same time in November of 2012. A team of scientists led by Gloria Dubner of the Institute of Astronomy and Physics (IAFE), the National Council of Scientific Research (CONICET), and the University of Buenos Aires in Argentina then made a thorough analysis of the newly revealed details in a quest to gain new insights into the complex physics of the object. They are reporting their findings in the Astrophysical Journal. "Comparing these new images, made at different wavelengths, is providing us with a wealth of new detail about the Crab Nebula. Though the Crab has been studied extensively for years, we still have much to learn about it," Dubner said.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INT-12-2015 | Award Amount: 2.60M | Year: 2016

EULAC Focus addresses the whole set of topics included in the Call. It delivers a significant contribution to the improvement of EUCELAC relations through a better understanding of the three dimensions selected by the call: cultural, scientific and social. The main objective is that of giving focus to these three dimensions of EUCELAC relations, with a view to determining synergies and cross-fertilization, as well as identifying asymmetries in bi-lateral and bi-regional relations. Research is focused on areas crucial to explain the current state of relations between EU and LAC, and will be pursued at two levels: a) research activities; b) strategic set of recommendations. In order to guarantee high impact, the research is pursued in six interdisciplinary WPs, organized matricially. Three are horizontal : Cross-cutting pathways, Towards a common vision for EUCELAC and Dissemination and outreach. The other three are thematic/vertical: Cultural, Scientific and Social Dimension, and not only intersect the horizontal WPs but also interact between them. To achieve the objectives, the project is organized by the multidisciplinary and well balanced consortium of19 members from 15 counties. The consortium represents a unique group of highly competent and experienced institutions, composed specifically for the purpose of this project,comprising, in both regions, Gov Research Agencies, Research institutes, Universities, University Association, and two International European LA Organizations active in analytical and policy oriented research and dissemination. EULAC Focus builds upon the outcomes of prior mapping conducted at the bi-regional level and will facilitate access to end-users, as well as feeding into the work of the EU-LAC Foundation and informing bi-regional networking activities of the JIRI and T-APs work. The number of partners has been carefully defined to ensure project goals and proper diversity, while allowing for efficient project management.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-05-2015 | Award Amount: 5.67M | Year: 2016

The world demographic growth and global climate change are major challenges for human society,hence the need to design new strategies for maintaining high crop yield in unprecedented environmental conditions.The objective of TomGEM is to design new strategies aiming to maintain high yields of fruit and vegetables at harsh temperature conditions, using tomato as a reference fleshy fruit crop.As yield is a complex trait depending on successful completion of different steps of reproductive organ development, including flower differentiation and efficient flower fertilization,TomGEM will use trans-disciplinary approaches to investigate the impact of high temperature on these developmental processes.The core of the project deals with mining and phenotyping a vast range of genetic resources to identify cultivars/genotypes displaying yield stability and to uncover loci/genes controlling flower initiation,pollen fertility and fruit set.Moreover,since high yield and elevated temperatures can be detrimental to quality traits,TomGEM will also tackle the fruit quality issue.The goal is to provide new targets and novel strategies to foster breeding of new tomato cultivars with improved yield.The main strength of TomGEM resides in the use of unique and unexplored genetic resources available to members of the consortium.It gathers expert academic researchers and private actors committed to implement a multi-actor approach based on demand driven innovation.Tomato producers and breeders are strongly involved from design to implementation of the project and until the dissemination of results.TomGEM will provide new targets and novel strategies to foster the breeding of new tomato cultivars with improved yield under suboptimal temperature conditions.TomGEM will translate scientific insights into practical strategies for better handling of interactions between genotype,environment and management to offer holistic solutions to the challenge of increasing food quality and productivity.

Golombek D.A.,CONICET | Rosenstein R.E.,University of Buenos Aires
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2010

Mammalian circadian rhythms are controlled by endogenous biological oscillators, including a master clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Since the period of this oscillation is of ∼24 h, to keep synchrony with the environment, circadian rhythms need to be entrained daily by means of Zeitgeber ("time giver") signals, such as the light-dark cycle. Recent advances in the neurophysiology and molecular biology of circadian rhythmicity allow a better understanding of synchronization. In this review we cover several aspects of the mechanisms for photic entrainment of mammalian circadian rhythms, including retinal sensitivity to light by means of novel photopigments as well as circadian variations in the retina that contribute to the regulation of retinal physiology. Downstream from the retina, we examine retinohypothalamic communication through neurotransmitter (glutamate, aspartate, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) interaction with SCN receptors and the resulting signal transduction pathways in suprachiasmatic neurons, as well as putative neuron-glia interactions. Finally, we describe and analyze clock gene expression and its importance in entrainment mechanisms, as well as circadian disorders or retinal diseases related to entrainment deficits, including experimental and clinical treatments. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Casal J.J.,University of Buenos Aires | Casal J.J.,CONICET
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2013

