Bristol, United Kingdom
Bristol, United Kingdom

The University of Bristol is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom. It received its Royal Charter in 1909, and its predecessor institution, University College, Bristol, had been in existence since 1876.Bristol has been ranked 29th by the QS World University Rankings, and is ranked amongst the top ten of UK universities by QS, THE, and ARWU. A highly selective institution, it has an average of 14 applicants for each undergraduate place.Bristol is organised into six academic faculties composed of multiple schools and departments running over 200 undergraduate courses situated in the Clifton area along with three of its nine halls of residence. The other six halls are located in Stoke Bishop, an outer city suburb located 1.8 miles away. The University had a total income of £459.2 million in 2012/13, of which £120.1 million was from research grants and contracts. It is the largest independent employer in Bristol.Current academics include 21 Fellows of the Academy of Medical science, 13 Fellows of the British Academy, 13 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 40 Fellows of the Royal Society.Bristol is a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities, the European-wide Coimbra Group and the Worldwide Universities Network, of which the University's Vice-Chancellor Eric Thomas was chairman from 2005 to 2007. In addition, the University holds an Erasmus Charter, sending more than 500 students per year to partner institutions in Europe. Wikipedia.

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University of Bristol and Gloucestershire Hospitals Nhs Foundation Trust | Date: 2016-11-08

A probe, such as a spectroscopic probe, for enabling a fluid or tissue sample to be tested in situ. The probe includes a conduit, such as a hypodermic needle, that can be inserted into a test subject and a wave coupling arranged to direct electromagnetic radiation, such as light, from an energy source to the sample and/or from the sample to a receiver for analysis. The receiver may comprise a Raman spectroscope. The probe may include a carriage that can be used to move at least some of the optical coupling towards and away from the insertion tip of the conduit. The probe may include a pressure modifier that can be used to draw fluid into or expel fluid from the conduit.

University of Bristol | Date: 2016-09-09

There is presented an optical apparatus comprising first and second photon pair sources configured to convert at least one pump light photon into a first and second correlated signal and idler photon pairs. In one example, the apparatus is configured to use one of the signal and idler photons from the first correlated photon pair for controlling the conversion of the pump light photon in the second photon pair source. The apparatus may configured such that, at least one of the signal and idler photons from the first correlated photon pair is output from the first photon pair source onto an optical path wherein at least one of the signal and idler photons from the second correlated photon pair is output from the second photon pair source onto the optical path. A method is also provided for outputting one or more photons using the optical apparatus.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-04-2016 | Award Amount: 10.41M | Year: 2017

Early life is an important window of opportunity to improve health across the full lifecycle. European pregnancy and child cohort studies together offer an unique opportunity to identify a wide range of early life stressors linked with individual biological, developmental and health trajectory variations, and to the onset and evolution of non-communicable diseases. LIFECYCLE will establish the EuroCHILD Cohort Network, which brings together existing, successful pregnancy and child cohorts and biobanks, by developing a governance structure taking account of national and European ethical, legal and societal implications, a shared data-management platform and data-harmonization strategies. LIFECYCLE will enrich this EuroCHILD Cohort Network by generating new integrated data on early life stressors related to socio-economic, migration, urban environment and life-style determinants, and will capitalize on these data by performing hypothesis-driven research on early life stressors influencing cardio-metabolic, respiratory and mental health trajectories during the full lifecycle, and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. LIFECYCLE will translate these results into recommendations for targeted strategies and personalized prediction models to improve health trajectories for current and future Europeans generations by optimizing their earliest phase of life. To strengthen this long-term collaboration, LIFECYCLE will organize yearly international meetings open to pregnancy and child cohort researchers, introduce a Fellowship Training Programme for exchange of junior researchers between European pregnancy or child cohorts, and develop e-learning modules for researchers performing life-course health studies. Ultimately, LIFECYCLE will lead to a unique sustainable EuroCHILD Cohort Network, and provide recommendations for targeted prevention strategies by identification of novel markers of early life stressors related to health trajectories throughout the lifecycle.

Adams J.C.,University of Bristol
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2011

Thrombospondins are evolutionarily conserved, calcium-binding glycoproteins that undergo transient or longer-term interactions with other extracellular matrix components. They share properties with other matrix molecules, cytokines, adaptor proteins, and chaperones, modulate the organization of collagen fibrils, and bind and localize an array of growth factors or proteases. At cell surfaces, interactions with an array of receptors activate cell-dependent signaling and phenotypic outcomes. Through these dynamic, pleiotropic, and context-dependent pathways, mammalian thrombospondins contribute to wound healing and angiogenesis, vessel wall biology, connective tissue organization, and synaptogenesis. We overview the domain organization and structure of thrombospondins, key features of their evolution, and their cell biology. We discuss their roles in vivo, associations with human disease, and ongoing translational applications. In many respects, we are only beginning to appreciate the important roles of these proteins in physiology and pathology.

