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Brunei, Brunei

Universiti Brunei Darussalam is Brunei's oldest university. It is the largest university in the country in terms of student enrollment and curriculum offered. Wikipedia.

Lane D.J.W.,University of Brunei Darussalam
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2012

The submerged coral reefs of Brunei, little-impacted by human activity and characterized by high live coral cover, have no recorded history in recent decades of the presence of the crown-of-thorns (COT), Acanthaster planci. This sea star, first recorded on Brunei reefs in 2008, attained outbreak densities in 2010. At Littledale Shoal its impact on corals at permanent transect sites has been quantified; mean live coral cover reduced by half from 2006 to 2010 due predominantly to predation. Line intersect transect data confirm a predisposition for tabular Acropora species, a prominent feature at this site, although other scleractinian taxa were also predated. Other regional outbreaks are reviewed, including episodes, and their timing, within the neighbouring Coral Triangle (CT). Mounting evidence implicates nutrient-enhanced increases in primary production as a primary cause of COT outbreaks. However, this stands in contrast with a report of global oceanic phytoplankton decline in the past century, and there is little evidence of such a link in the CT, even though this region is characterized by high precipitation, erosional plumes and seasonal upwelling-associated phytoplankton blooms. Furthermore, until survivorship and competency for a wider spectrum of mass-spawned invertebrate planktotrophs in relation to elevated phytoplankton densities is better understood, such evidence, suggesting release from food limitation as the principal cause of enhanced COT recruitment, should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2011. Source

Marshall D.J.,University of Brunei Darussalam | McQuaid C.D.,Rhodes University
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

The universal temperature-dependence model (UTD) of the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) proposes that temperature controls mass-scaled, whole-animal resting metabolic rate according to the first principles of physics (Boltzmann kinetics). Controversy surrounds the model's implication of a mechanistic basis for metabolism that excludes the effects of adaptive regulation, and it is unclear how this would apply to organisms that live in fringe environments and typically show considerable metabolic adaptation. We explored thermal scaling of metabolism in a rocky-shore eulittoral-fringe snail (Echinolittorina malaccana) that experiences constrained energy gain and fluctuating high temperatures (between 25°C and approximately 50°C) during prolonged emersion (weeks). In contrast to the prediction of the UTD model, metabolic rate was often negatively related to temperature over a benign range (30-40°C), the relationship depending on (i) the temperature range, (ii) the degree of metabolic depression (related to the quiescent period), and (iii) whether snails were isolated within their shells. Apparent activation energies (E) varied between 0.05 and - 0.43 eV, deviating excessively from the UTD's predicted range of between 0.6 and 0.7 eV. The lowering of metabolism when heated should improve energy conservation in a high-temperature environment and challenges both the theory's generality and its mechanistic basis. © 2010 The Royal Society. Source

Mohammad R.,University of Brunei Darussalam
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2013

This paper draws on a case study of youthful British Pakistani Muslim women located in one of the largest Pakistani Muslim communities in the UK, in the city of Birmingham, to examine their narratives of urban space. These narratives illuminate the performance of gendered, Muslim, public spatialities, a term I use to refer to the spatial practices and personal geographies of the body and territory. I explore the ways in which the everyday life world that cuts across South Asian Muslim society and a public realm encoded with secular liberal democratic values configures the spatial ranges, practices, and personal geographies of youthful Pakistani Muslim women. I identify the ideological, material, and affective modalities through which these are given form at the intersection of place, 'race', gender, and religion. Finally, I illustrate the ways in which the dynamic multiethnic, multicultural milieu of Birmingham's 'Little Pakistan' localities offer youthful Pakistani Muslim women alternative repertoires for remaking the self, promoting cultural change and a greater sense of inclusiveness and belonging In doing so I foreground the fluidity and dynamic character of British South Asian Muslim cultures, contesting their representations as fixed and bounded. Source

Hoque M.A.,University of Brunei Darussalam
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2013

By relaxing the long-term assumption of the deterministic lead time, recently three coordinated vendor-buyer models with exponential distribution of lead time in a two-stage supply chain were presented. The vendor produces a product at a finite rate and delivers the lot to the buyer with a number of equal-sized batches (sub-lots) to meet the deterministic demand. The next batch is ordered when the previous one drops to a reorder point. Shortages were allowed and completely backordered. However, in exponential distribution of lead time, the probability of arrival of a batch earlier is higher than the probability of arrival of a batch late or in the mean lead time. But usually, probability of arrival of a batch earlier or late appears to be smaller than the probability of arrival of a batch in the mean lead time. Thus normal distribution of lead time seems to be a better fit to the problem. Hence their models seem unfit to the concerned problem in practice. Based on this notion, we develop a vendor-buyer integrated production-inventory model following normal distribution of lead time but retaining their other assumptions. To make the model more realistic, set up time per set up of a machine, the highest limit on the capacity of the transport vehicle and the transportation cost and time per batch are imposed. Then we derive an optimal solution technique to the model to obtain minimum expected joint total cost that follows development of the solution algorithm. Extensive comparative studies on the results of some numerical problems are carried out to highlight the potential significance of the present method. Sensitivity analysis to the solutions with variations of some parameter values are also carried out. Source

Hoque M.A.,University of Brunei Darussalam
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2013

Although the subject of manufacturer-buyer integrated inventory management with deterministic lead times has received a lot of attention from researchers, the corresponding problem with stochastic lead times has been given comparatively little consideration. Recently, it has been treated in the case of an exponential distribution of lead times with the lot transferred in equal-sized batches (sub-lots). In this treatment the buyer orders the next batch when his/her stock level falls to a certain reorder point, allowing for shortages and complete backordering. The total cost benefit of solving the problem using an integrated inventory system instead of independent ones had been demonstrated. However, rather than an exponential distribution, a normal distribution of lead times seems to provide a better fit to the problem. Moreover, synchronization of the integrated production flow by generalizing the method of transferring batches of the lot might lead to a lower total cost. Based on these notions, we develop here a manufacturer-buyer integrated inventory model with a normal distribution of lead times for delivering equal- and/or unequal-sized batches of a lot. Then a solution technique to the model and hence a solution algorithm are presented. The potential benefit of the present method is illustrated with solutions of some numerical problems. The sensitivities of the solutions to variations in the parameter values are also studied. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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