The dynamic light environment of vegetation canopies is perceived by phytochromes, cryptochromes, phototropins, and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8). These receptors control avoidance responses to preclude exposure to limiting or excessive light and acclimation responses to cope with conditions that cannot be avoided. The low red/far-red ratios of shade light reduce phytochrome B activity, which allows PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) to directly activate the transcription of auxin-synthesis genes, leading to shade-avoidance responses. Direct PIF interaction with DELLA proteins links gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling to shade avoidance. Shade avoidance also requires CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1), a target of cryptochromes, phytochromes, and UVR8. Multiple regulatory loops and the input of the circadian clock create a complex network able to respond even to subtle threats of competition with neighbors while still compensating for major environmental fluctuations such as the day-night cycles. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Jorge F.,University of Buenos Aires
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2010

The mechanism of epithelial fluid transport remains unsolved, which is partly due to inherent experimental difficulties. However, a preparation with which our laboratory works, the corneal endothelium, is a simple leaky secretory epithelium in which we have made some experimental and theoretical headway. As we have reported, transendothelial fluid movements can be generated by electrical currents as long as there is tight junction integrity. The direction of the fluid movement can be reversed by current reversal or by changing junctional electrical charges by polylysine. Residual endothelial fluid transport persists even when no anions (hence no salt) are being transported by the tissue and is only eliminated when all local recirculating electrical currents are. Aquaporin (AQP) 1 is the only AQP present in these cells, and its deletion in AQP1 null mice significantly affects cell osmotic permeability (by ∼40%) but fluid transport much less (∼20%), which militates against the presence of sizable water movements across the cell. In contrast, AQP1 null mice cells have reduced regulatory volume decrease (only 60% of control), which suggests a possible involvement of AQP1 in either the function or the expression of volume-sensitive membrane channels/transporters. A mathematical model of corneal endothelium we have developed correctly predicts experimental results only when paracellular electro-osmosis is assumed rather than transcellular local osmosis. Our evidence therefore suggests that the fluid is transported across this layer via the paracellular route by a mechanism that we attribute to electro-osmotic coupling at the junctions. From our findings we have developed a novel paradigm for this preparation that includes 1) paracellular fluid flow; 2) a crucial role for the junctions; 3) hypotonicity of the primary secretion; and 4) an AQP role in regulation rather than as a significant water pathway. These elements are remarkably similar to those proposed by the laboratory of Adrian Hill for fluid transport across other leaky epithelia. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Mininni P.D.,University of Buenos Aires
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2011

This article reviews recent studies of scale interactions in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The present-day increase of computing power, which allows for the exploration of different configurations of turbulence in conducting flows, and the development of shell-to-shell transfer functions, has led to detailed studies of interactions between the velocity and the magnetic field and between scales. In particular, processes such as induction and dynamo action, the damping of velocity fluctuations by the Lorentz force, and the development of anisotropies can be characterized at different scales. In this context we consider three different configurations often studied in the literature: mechanically forced turbulence, freely decaying turbulence, and turbulence in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Each configuration is of interest for different geophysical and astrophysical applications. Local and nonlocal transfers are discussed for each case. Whereas the transfer between scales of solely kinetic or solely magnetic energy is local, transfers between kinetic and magnetic fields are observed to be local or nonlocal depending on the configuration. Scale interactions in the cascade of magnetic helicity are also reviewed. Based on the results, the validity of several usual assumptions in hydrodynamic turbulence, such as isotropy of the small scales or universality, is discussed. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Austin A.T.,University of Buenos Aires
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2011

The classic ecological paradigm for deserts, that all processes are controlled by water availability, has limited our imagination for exploring other controls on the cycling of carbon and nutrients in aridland ecosystems. This review of recent studies identifies alternative mechanisms that challenge the idea that all soil processes in aridlands are proximately water-limited, and highlights the significance of photodegradation of aboveground litter and the overriding importance of spatial heterogeneity as a modulator of biotic responses to water availability. Aridlands currently occupy >30% of the terrestrial land surface and are expanding. It is therefore critical to incorporate these previously unappreciated mechanisms in our understanding of aridland biogeochemistry to mitigate the effects of desertification and global change. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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