Mann S.,University of Bristol
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

The advent of life from prebiotic origins remains a deep and possibly inexplicable scientific mystery. Nevertheless, the logic of living cells offers potential insights into an unknown world of autonomous minimal life forms (protocells). This Account reviews the key life criteria required for the development of protobiological systems. By adopting a systems-based perspective to delineate the notion of cellularity, we focus specific attention on core criteria, systems design, nanoscale phenomena and organizational logic.Complex processes of compartmentalization, replication, metabolism, energization, and evolution provide the framework for a universal biology that penetrates deep into the history of life on the Earth. However, the advent of protolife systems was most likely coextensive with reduced grades of cellularity in the form of simpler compartmentalization modules with basic autonomy and abridged systems functionalities (cells focused on specific functions such as metabolism or replication). In this regard, we discuss recent advances in the design, chemical construction, and operation of protocell models based on self-assembled phospholipid or fatty acid vesicles, self-organized inorganic nanoparticles, or spontaneous microphase separation of peptide/nucleotide membrane-free droplets. These studies represent a first step towards addressing how the transition from nonliving to living matter might be achieved in the laboratory. They also evaluate plausible scenarios of the origin of cellular life on the early Earth. Such an approach should also contribute significantly to the chemical construction of primitive artificial cells, small-scale bioreactors, and soft adaptive micromachines. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Howard-Jones P.A.,University of Bristol
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2014

For several decades, myths about the brain-neuromyths-have persisted in schools and colleges, often being used to justify ineffective approaches to teaching. Many of these myths are biased distortions of scientific fact. Cultural conditions, such as differences in terminology and language, have contributed to a 'gap' between neuroscience and education that has shielded these distortions from scrutiny. In recent years, scientific communications across this gap have increased, although the messages are often distorted by the same conditions and biases as those responsible for neuromyths. In the future, the establishment of a new field of inquiry that is dedicated to bridging neuroscience and education may help to inform and to improve these communications. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Popescu S.,University of Bristol
Nature Physics | Year: 2014

Nonlocality is the most characteristic feature of quantum mechanics, but recent research seems to suggest the possible existence of nonlocal correlations stronger than those predicted by theory. This raises the question of whether nature is in fact more nonlocal than expected from quantum theory or, alternatively, whether there could be an as yet undiscovered principle limiting the strength of nonlocal correlations. Here, I review some of the recent directions in the intensive theoretical effort to answer this question.© 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Halestrap A.P.,University of Bristol
Molecular Aspects of Medicine | Year: 2013

The SLC16 gene family has fourteen members. Four (SLC16A1, SLC16A3, SLC16A7, and SLC16A8) encode monocarboxylate transporters (MCT1, MCT4, MCT2, and MCT3, respectively) catalysing the proton-linked transport of monocarboxylates such as l-lactate, pyruvate and ketone bodies across the plasma membrane. SLC16A2 encodes a high affinity thyroid hormone transporter (MCT8) and SLC16A10 an aromatic amino acid transporter (TAT1). The substrates and roles of the remaining eight members are unknown. All family members are predicted to have 12 transmembrane helices (TMs) with intracellular C- and N-termini and a large intracellular loop between TMs 6 and 7. This topology has been confirmed for MCT1 and a three-dimensional structure has been modelled that suggests a plausible molecular mechanism. For correct plasma membrane expression and activity MCTs1-4, but not MCT8, require association with basigin or embigin; these are glycoproteins with a single TM and 2-3 extracellular immunoglobulin domains. SLC16 family members are involved in a wide range of metabolic pathways including energy metabolism of the brain, skeletal muscle, heart and tumour cells, gluconeogenesis, T-lymphocyte activation, bowel metabolism, spermatogenesis, pancreatic β-cell malfunction, thyroid hormone metabolism, and drug transport. MCTs 1-4 have distinct properties, tissue distribution and subcellular localisation that are appropriate for these metabolic roles. Their potential as pharmacological targets has been recognised with the discovery of potent and specific MCT1 inhibitors that act as immunosuppressant drugs by preventing proliferation of T-lymphocytes. It is suggested that the development of other drugs specifically targeting different MCT isoforms may provide a novel approach to cancer chemotherapy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mann S.,University of Bristol
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Synthetic life: The origin of life on the early Earth, and the ex novo transition of non-living matter to artificial living systems are deep scientific challenges that provide a context for the development of new chemistries with unknown technological consequences. This Essay attempts to re-frame some of the epistemological difficulties associated with these questions into an integrative framework of proto-life science. Chemistry is at the heart of this endeavour. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Beaumont M.A.,University of Bristol
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics | Year: 2010

In the past 10years a statistical technique, approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), has been developed that can be used to infer parameters and choose between models in the complicated scenarios that are often considered in the environmental sciences. For example, based on gene sequence and microsatellite data, the method has been used to choose between competing models of human demographic history as well as to infer growth rates, times of divergence, and other parameters. The method fits naturally in the Bayesian inferential framework, and a brief overview is given of the key concepts. Three main approaches to ABC have been developed, and these are described and compared. Although the method arose in population genetics, ABC is increasingly used in other fields, including epidemiology, systems biology, ecology, and agent-based modeling, and many of these applications are briefly described. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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