The University of British Columbia, commonly referred to as UBC, is a public research university with campuses and facilities in the province of British Columbia, Canada.Founded in 1908 as the McGill University College of British Columbia, the university became independent and adopted its current name in 1915. It is the oldest institution of higher learning in British Columbia and enrolls over 58,000 students at its Vancouver and Okanagan Valley campuses. UBC's 4.02 km2 Vancouver campus is located within the University Endowment Lands, about 10 km from Downtown Vancouver. The 2.09 km2 Kelowna campus, acquired in 2005, is located in the Okanagan Valley.UBC is ranked 30th in the world according to U.S. News & World Report 's 2015 rankings and eighth among universities outside the United States by Newsweek. UBC faculty, alumni, and researchers have won seven Nobel Prizes, 68 Rhodes Scholarships, 65 Olympic medals, 180 fellowships to the Royal Society of Canada, and alumni include two Canadian prime ministers. UBC is a research-intensive university that funds more than 8,000 projects with its $519 million research budget.UBC is a non-sectarian and coeducational institution, with more than 275,000 living alumni in 120 countries. The university is a member of Universitas 21, the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning, the International Association of Universities, the U15 and the only Canadian member of the Association of Pacific Rim Universities. The university's varsity teams, known as the Thunderbirds in Vancouver and the Heat in the Okanagan, compete in the Canada West Universities Athletic Association of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Wikipedia.
Elliott S.R.,Los Alamos National Laboratory |
Franz M.,University of British Columbia
Reviews of Modern Physics
Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own antiparticle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1/2 neutral particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their antiparticles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can exist only if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this process are underway. Majorana's influence does not stop with particle physics, however, even though that was his original consideration. The equations he derived also arise in solid-state physics where they describe electronic states in materials with superconducting order. Of special interest here is the class of solutions of the Majorana equation in one and two spatial dimensions at exactly zero energy. These Majorana zero modes are endowed with some remarkable physical properties that may lead to advances in quantum computing and, in fact, there is evidence that they have been experimentally observed. This Colloquium first summarizes the basics of Majorana's theory and its implications. It then provides an overview of the rich experimental programs trying to find a fermion that is its own antiparticle in nuclear, particle, and solid-state physics. © 2015 American Physical Society. Source
Keeling P.J.,University of British Columbia
Annual Review of Plant Biology
Plastids (chloroplasts) have long been recognized to have originated by endosymbiosis of a cyanobacterium, but their subsequent evolutionary history has proved complex because they have also moved between eukaryotes during additional rounds of secondary and tertiary endosymbioses. Much of this history has been revealed by genomic analyses, but some debates remain unresolved, in particular those relating to secondary red plastids of the chromalveolates, especially cryptomonads. Here, I examine several fundamental questions and assumptions about endosymbiosis and plastid evolution, including the number of endosymbiotic events needed to explain plastid diversity, whether the genetic contribution of the endosymbionts to the host genome goes far beyond plastid-targeted genes, and whether organelle origins are best viewed as a singular transition involving one symbiont or as a gradual transition involving a long line of transient food/symbionts. I also discuss a possible link between transporters and the evolution of protein targeting in organelle integration. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source
Bakker K.,University of British Columbia
New strategies for analyzing water security have the potential to improve coordination and generate synergies between researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners. Source
McDonough J.E.,University of British Columbia
The New England journal of medicine
The major sites of obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are small airways (<2 mm in diameter). We wanted to determine whether there was a relationship between small-airway obstruction and emphysematous destruction in COPD. We used multidetector computed tomography (CT) to compare the number of airways measuring 2.0 to 2.5 mm in 78 patients who had various stages of COPD, as judged by scoring on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) scale, in isolated lungs removed from patients with COPD who underwent lung transplantation, and in donor (control) lungs. MicroCT was used to measure the extent of emphysema (mean linear intercept), the number of terminal bronchioles per milliliter of lung volume, and the minimum diameters and cross-sectional areas of terminal bronchioles. On multidetector CT, in samples from patients with COPD, as compared with control samples, the number of airways measuring 2.0 to 2.5 mm in diameter was reduced in patients with GOLD stage 1 disease (P=0.001), GOLD stage 2 disease (P=0.02), and GOLD stage 3 or 4 disease (P<0.001). MicroCT of isolated samples of lungs removed from patients with GOLD stage 4 disease showed a reduction of 81 to 99.7% in the total cross-sectional area of terminal bronchioles and a reduction of 72 to 89% in the number of terminal bronchioles (P<0.001). A comparison of the number of terminal bronchioles and dimensions at different levels of emphysematous destruction (i.e., an increasing value for the mean linear intercept) showed that the narrowing and loss of terminal bronchioles preceded emphysematous destruction in COPD (P<0.001). These results show that narrowing and disappearance of small conducting airways before the onset of emphysematous destruction can explain the increased peripheral airway resistance reported in COPD. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others.). Source
University of British Columbia | Date: 2015-04-29
Therapeutic agents which target heat shock protein (hsp) 27 in vivo are used to provide treatment to individuals, particularly human individuals, suffering from prostate cancer and other cancers that overexpress hsp27. A therapeutic agent, for example an antisense oligonucleotide or RNAi nucleotide inhibitor with sequence specificity for hsp27 mRNA, for example human hsp27 mRNA, is administered to an individual suffering from prostate cancer or some other cancer expressing elevated levels of hsp 27 in a therapeutically effective amount. The therapeutic agent is suitably formulated into a pharmaceutical composition which includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and packaged in dosage unit form. A preferred dosage unit form is an injectable dosage unit form.