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Brighton, United Kingdom

The University of Brighton is a UK university of over 21,000 students and 2,500 staff based on five campuses in Brighton, Eastbourne and Hastings on the south coast of England. Its roots can be traced back to 1859 when the Brighton School of Art was opened in the Brighton Royal Pavilion.The university focuses on professional education, with the majority of degrees awarded also leading to professional qualifications in areas including Pharmacy, Engineering and Information Technology.In 2012 the University of Brighton came third in the People & Planet's Green League table of UK universities ranked by environmental and ethical performance. Wikipedia.

Bacteriophage associated with the human gut microbiome are likely to have an important impact on community structure and function, and provide a wealth of biotechnological opportunities. Despite this, knowledge of the ecology and composition of bacteriophage in the gut bacterial community remains poor, with few well characterized gut-associated phage genomes currently available. Here we describe the identification and in-depth (meta)genomic, proteomic, and ecological analysis of a human gut-specific bacteriophage (designated φB124-14). In doing so we illuminate a fraction of the biological dark matter extant in this ecosystem and its surrounding eco-genomic landscape, identifying a novel and uncharted bacteriophage gene-space in this community. φB124-14 infects only a subset of closely related gut-associated Bacteroides fragilis strains, and the circular genome encodes functions previously found to be rare in viral genomes and human gut viral metagenome sequences, including those which potentially confer advantages upon phage and/or host bacteria. Comparative genomic analyses revealed φB124-14 is most closely related to φB40-8, the only other publically available Bacteroides sp. phage genome, whilst comparative metagenomic analysis of both phage failed to identify any homologous sequences in 136 non-human gut metagenomic datasets searched, supporting the human gut-specific nature of this phage. Moreover, a potential geographic variation in the carriage of these and related phage was revealed by analysis of their distribution and prevalence within 151 human gut microbiomes and viromes from Europe, America and Japan. Finally, ecological profiling of φB124-14 and φB40-8, using both gene-centric alignment-driven phylogenetic analyses, as well as alignment-free gene-independent approaches was undertaken. This not only verified the human gut-specific nature of both phage, but also indicated that these phage populate a distinct and unexplored ecological landscape within the human gut microbiome. Source

Gard P.R.,University of Brighton
International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics | Year: 2010

This review considers the 250+ papers concerning the association of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs1799752) and various disease conditions published in 2009. The deletion allele occurs in approximately 55% of the population and is associated with increased activity of the ACE enzyme. It might be predicted that the D allele, therefore, might be associated with pathologies involving increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system. The D allele was seen to be associated with an increased risk of hypertension, pre-eclampsia, heart failure, cerebral infarct, diabetic nephropathy, encephalopathy, asthma, severe hypoglycaemia in diabetes, gastric cancer (in Caucasians) and poor prognosis following kidney transplant. On the positive side, the D allele appears to offer protection against schizophrenia and chronic periodontitis and confers greater upper-body strength in old age. The I allele, meanwhile, offers improved endurance/athletic performance and aerobic capacity as determined by lung function tests, although it does increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma and obstructive sleep apnoea in hypertensives. Source

Doughty K.,University of Brighton
Health and Place | Year: 2013

This paper draws on a case study of led group walks in the South-East of England to explore the affective potency of shared movement for producing therapeutic landscapes (landscapes that through placed practices become associated with health and healing). The paper addresses the lack of attention to embodiment and movement in work on therapeutic landscapes through an exploration of how shared movement can produce supportive social spaces that are experienced as restorative. Drawing on an expansive conception of mobility inspired by the 'mobilities turn' in the social sciences in the last decade, the paper explores how the therapeutic landscape concept can be enriched by being approached through the lens of the body in movement. A complimentary concern in the paper is the ways in which supportive socialities and group dynamics are integral to many therapeutic landscape experiences. Walking together is found to have a significant impact on social interaction and together embodied mobilities and supportive socialities transform the countryside walkscape into a mobile therapeutic landscape and a site for shared therapeutic body work. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Jones B.V.,University of Brighton
Gut Microbes | Year: 2010

Using the culture independent TRACA system in conjunction with a comparative metagenomic approach, we have recently explored the pool of plasmids associated with the human gut mobile metagenome. This revealed that some plasmids or plasmid families are present in the gut microbiomes of geographically isolated human hosts with a broad global distribution (America, Japan and Europe), and are potentially unique to the human gut microbiome. Functions encoded by the most widely distributed plasmid (pTRACA22) were found to be enriched in the human gut microbiome when compared to microbial communities from other environments, and of particular interest was the increased prevalence of a putative RelBE toxin-antitoxin (TA) addiction module. Subsequent analysis revealed that this was most closely related to putative TA modules from gut associated bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, but homologues of the RelE toxin were associated with all major bacterial divisions comprising the human gut microbiota. In this addendum, functions of the gut mobile metagenome are considered from the perspective of the human host, and within the context of the hologenome theory of human evolution. In doing so, our original analysis is also extended to include the gut metagenomes of a further 124 individuals comprising the METAHIT dataset. Differences in the incidence and relative abundance of pTRACA22 and associated TA modules between healthy individuals and those with inflammatory bowel diseases are explored, and potential functions of pTRACA22 type RelBE modules in the human gut microbiome are discussed. © 2010 Landes Bioscience. Source

University of Brighton and MAST Carbon International Ltd | Date: 2010-12-09

Whole blood is treated extracorporeally to remove substances contrary to health using mesoporous/microporous or macroporopus/microporous carbon in the form of beads or a channel monolith. The carbon may be the result of carbonising a mesoporous or macroporous phenolic resin. Substances contrary to health include externally introduced toxins such as bacterially derived staphylococcus enterotoxins A, B, TSST-1 or autologous, biologically active molecules with harmful, systemic effects when their activity is excessive or unregulated. Examples include the removal of inappropriate amounts of pro- or anti-inflammatory molecules and toxic mediators of systemic inflammatory response syndrome related to sepsis, cardio-pulmonary by-pass surgery, ischaemic reperfusioninjury; the removal of larger molecular weight and protein bound uremic toxins related to kidney and hepatic toxins related to liver failure and the removal of toxins relevant to biological and chemical warfare.

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